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Practice Transformation

Maria Nordström, Mark Wales
This paper presents a perspective we find lacking in the general discussion on urban transformative capacity, as well as the discourse on children's environmental experiences and their participation in urban planning processes. Children contribute to the building of urban transformative capacity in several ways. Firstly, they contribute with new perspectives on the environment that broaden existing perspectives on human-environment relations in urban planning. Secondly, children's participation in planning processes challenges existing power relations through the creation of new adult-child relationships which in turn transform relations between adults and other actors and agencies...
February 15, 2019: Ambio
Jacqueline L Olin, Olga Klibanov, Alexandre Chan, Linda M Spooner
OBJECTIVE: To describe data with selected malignancies in people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV in individuals affected by both conditions and to summarize drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with clinical recommendations for point-of-care review of combination therapies. DATA SOURCES: Literature searches were performed (2005 to December 2018) in MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies of malignancies in PLWH in the modern era. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Article bibliographies and drug interaction databases were reviewed...
February 15, 2019: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Vishwas P Pardhi, Tejesh Verma, S J S Flora, Hardik Chandasana, Rahul Shukla
Approximately 40 % drugs in the market are having poor aqueous solubility related problems and 70 % molecules in discovery pipeline are being practically insoluble in water. Nanocrystals is a prominent tool to solve the issue related to poor aqueous solubility and helps in improving the bioavailability of many drugs as reported in literature. Nanocrystals can be prepared by top down methods, bottom up methods and combination methods. Many patented products such as Nanocrystals®, DissoCubes®, NANOEDGE® and SmartCrystals®, etc...
February 15, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Abdulaziz M Albaker, Fahad D Alosaimi
Objectives: To examine the knowledge and attitude towards dentist-industry relationship including accepting gifts, influence on decisions, and accuracy of given information among dentists working in Saudi Arabia. In addition, to examine the association of such knowledge and attitude of dentists' behavior with industry, including sorts of interaction and accepting industrial gifts. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among dental practitioners working in the private and governmental hospitals located in the various regions of Saudi Arabia...
February 2019: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Kalysha Closson, Abigail Hatcher, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Laura Washington, Smanga Mkhwanazi, Rachel Jewkes, Kristin Dunkle, Andrew Gibbs
Qualitative research suggests that men's inability to achieve dominant forms of masculinity may be related to HIV-risk behaviours and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Using clustered cross-sectional data, we assessed how young men's gender role conflict was associated with HIV-risk behaviours in urban informal settlements in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Gender Role Conflict and Stress (GRC/S) was measured using a South African adaptation of the GRC/S scale comprising three sub-scales: subordination to women; restrictive emotionality; and success, power and competition...
February 14, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Thomas D Parsons, Tyler Duffield
OBJECTIVE: The current review briefly addresses the history of neuropsychology as a context for discussion of developmental milestones that have advanced the profession, as well as areas where the progression has lagged. More recently in the digital/information age, utilization and incorporation of emerging technologies has been minimal, which has stagnated ongoing evolution of the practice of neuropsychology despite technology changing many aspects of daily living. These authors advocate for embracing National Institutes of Health (NIH) initiatives, or interchangeably referred to as transformative opportunities, for the behavioral and social sciences...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Neuropsychologist
K M Biagi, C J Oswald, E M Nicholls, S K Carey
Bitumen extraction via surface mining in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region results in permanent alteration of boreal forests and wetlands. As part of their legal requirements, oil companies must reclaim disturbed landscapes into functioning ecosystems. Despite considerable work establishing upland forests, only two pilot wetland-peatland systems integrated within a watershed have been constructed to date. Peatland reclamation is challenging as it requires complete reconstruction with few guidelines or previous work in this region...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Angeliki Kerasidou, Patricia Kingori
In 2010, the UK embarked on a self-imposed programme of contractionary measures signalling the beginning of a so-called "age of austerity" for the country. It was argued that budgetary cuts were the most appropriate means of eliminating deficits and decreasing national debt as percentage of General Domestic Product (GDP). Although the budget for the National Health Service (NHS) was not reduced, a below-the-average increase in funding, and cuts in other areas of public spending, particularly in social care and welfare spending, impacted significantly on the NHS...
2019: PloS One
Jianan Li, Xinyong Li, Libin Zeng, Shiying Fan, Mingmei Zhang, Wenbo Sun, Xin Chen, Moses O Tadé, Shaomin Liu
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as hazardous gaseous pollutants, have attracted much attention due to their potential threat to both human health and the environment. Accordingly, photocatalysis technology is seen as a promising technology to control low concentration VOCs due to its mild operation conditions, low energy consumption, and mineralization ability. However, there are some issues with photocatalysts, such as low light utility and fast photogenerated carrier recombination, which need to be addressed for practical applications...
February 13, 2019: Nanoscale
Jingtao Ding, Beidou Xi, Qigong Xu, Haibo Meng, Yujun Shen, Hongsheng Cheng
The considerable spatial and temporal variabilities of nitrogen (N) processing introduce large uncertainties for quantifying N cycles on a large scale, particularly in plain river network regions with complicated hydrographic connections and mixed multiple N sources. In this paper, the dual isotopes δ15N and δ18O and dissolved anions in regularly collected samples (n = 10) from the studied river, which is one of the most seriously polluted rivers in the plain river network regions of the Taihu Lake catchment, were analyzed to ascertain the main nitrate (NO3-) sources and watershed N processing in the context of monsoon climate...
February 13, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Simon Bailey, Dean Pierides, Adam Brisley, Clara Weisshaar, Thomas Blakeman
Although sociological studies of quality and safety have identified competing epistemologies in the attempt to measure and improve care, there are gaps in our understanding of how finance and accounting practices are being used to organise this field. This analysis draws on what others have elsewhere called 'financialisation' in order to explore the quantification of qualitatively complex care practices. We make our argument using ethnographic data of a quality improvement programme for acute kidney injury (AKI) in a publicly funded hospital in England...
February 12, 2019: Sociology of Health & Illness
Joyce C Havstad, N Adam Smith
The last half century of paleornithological research has transformed the way that biologists perceive the evolutionary history of birds. This transformation has been driven, since 1969, by a series of exciting fossil discoveries combined with intense scientific debate over how best to interpret these discoveries. Ideally, as evidence accrues and results accumulate, interpretive scientific agreement forms. But this has not entirely happened in the debate over avian origins: the accumulation of scientific evidence and analyses has had some effect, but not a conclusive one, in terms of resolving the question of avian origins...
February 11, 2019: Systematic Biology
Anteneh Z Abiy, Assefa M Melesse, Wossenu Abtew, Dean Whitman
Freshwater demand in Southeast Florida is predicted to increase over the next few decades. However, shifting patterns in the intensity and frequency of drought create considerable pressure on local freshwater availability. Well-established water resources management requires evaluating and understanding long-term rainfall patterns, drought intensity and cycle, and related rainfall deficit. In this study, the presence of rainfall monotonic trends was analyzed using linear regression and Mann-Kendal trend tests...
2019: PloS One
Rinad S Beidas, Kevin G Volpp, Alison N Buttenheim, Steven C Marcus, Mark Olfson, Melanie Pellecchia, Rebecca E Stewart, Nathaniel J Williams, Emily M Becker-Haimes, Molly Candon, Zuleyha Cidav, Jessica Fishman, Adina Lieberman, Kelly Zentgraf, David Mandell
BACKGROUND: Efficacious psychiatric treatments are not consistently deployed in community practice, and clinical outcomes are attenuated compared with those achieved in clinical trials. A major focus for mental health services research is to develop effective and cost-effective strategies that increase the use of evidence-based assessment, prevention, and treatment approaches in community settings. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this program of research is to apply insights from behavioral economics and participatory design to advance the science and practice of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) for individuals with psychiatric disorders across the life span...
February 12, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Yan Zhang, Haiqian Zhu, Yuting Huang, Qi Hu, Yu He, Yihang Wen, Gangguo Zhu
A practical one-pot isoindolinone synthesis enabled by RhIII catalysis was developed. The advantage of this protocol is that it does not require pre-preparation of amide substrates, because RhIII participates in two reactions independently. This mild, operationally multicomponent process transforms a wide variety of commercially available aldehydes into the corresponding γ-lactams in good yields, thereby demonstrating that N-pyridin-2-yl benzamide is an effective directing group. Notably, the anxiolytic drugs pagoclone and pazinaclone can be directly prepared by this methodology...
February 12, 2019: Organic Letters
Beniamino Cislaghi, Elaine K Denny, Mady Cissé, Penda Gueye, Binita Shrestha, Prabin Nanicha Shrestha, Gemma Ferguson, Claire Hughes, Cari Jo Clark
Some harmful practices are sustained by social norms-collective beliefs about what people expect from each other. Practitioners and researchers alike have been investigating the potential of social norms theory to inform the design of effective interventions addressing these practices in low- and middle-income countries. One approach commonly used to facilitate social norms change is community-based dialogs and trainings. This approach has often been criticized for not being cost-effective, as it usually includes a relatively small number of direct participants and does not allow for scaling-up strategies...
February 12, 2019: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Burak Kocak, Ece Ates, Emine Sebnem Durmaz, Melis Baykara Ulusan, Ozgur Kilickesmez
OBJECTIVE: To determine the possible influence of segmentation margin on each step (feature reproducibility, selection, and classification) of the machine learning (ML)-based high-dimensional quantitative computed tomography (CT) texture analysis (qCT-TA) of renal clear cell carcinomas (RcCCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this retrospective study, 47 patients with RcCC were included from a public database. Two segmentations were obtained by two radiologists for each tumour: (i) contour-focused and (ii) margin shrinkage of 2 mm...
February 12, 2019: European Radiology
Rahul Kadu, Monojit Batabyal, Heena Kadyan, Apurba Lal Koner, Sangit Kumar
A copper catalyzed efficient synthetic method has been developed to access bis(N-arylbenzamide) selenides from 2-halo-N-arylbenzamide substrates and disodium selenide in HMPA at 110 °C. The developed protocol tolerates substituents in both N-aryl and benzamide rings of the 2-halobenzamide substrates and provides an array of bis(N-arylbenzamide) selenides in practical yields. The resulting selenides were transformed into hypervalent spirodiazaselenuranes by oxidation using aqueous hydrogen peroxide. (N-(1-Naphthyl)) spirodiazaselenurane is also structurally characterized by a single crystal X-ray study...
February 12, 2019: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Joshua K Hartshorne, Joshua R de Leeuw, Noah D Goodman, Mariela Jennings, Timothy J O'Donnell
Half of the world's population has internet access. In principle, researchers are no longer limited to subjects they can recruit into the laboratory. Any study that can be run on a computer or mobile device can be run with nearly any demographic anywhere in the world, and in large numbers. This has allowed scientists to effectively run hundreds of experiments at once. Despite their transformative power, such studies remain rare for practical reasons: the need for sophisticated software, the difficulty of recruiting so many subjects, and a lack of research paradigms that make effective use of their large amounts of data, due to such realities as that they require sophisticated software in order to run effectively...
February 11, 2019: Behavior Research Methods
Kotaro Hiramatsu, Takuro Ideguchi, Yusuke Yonamine, SangWook Lee, Yizhi Luo, Kazuki Hashimoto, Takuro Ito, Misa Hase, Jee-Woong Park, Yusuke Kasai, Shinya Sakuma, Takeshi Hayakawa, Fumihito Arai, Yu Hoshino, Keisuke Goda
Flow cytometry is an indispensable tool in biology for counting and analyzing single cells in large heterogeneous populations. However, it predominantly relies on fluorescent labeling to differentiate cells and, hence, comes with several fundamental drawbacks. Here, we present a high-throughput Raman flow cytometer on a microfluidic chip that chemically probes single live cells in a label-free manner. It is based on a rapid-scan Fourier-transform coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectrometer as an optical interrogator, enabling us to obtain the broadband molecular vibrational spectrum of every single cell in the fingerprint region (400 to 1600 cm-1 ) with a record-high throughput of ~2000 events/s...
January 2019: Science Advances
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