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Pulmonary immunology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770594/structural-assessments-in-decellularized-extracellular-matrix-of-porcine-semilunar-heart-valves-evaluation-of-cell-niches
#1
João Gabriel Roderjan, Lúcia de Noronha, Marco Augusto Stimamiglio, Alejandro Correa, Amanda Leitolis, Ronaldo Rocha Loures Bueno, Francisco Diniz Affonso da Costa
Tissue-engineered heart valves aim to reproduce the biological properties of natural valves with anatomically correct structure and physiological performance. The closest alternative to creating an ideal heart valve substitute is to use decellularized porcine heart valves, due to their anatomy and availability. However, the immunological barrier and the structural maintenance limit the long-term physiological performance of decellularized porcine heart valves. This study investigated the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure of aortic and pulmonary porcine valves decellularized by a low concentration sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-based method in order to determine the ECM scaffold (ECMS) conditions related to remodeling potential...
February 16, 2019: Xenotransplantation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768869/airway-macrophages-as-the-guardians-of-tissue-repair-in-the-lung
#2
REVIEW
Franz Puttur, Lisa G Gregory, Clare M Lloyd
The lungs present a challenging immunological dilemma for the host. Anatomically positioned at the environmental interface, they are constantly exposed to antigens, pollutants and microbes, while simultaneously facilitating vital gas exchange. Remarkably, the lungs maintain a functionally healthy state, ignoring harmless inhaled proteins, adapting to toxic environmental insults and limiting immune responses to allergens and pathogenic microbes. This functional strategy of environmental adaptation maintains immune defense, reduces tissue damage, and promotes and sustains lung immune tolerance...
February 15, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767873/clinical-features-of-systemic-sclerosis-patients-with-anti-rna-polymerase-iii-antibody-in-a-single-centre-in-spain
#3
Eduardo Luis Callejas-Moraga, Alfredo Guillén-Del-Castillo, Ana María Marín-Sánchez, María Roca-Herrera, Eva Balada, Carles Tolosa-Vilella, Vicente Fonollosa-Pla, Carmen Pilar Simeón-Aznar
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical features and survival of patients with positive anti-RNA polymerase III (anti-RNAP III) in a Spanish single centre. METHODS: We analysed 221 patients with SSc according to LeRoy and Medsger criteria. Twenty-six patients with positivity for anti-RNAP III antibodies were compared with 195 negative patients. Epidemiological, clinical, immunological features and survival were analysed. RESULTS: In patients with anti-RNAP III positivity diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) subset was the most prevalent (20, 76...
February 11, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767866/clinical-features-of-thirty-two-patients-with-anti-melanoma-differentiation-associated-gene-5-antibodies
#4
Wenhan Huang, Feifeng Ren, Qian Wang, Lei Luo, Jun Zhou, Dongmei Huang, Zhuma Pan, Lin Tang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients positive for anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibodies, and to analyse the potential pathogenesis of anti-MDA5 antibodies. METHODS: The clinical manifestations, serological tests, imaging features, treatments, and prognoses of 32 anti-MDA5 antibody-positive patients diagnosed in the Rheumatology and Immunology Department of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from September 2015 to August 2018 were analysed...
February 11, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767591/subunit-based-mucosal-vaccine-delivery-systems-for-pulmonary-delivery-are-they-feasible
#5
Nirmal Marasini, Lisa M Kaminskas
Pulmonary infections the most common cause of death globally. However, the development of mucosal vaccines that provide protective immunity against respiratory pathogens are limited. In contrast to needle-based vaccines, efficient vaccines that are delivered via non-invasive mucosal routes (such as via the lungs and nasal passage) produce both antigen-specific local mucosal IgA and systemic IgG protective antibodies. One major challenge in the development of pulmonary vaccines using subunit antigens however, is the production of optimal immune responses...
February 15, 2019: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760123/expert-s-choice-2018-s-most-exciting-research-in-the-field-of-pediatric-exercise-science
#6
Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D Faigenbaum, Kathleen F Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T Pianosi, Matthew B Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland, Alex V Rowlands
This commentary highlights 23 noteworthy publications from 2018, selected by leading scientists in pediatric exercise science. These publications have been deemed as significant or exciting in the field as they (a) reveal a new mechanism, (b) highlight a new measurement tool, (c) discuss a new concept or interpretation/application of an existing concept, or (d) describe a new therapeutic approach or clinical tool in youth. In some cases, findings in adults are highlighted, as they may have important implications in youth...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753132/inflammatory-features-of-obesity-and-smoke-exposure-and-the-immunologic-effects-of-exercise
#7
Helena Angelica Pereira Batatinha, Jose Cesar Rosa Neto, Karsten Krüger
Many lifestyle-related diseases, such as obesity and cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary diseases, are associated with chronic systemic inflammation, which has been shown to contribute to the disease initiation and progression, and also for co-morbidities of these diseases. While the source of inflammation in obese subjects is suggested to be mainly the visceral adipose tissue, smoke-induced inflammation originates in the pulmonary system. Here, chronic cigarette smoking induces oxidative stress, resulting in severe cellular damage...
2019: Exercise Immunology Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753099/vaccine-efficacy-of-a-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-specific-proline-glutamic-acid-pe-antigen-against-highly-virulent-outbreak-isolates
#8
Kee Woong Kwon, Hong-Hee Choi, Seung Jung Han, Jong-Seok Kim, Woo Sik Kim, Hongmin Kim, Lee-Han Kim, Soon Myung Kang, Jaehun Park, Sung Jae Shin
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine confers insufficient pulmonary protection against tuberculosis (TB), particularly the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Beijing strain infection. Identification of vaccine antigens (Ags) by considering Mtb genetic diversity is crucial for the development of improved TB vaccine. MTBK_20640, a new Beijing genotype-specific proline-glutamic acid-family Ag, was identified by comparative genomic analysis. Its immunologic features were characterized by evaluating interactions with dendritic cells (DCs), and immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy were determined against highly virulent Mtb Beijing outbreak Korean Beijing (K) strain and HN878 strain in murine infection model...
February 12, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747084/impact-of-the-fontan-operation-on-organ-systems
#9
Miriam Michel, Manuela Zlamy, Andreas Entenmann, Karin Pichler, Sabine Scholl-Bürgi, Daniela Karall, Ralf Geiger, Christina Salvador, Christian Niederwanger, Hideo Ohuchi
In patients having undergone the Fontan operation, besides the well discussed changes in the cardiac, pulmonary and gastrointestinal system, alterations of further organ systems including the hematologic, immunologic, endocrinological and metabolic are reported. As a medical adjunct to Fontan surgery, the systematic study of the central role of the liver as a metabolizing and synthesizing organ should allow for a better understanding of the pathomechanism underlying the typical problems in Fontan patients, and in this context the profiling of endocrinological and metabolic patterns might offer a tool for the optimization of Fontan follow-up, targeted monitoring and specific adjunct treatment...
February 11, 2019: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737114/acute-inflammatory-and-immunologic-responses-against-antigen-in-chronic-bird-related-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis
#10
Yukihisa Inoue, Masahiro Ishizuka, Haruhiko Furusawa, Takayuki Honda, Tatsuo Kawahara, Tomoya Tateishi, Yasunari Miyazaki
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immune-mediated lung disease induced by the inhalation of a wide variety of antigens and a persistent antigen exposure induces inevitably pulmonary fibrosis in chronic HP. Although neutrophils, Th1 and Th17 cells contribute to lung inflammation in acute phase of HP, there is no clear explanation as to how the immunological reaction occurs just after the inhalation of causative antigens in the chronic phase of HP. METHODS: We examined the inflammatory and immunologic profiles before and after the inhalation provocation test (IPT) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with chronic bird-related HP (BRHP) and other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs)...
February 5, 2019: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30724707/influenza-and-the-surgeon
#11
Daithi S Heffernan
BACKGROUND: The influenza virus is a pathogenic virus responsible for large numbers of deaths and long-term disabilities worldwide. Although the very young, the very old, and immunocompromised individuals are most susceptible, the effects of the influenza virus can be observed across the entire spectrum of individuals. DISCUSSION: Infection with the influenza virus induces a substantial inflammatory and immunologic response and induces marked pulmonary inflammation...
February 6, 2019: Surgical Infections
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705904/survival-analysis-and-mortality-predictors-of-hospitalized-severe-burn-victims-in-a-malaysian-burns-intensive-care-unit
#12
Henry Tan Chor Lip, Jih Huei Tan, Mathew Thomas, Farrah-Hani Imran, Tuan Nur' Azmah Tuan Mat
Background: Prognostic measures to determine burn mortality are essential in evaluating the severity of individual burn victims. This is an important process of triaging patients with high risk of mortality that may be nursed in the acute care setting. Malaysian burn research is lacking with only one publication identified which describes the epidemiology of burn victims. Therefore, the objective of this study was to go one step further and identify the predictors of burn mortality from a Malaysian burns intensive care unit (BICU) which may be used to triage patients at higher risk of death...
2019: Burns and Trauma
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685876/ataxia-telangiectasia-a-review-of-clinical-features-and-molecular-pathology
#13
REVIEW
Parisa Amirifar, Mohammad Reza Ranjouri, Reza Yazdani, Hassan Abolhassani, Asghar Aghamohammadi
Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency (PID) disease that is caused by mutations in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene encoding a serine/threonine protein kinase. A-T patients represent a broad range of clinical manifestations including progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, variable immunodeficiency, radiosensitivity, susceptibility to malignancies and increased metabolic diseases. This congenital disorder has phenotypic heterogeneity, and the severity of symptoms varies in different patients based on severity of mutations and disease progression...
January 27, 2019: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685498/monitoring-treatment-response-in-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-role-of-clinical-spirometric-and-immunological-markers
#14
Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Hansraj Choudhary, Ashutosh Nath Aggarwal, Mandeep Garg, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Ritesh Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: The treatment response in chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is usually assessed based on the improvement in clinical and imaging findings. Herein, we evaluate serum A.fumigatus-specific IgG, serum galactomannan, weight change and lung function for assessing treatment response in subjects with CPA. METHODS: We categorized treatment response as favorable (improved or stable clinical response with radiologically improved or stable disease) or unfavorable (worsening of symptoms or radiological progression) after six-months of treatment with antifungal azoles...
January 24, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670057/cd34-selected-versus-unmanipulated-autologous-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-the-treatment-of-severe-systemic-sclerosis-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-phase-i-ii-clinical-trial-conducted-in-japan
#15
Masahiro Ayano, Hiroshi Tsukamoto, Hiroki Mitoma, Yasutaka Kimoto, Mitsuteru Akahoshi, Yojiro Arinobu, Toshihiro Miyamoto, Takahiko Horiuchi, Hiroaki Niiro, Koji Nagafuji, Mine Harada, Koichi Akashi
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) in treating severe systemic sclerosis (SSc) is established; however, the necessity of purified CD34+ cell grafts and the appropriate conditioning regimen remain unclear. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of CD34-selected auto-HSCT with unmanipulated auto-HSCT to treat severe SSc. METHODS: This study was a post hoc analysis of a phase I/II clinical trial conducted in Japan...
January 22, 2019: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660769/high-resolution-quantitative-proteomics-applied-to-the-study-of-the-specific-protein-signature-in-the-sputum-and-saliva-of-active-tuberculosis-patients-and-their-infected-and-uninfected-contacts
#16
Jesús Mateos, Olivia Estévez, África González-Fernández, Luis Anibarro, Ángeles Pallarés, Rajko Reljic, José M Gallardo, Isabel Medina, Mónica Carrera
Our goal was to establish panels of protein biomarkers that are characteristic of patients with microbiologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and their contacts, including latent TB-infected (LTBI) and uninfected patients. Since the first pathogen-host contact occurs in the oral and nasal passages the saliva and sputum were chosen as the biological fluids to be studied. Quantitative shotgun proteomics was performed using a LTQ-Orbitrap-Elite platform. For active TB patients, both fluids exhibited a specific accumulation of proteins that were related to complement activation, inflammation and modulation of immune response...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Proteomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30623240/diagnostic-performance-in-active-tb-of-qft-plus-assay-and-co-expression-of-cd25-cd134-in-response-to-new-antigens-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#17
Ilaria Sauzullo, Fabio Mengoni, Claudia Mascia, Paolo Pavone, Giulia Savelloni, Anna Paola Massetti, Miriam Lichtner, Vincenzo Vullo, Claudio M Mastroianni
The new QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus employs modified peptides optimized to elicit an IFNγ response from CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes in addition to CD4+ T cells. With a view to improve the difficult identification of TB cases, we assessed the combination of two specific immunological markers comprising IFNγ secretion and T cells co-expression of CD25 and CD134 in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens. A total of 34 subjects with suspected TB and 10 age-matched HD were prospectively enrolled...
January 8, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30616617/tb-sequel-incidence-pathogenesis-and-risk-factors-of-long-term-medical-and-social-sequelae-of-pulmonary-tb-a-study-protocol
#18
Andrea Rachow, Olena Ivanova, Robert Wallis, Salome Charalambous, Ilesh Jani, Nilesh Bhatt, Beate Kampmann, Jayne Sutherland, Nyanda E Ntinginya, Denise Evans, Knut Lönnroth, Stefan Niemann, Ulrich E Schaible, Christof Geldmacher, Ian Sanne, Michael Hoelscher, Gavin Churchyard
BACKGROUND: Up to fifty percent of microbiologically cured tuberculosis (TB) patients may be left with permanent, moderate or severe pulmonary function impairment. Very few studies have systematically examined pulmonary outcomes in patients to understand the pathophysiologic basis and long-term socio-economic consequences of this injury. The planned multi-country, multi-centre observational TB cohort study, aims to advance the understanding of the clinical, microbiological, immunological and socio-economic risk factors affecting long-term outcome of pulmonary TB...
January 7, 2019: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30593421/nodular-rheumatoid-arthritis-ra-a-distinct-disease-subtype-initiated-by-cadmium-inhalation-inducing-pulmonary-nodule-formation-and-subsequent-ra-associated-autoantibody-generation
#19
D Murphy, E Sinha-Royle, K Bellis, C Harrington, D Hutchinson
Nodular rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have raised rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) levels, and are more likely to smoke than RA patients without nodules. Subcutaneous and pulmonary rheumatoid nodules (granulomas) frequently co-exist. Pulmonary rheumatoid nodules develop prior to RA development and have the immunological machinery to generate RF and ACPAs. Pulmonary granulomas have been observed in animal models exposed to cadmium (Cd) inhalation. Cigarette smoke increases pulmonary Cd exposure...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30587846/compound-heterozygous-variants-in-mogs-inducing-congenital-disorders-of-glycosylation-cdg-iib
#20
Min Li, Yuanyuan Xu, Yajian Wang, Xiu-An Yang, Danqun Jin
This study is to present two Chinese siblings who were diagnosed with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) IIb because of mannosyl-oligosaccharide glucosidase (MOGS) deficiency. The siblings visited our hospital due to "pulmonary infection". Facial dysmorphism including long eyelashes, blepharophimosis, depressed nasal bridge, and high palate was noted. Head MRI of the elder sister showed increased signals on T1W1, bilateral frontal gyrus stenosis, and thin corpus callosum. Both cases presented progressive hepatomegaly and elevated hepatic enzymes...
December 26, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
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