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Prostate Cancer Risk Factors

Mok Oh, Nasser Alkhushaym, Saad Fallatah, Abdulhamid Althaghfi, Rana Aljadeed, Yazed Alsowaida, Joanne Jeter, Jennifer R Martin, Hani M Babiker, Ali McBride, Ivo Abraham
BACKGROUND: A prior meta-analysis found no association between BRCA1 mutation and prostate cancer (PCa). Subsequent BRCA2 mutation studies have shown an association with PCa risk and mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of overall BRCA mutation carriers and in subgroups to (1) estimate PCa risk in BRCA mutation carriers, (2) evaluate the frequency of BRCA mutation carriers in patients with PCa, and (3) compare cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) among BRCA mutation carriers and noncarriers...
March 22, 2019: Prostate
Doria Congnard, Sébastien Vincendeau, Ahmed Lahjaouzi, Anne-Cecile Neau, Cecile Chaize, Jean-Pierre Estèbe, Romain Mathieu, Hélène Beloeil
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of routine outpatient management after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Prostate cancer is indeed the second most common cancer in men. Surgical technics have evolved from open surgery to robot-assisted surgery with a reduction of postoperative complications. Such technical improvements associated with modern anesthesia allow outpatient surgery in various types of procedures. MATERIEL AND METHODS: After approval of the IRB, this observational prospective and monocentric study was performed in the urology unit at Rennes university hospital between December 2015 and October 2017...
March 18, 2019: Urology
Lingyun Zhai, Yu Fan, Shaoshuai Sun, Huihui Wang, Yisen Meng, Shuai Hu, Xiaoying Wang, Wei Yu, Jie Jin
PURPOSE: An underestimated biopsy Gleason score 3 + 3 can result in unfounded optimism amongst patients and cause physicians to miss the window for prostate cancer (PCa) cure. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 as well as periprostatic fat (PPF) measured on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) at predicting pathological upgrading amongst patients with biopsy Gleason score 3 + 3 disease...
October 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
Chin-Heng Lu, Howard H H Wu, Tzu-Ping Lin, Yi-Hsiu Huang, Hsiao-Jen Chung, Junne-Yih Kuo, William J Huang, Shing-Hwa Lu, Yen-Hwa Chang, Alex T L Lin
BACKGROUND: Some patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) hesitate to undergo surgical treatment until acute urinary retention (AUR) occurs. Some of these patients have been found to have hydronephrosis or even renal insufficiency. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors for hydronephrosis in patients with AUR who needed to receive transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 91 patients from January 2014 to June 2015, of whom had BPH and received TURP for AUR...
March 11, 2019: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Viktoria Kalna, Youwen Yang, Claire Peghaire, Karen Frudd, Rebecca Hannah, Aarti V Shah, Lourdes Osuna Almagro, Joseph J Boyle, Berthold Göttgens, Jorge Ferrer, Anna M Randi, Graeme M Birdsey
RATIONALE: The ETS transcription factor (TF) ERG is essential for endothelial homeostasis, driving expression of lineage genes and repressing pro-inflammatory genes. Loss of ERG expression is associated with diseases including atherosclerosis. ERG's homeostatic function is lineage-specific, since aberrant ERG expression in cancer is oncogenic. The molecular basis for ERG lineage-specific activity is unknown. Transcriptional regulation of lineage specificity is linked to enhancer clusters (super-enhancers)...
March 20, 2019: Circulation Research
Dong Van Hoang, Nitin Shivappa, Ngoc Minh Pham, James R Hebert, Colin W Binns, Andy H Lee
OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory potential of diet, as measured by the dietary inflammatory index (DII), has consistently been associated with an increased risk for prostate cancer (PCa). However, data has largely been reported in populations with more proinflammatory dietary patterns, whereas there is high diversity in dietary pattern worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the association between DII scores and the risk for PCa in Vietnam. METHODS: A case-control study of 652 participants (244 incident PCa patients, 64-75 y of age, and 408 controls, frequency matched for age) was conducted in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, from 2013 to 2015...
January 2, 2019: Nutrition
Margaret P Staples, Lyn March, Catherine Hill, Marissa Lassere, Rachelle Buchbinder
Background: Tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) therapy has been available for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients for several decades but data on the long-term risk of malignancy associated with its use is limited. Our aims were to assess malignancy risk in a cohort of Australian RA patients relative to the Australian population and to compare cancer risk for patients exposed to TNFi therapy versus a biologic-naïve group. Methods: Demographic data for RA participants enrolled in the Australian Rheumatology Association Database (ARAD) before 31 Dec 2012 were matched to national cancer records in May 2016 (linkage complete to 2012)...
2019: BMC rheumatology
Yoosoo Chang, Jae Heon Kim, Jin-Won Noh, Young Sam Cho, Heung Jae Park, Kwan Joong Joo, Seungho Ryu
RATIONALE: Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a tumor marker for prostate cancer, has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, studies on the association of PSA with subclinical and clinical CVD remain limited. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of total serum PSA within the reference range with coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and CVD mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 88,203 Korean men who underwent a health checkup exam including cardiac tomography estimation of CAC score...
March 19, 2019: Circulation Research
Ankush Mittal, Motaz Elmahdy Hassan, Joht Singh Chandan, Brian H Willis, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar, Kesvapilla Subramonian
PURPOSE: Urolithiasis is a common condition that poses significant morbidity to patients. There are similarities in the development of certain cancers and urinary tract calculi (UTC), however, little is known about their temporal relationship. This study aims to identify if cancer is a risk factor for the development of UTC. METHODS: A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted for the period 1st January 1990 to 1st May 2016. 124,901 exposed patients identified using clinical codes with newly diagnosed cancer were matched to 476,203 unexposed controls by age, gender, BMI, and general practice...
March 16, 2019: Urolithiasis
J Caño-Velasco, F Herranz-Amo, G Barbas-Bernardos, L Polanco-Pujol, F Verdú-Tartajo, E Lledó-García, C Hernández-Fernández
INTRODUCTION: In patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer (HRPCa), multimodal treatment plays a fundamental role. OBJECTIVE: To compare relapse-free survival (RFS) in patients with HRPCa, treated primarily with radiotherapy (RT)+hormone therapy (HT) versus radical prostatectomy (RP) and salvage RT (sRT)±HT when biochemical recurrence (BCR) appears. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 226 patients with HRPCa (1996-2008), treated primarily with RT+HT (n=137) or RP (n=89)...
March 13, 2019: Actas Urologicas Españolas
Andreas Schörghofer, Martin Drerup, Thomas Kunit, Lukas Lusuardi, Josef Holzinger, Josef Karner, Michael Groher, Christoph Zoubek, Rosemarie Forstner, Felix Sedlmayer, Frank Wolf
BACKGROUND: Rectal spacers are used to limit dose to the anterior rectal wall in high dose external beam radiation therapy of the prostate and have been shown to reduce radiation induced toxicity. Here we report the complication rate and toxicity of the implantation procedure in a large cohort of patients who have either received a gel- or balloon-type spacer. METHODS: In total, 403 patients received rectal spacing, 264 with balloon, 139 with gel. Allocation was non-randomized...
March 15, 2019: Radiation Oncology
Eleanor L Watts, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Paul N Appleby, Demetrius Albanes, Eva Ardanaz, Amanda Black, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, June M Chan, Chu Chen, S A Paul Chubb, Michael B Cook, Mélanie Deschasaux, Jenny L Donovan, Dallas R English, Leon Flicker, Neal D Freedman, Pilar Galan, Graham G Giles, Edward L Giovannucci, Marc J Gunter, Laurel A Habel, Christel Häggström, Christopher Haiman, Freddie C Hamdy, Serge Hercberg, Jeff M Holly, Jiaqi Huang, Wen-Yi Huang, Mattias Johansson, Rudolf Kaaks, Tatsuhiko Kubo, J Athene Lane, Tracy M Layne, Loic Le Marchand, Richard M Martin, E Jeffrey Metter, Kazuya Mikami, Roger L Milne, Howard A Morris, Lorelei A Mucci, David E Neal, Marian L Neuhouser, Steven E Oliver, Kim Overvad, Kotaro Ozasa, Valeria Pala, Claire H Pernar, Michael Pollak, Mari-Anne Rowlands, Catherine A Schaefer, Jeannette M Schenk, Pär Stattin, Akiko Tamakoshi, Elin Thysell, Mathilde Touvier, Antonia Trichopoulou, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, Stephanie J Weinstein, Lynne Wilkens, Bu B Yeap, Timothy J Key, Naomi E Allen, Ruth C Travis
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been implicated in the aetiology of several cancers. To better understand whether anthropometric, behavioural, and sociodemographic factors may play a role in cancer risk via IGF signalling, we examined the cross-sectional associations of these exposures with circulating concentrations of IGFs (IGF-I, IGF-II) and IGFBPs (IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3). The Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group dataset includes individual participant data from 16,024 male controls (i...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Abeer M Mahmoud, Mohamed M Ali
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that is essential for regulating gene transcription. However, aberrant DNA methylation, which is a nearly universal finding in cancer, can result in disturbed gene expression. DNA methylation is modified by environmental factors such as diet that may modify cancer risk and tumor behavior. Abnormal DNA methylation has been observed in several cancers such as colon, stomach, cervical, prostate, and breast cancers. These alterations in DNA methylation may play a critical role in cancer development and progression...
March 13, 2019: Nutrients
Shigeo Hara, Takahiro Tsuji, Yuichiro Fukasawa, Satoshi Hisano, Satoshi Morito, Toshiki Hyodo, Shunsuke Goto, Shinichi Nishi, Akihiro Yoshimoto, Tomoo Itoh
Thrombospondin type 1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A) is a recently identified target antigen of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN). The clinicopathological characteristics of THSD7A-associated MN are poorly characterised due to low prevalence among MN patients. Among 469 consecutive cases of pathologically confirmed MN diagnosed at four centres in Japan, 14 cases were confirmed positive for THSD7A by immunohistochemistry (3.0%). The prevalence of THSD7A-associated MN tended to be higher in northern Japan...
March 14, 2019: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Simona Di Francesco, Iole Robuffo, Marika Caruso, Giulia Giambuzzi, Deborah Ferri, Andrea Militello, Elena Toniato
Background : Epidemiological studies suggest a possible relationship between metabolic alterations, cardiovascular disease and aggressive prostate cancer, however, no clear consensus has been reached. Objective : The aim of the study was to analyze the recent literature and summarize our experience on the association between metabolic disorders, aggressive hormone-naïve prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Method : We identified relevant papers by searching in electronic databases such as Scopus, Life Science Journals, and Index Medicus/Medline...
March 7, 2019: Medicina
Andrew J Armstrong, Susan Halabi, Jun Luo, David M Nanus, Paraskevi Giannakakou, Russell Z Szmulewitz, Daniel C Danila, Patrick Healy, Monika Anand, Colin J Rothwell, Julia Rasmussen, Blair Thornburg, William R Berry, Rhonda S Wilder, Changxue Lu, Yan Chen, John L Silberstein, Gabor Kemeny, Giuseppe Galletti, Jason A Somarelli, Santosh Gupta, Simon G Gregory, Howard I Scher, Ryan Dittamore, Scott T Tagawa, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Daniel J George
PURPOSE: Androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) results in a truncated receptor, which leads to ligand-independent constitutive activation that is not inhibited by anti-androgen therapies, including abiraterone or enzalutamide. Given that previous reports suggested that circulating tumor cell (CTC) AR-V7 detection is a poor prognostic indicator for the clinical efficacy of secondary hormone therapies, we conducted a prospective multicenter validation study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PROPHECY ( ClinicalTrials...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Gladell P Paner, Jatin Gandhi, Bonnie Choy, Mahul B Amin
CONTEXT.—: Within this decade, several important updates in prostate cancer have been presented through expert international consensus conferences and influential publications of tumor classification and staging. OBJECTIVE.—: To present key updates in prostate carcinoma. DATA SOURCES.—: The study comprised a review of literature and our experience from routine and consultation practices. CONCLUSIONS.—: Grade groups, a compression of the Gleason system into clinically meaningful groups relevant in this era of active surveillance and multidisciplinary care management for prostate cancer, have been introduced...
March 13, 2019: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Chang Xu, Yu Liu, Chao Zhang, Joey S W Kwong, Jian-Guo Zhou, Long Ge, Jing-Yu Huang, Tong-Zu Liu
BACKGROUND: Dose-response meta-analysis (DRMA) has been widely used in exploring cancer risk factors. Understanding the quality of published DRMAs on cancer risk factors may be beneficial for informed prevention for cancer. METHODS: We searched eligible DRMAs from 1st January 2011 to 31st-July-2017. The modified AMSTAR 1.0 (15 items) and PRISMA checklist (26 items) were used to evaluate the methodological and reporting quality of included DRMAs. We compared the adherence rate of these items by journal type, publication years, region, and funding information, in prior...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
David R Thurtle, David C Greenberg, Lui S Lee, Hong H Huang, Paul D Pharoah, Vincent J Gnanapragasam
BACKGROUND: Prognostic stratification is the cornerstone of management in nonmetastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, existing prognostic models are inadequate-often using treatment outcomes rather than survival, stratifying by broad heterogeneous groups and using heavily treated cohorts. To address this unmet need, we developed an individualised prognostic model that contextualises PCa-specific mortality (PCSM) against other cause mortality, and estimates the impact of treatment on survival...
March 2019: PLoS Medicine
Roble G Bedolla, Dimpy P Shah, Shih-Bo Huang, Robert L Reddick, Rita Ghosh, Addanki P Kumar
Published evidence shows a correlation between several molecular markers and prostate cancer (PCa) progression including in African Americans (AAs) who are disproportionately affected. Our early detection efforts led to the identification of elevated levels of antiapoptotic protein, c-FLIP and its upstream regulatory factors such as androgen receptor (AR), recepteur d'origine nantais (RON), a receptor tyrosine kinase in human prostate tumors. The primary objective of this study was to explore whether these markers play a role in racial disparities using immunohistochemistry in prostatectomy samples from a cohort of AA, Hispanic Whites (HWs), and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs)...
March 11, 2019: Molecular Carcinogenesis
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