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Malaria AND rhythm

Giles E Duffield, Dominic J Acri, Gary F George, Aaron D Sheppard, Nigel W Beebe, Scott A Ritchie, Thomas R Burkot
BACKGROUND: Species in the Anopheles farauti complex are major malaria vectors in the Asia Pacific region. Anopheline mosquitoes exhibit circadian and diel rhythms in sugar- and blood-feeding (biting), flight activity, oviposition, and in some species, a short-lived dusk/early night associated swarming behaviour during which mating occurs. A behavioural study of wild-caught mosquitoes from Queensland, Australia was conducted to investigate the differences in diel rhythmic flight activity between two cryptic species in several reproductive states...
January 22, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Diane F Eilerts, Morgen VanderGiessen, Elizabeth A Bose, Kyera Broxton, Clément Vinauger
Many biological processes and behaviors in mosquitoes display rhythmic patterns, allowing for fine tuning to cyclic environmental conditions. In mosquitoes, vector-host interactions are primarily mediated by olfactory signals. Previous studies have established that, in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae , rhythmic expression of odorant binding proteins and takeout proteins in the antenna resulted in a corresponding rhythm in olfactory sensitivity to relevant host odors. However, it remained unclear how rhythms observed in olfactory sensitivity affect or explain rhythms in behavioral output, which ultimately impacts disease transmission...
October 23, 2018: Insects
Petra Schneider, Samuel S C Rund, Natasha L Smith, Kimberley F Prior, Aidan J O'Donnell, Sarah E Reece
Daily rhythms in behaviour, physiology and molecular processes are expected to enable organisms to appropriately schedule activities according to consequences of the daily rotation of the Earth. For parasites, this includes capitalizing on periodicity in transmission opportunities and for hosts/vectors, this may select for rhythms in immune defence. We examine rhythms in the density and infectivity of transmission forms (gametocytes) of rodent malaria parasites in the host's blood, parasite development inside mosquito vectors and potential for onwards transmission...
October 3, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Sarah E Reece, Kimberley F Prior
Successive synchronized cycles of Plasmodium replication in the host's blood causes the symptoms of malaria and fuels disease transmission. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Hirako et al. (2018) reveal that host circadian rhythms of inflammation and metabolism are responsible for the timing of cycles of parasite replication.
June 13, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Kimberley F Prior, Daan R van der Veen, Aidan J O'Donnell, Katherine Cumnock, David Schneider, Arnab Pain, Amit Subudhi, Abhinay Ramaprasad, Samuel S C Rund, Nicholas J Savill, Sarah E Reece
Circadian rhythms enable organisms to synchronise the processes underpinning survival and reproduction to anticipate daily changes in the external environment. Recent work shows that daily (circadian) rhythms also enable parasites to maximise fitness in the context of ecological interactions with their hosts. Because parasite rhythms matter for their fitness, understanding how they are regulated could lead to innovative ways to reduce the severity and spread of diseases. Here, we examine how host circadian rhythms influence rhythms in the asexual replication of malaria parasites...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Filipa Rijo-Ferreira, Tânia Carvalho, Cristina Afonso, Margarida Sanches-Vaz, Rui M Costa, Luísa M Figueiredo, Joseph S Takahashi
Sleeping sickness is a fatal disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei, a unicellular parasite that lives in the bloodstream and interstitial spaces of peripheral tissues and the brain. Patients have altered sleep/wake cycles, body temperature, and endocrine profiles, but the underlying causes are unknown. Here, we show that the robust circadian rhythms of mice become phase advanced upon infection, with abnormal activity occurring during the rest phase. This advanced phase is caused by shortening of the circadian period both at the behavioral level as well as at the tissue and cell level...
January 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Gustavo Bueno da Silva Rivas, Kevin Kobylinski, Yudi Tatiana Pinilla, Paulo Filemon Paolluci Pimenta, José Bento Pereira Lima, Rafaela Vieira Bruno, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major public health concern. Vector control measures based solely on insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have demonstrated not to be feasible for malaria elimination. It has been shown that ivermectin affects several aspects of Anopheles species biology. Along the Latin American seacoast, Anopheles aquasalis Curry plays an important role in malaria transmission. The observation of mosquitoes locomotor activity under laboratory conditions can reveal details of their daily activity rhythms, which is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock that seems to be influenced by external signals, such as light and temperature...
December 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Shadreck Sande, Moses Zimba, Peter Chinwada, Hieronymo Takundwa Masendu, Aramu Makuwaza
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Biting behaviour of Anopheles funestus in Mutare and Mutasa districts, Zimbabwe, is little understood. An investigation was conducted to primarily compare indoor and outdoor biting behaviour of the mosquito, as well as blood meal sources and sporozoite rates. METHODS: Monthly adult anopheline sampling was conducted from October 2013 to September 2014 using Centers for Disease Control light-traps, pyrethrum spray catch and artificial pit shelter methods...
April 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Samuel S C Rund, Aidan J O'Donnell, James E Gentile, Sarah E Reece
The 24-h day involves cycles in environmental factors that impact organismal fitness. This is thought to select for organisms to regulate their temporal biology accordingly, through circadian and diel rhythms. In addition to rhythms in abiotic factors (such as light and temperature), biotic factors, including ecological interactions, also follow daily cycles. How daily rhythms shape, and are shaped by, interactions between organisms is poorly understood. Here, we review an emerging area, namely the causes and consequences of daily rhythms in the interactions between vectors, their hosts and the parasites they transmit...
April 14, 2016: Insects
P M Wamae, A K Githeko, G O Otieno, E W Kabiru, S O Duombia
Long term use of insecticides in malaria vector control has been shown to alter the behavior of vectors. Such behavioral shifts have the potential of undermining the effectiveness of insecticide-based control interventions. The effects of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) use on the composition, biting/feeding and sporozoite rates of Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in Musilongo village, Vihiga County of western Kenya highlands were investigated. Adult mosquitoes were collected in selected sleeping spaces inside six randomly selected houses using miniature Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps...
October 2015: Acta Tropica
Mary K Cooke, Sam C Kahindi, Robin M Oriango, Chrispin Owaga, Elizabeth Ayoma, Danspaid Mabuka, Dennis Nyangau, Lucy Abel, Elizabeth Atieno, Stephen Awuor, Chris Drakeley, Jonathan Cox, Jennifer Stevenson
BACKGROUND: The human population in the highlands of Nyanza Province, western Kenya, is subject to sporadic epidemics of Plasmodium falciparum. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) are used widely in this area. These interventions are most effective when Anopheles rest and feed indoors and when biting occurs at times when individuals use LLINs. It is therefore important to test the current assumption of vector feeding preferences, and late night feeding times, in order to estimate the extent to which LLINs protect the inhabitants from vector bites...
2015: Malaria Journal
Richard M Oxborough, Raphael N'Guessan, Rebecca Jones, Jovin Kitau, Corine Ngufor, David Malone, Franklin W Mosha, Mark W Rowland
BACKGROUND: The rapid selection of pyrethroid resistance throughout sub-Saharan Africa is a serious threat to malaria vector control. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide which shows no cross resistance to insecticide classes normally used for vector control and is effective on mosquito nets under experimental hut conditions. Unlike neurotoxic insecticides, chlorfenapyr owes its toxicity to disruption of metabolic pathways in mitochondria that enable cellular respiration. A series of experiments explored whether standard World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for evaluation of long-lasting insecticidal nets, developed through testing of pyrethroid insecticides, are suitable for evaluation of non-neurotoxic insecticides...
2015: Malaria Journal
Christin Price, Cameron Ashbaugh, Amy Leigh Miller, Joseph Loscalzo
Foreword. In this Journal feature, information about a real patient is presented in stages (boldface type) to an expert clinician, who responds to the information, sharing his or her reasoning with the reader (regular type). The authors' commentary follows. Stage. A 30-year-old graduate student..
November 6, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Nicolas Moiroux, Georgia B Damien, Marc Egrot, Armel Djenontin, Fabrice Chandre, Vincent Corbel, Gerry F Killeen, Cédric Pennetier
A shift towards early morning biting behavior of the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus have been observed in two villages in south Benin following distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), but the impact of these changes on the personal protection efficacy of LLINs was not evaluated. Data from human and An. funestus behavioral surveys were used to measure the human exposure to An. funestus bites through previously described mathematical models. We estimated the personal protection efficacy provided by LLINs and the proportions of exposure to bite occurring indoors and/or in the early morning...
2014: PloS One
Seynabou Sougoufara, Seynabou Mocote Diédhiou, Souleymane Doucouré, Nafissatou Diagne, Pape Mbacké Sembène, Myriam Harry, Jean-François Trape, Cheikh Sokhna, Mamadou Ousmane Ndiath
BACKGROUND: Malaria control is mainly based on indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. The efficacy of these tools depends on the behaviour of mosquitoes, which varies by species. With resistance to insecticides, mosquitoes adapt their behaviour to ensure their survival and reproduction. The aim of this study was to assess the biting behaviour of Anopheles funestus after the implementation of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). METHODS: A study was conducted in Dielmo, a rural Senegalese village, after a second massive deployment of LLINs in July 2011...
2014: Malaria Journal
Nathaniel J Balmert, Samuel S C Rund, John P Ghazi, Peng Zhou, Giles E Duffield
Mosquitoes exhibit ∼24 h rhythms in physiology and behavior, regulated by the cooperative action of an endogenous circadian clock and the environmental light:dark cycle. Here, we characterize diel (observed under light:dark conditions) time-of-day changes in metabolic detoxification and resistance to insecticide challenge in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. A better understanding of mosquito chronobiology will yield insights into developing novel control strategies for this important disease vector. We have previously identified >2000 rhythmically expressed An...
May 2014: Journal of Insect Physiology
Isabelle Dusfour, Romuald Carinci, Jean Issaly, Pascal Gaborit, Romain Girod
In French Guiana, Anopheles darlingi is considered the main malaria vector. However, several reports have hypothesized the implication of other anopheline species in malaria transmission for the territory. Data on the ecology of these other potential vectors is rare or even unexplored in French Guiana. The aim of this study was to describe the biting habits of several anopheline species in multiple localities in French Guiana. Six sampling sites yielded 1,083 anopheline adults. Results indicated the presence of An...
December 2013: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
(no author information available yet)
For the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, drug combinations based on artemisinin derivatives (such as artemether + lumefantrine in France) are an alternative to atovaquone + proguanil, especially when there is a high risk of resistance to drugs commonly used for malaria prevention. A second fixed-dose combination containing an artemisinin derivative was recently marketed in the EU. It consists of artenimol (aka dihydroartemisinin) and piperaquine, a compound chemically related to chloroquine...
January 2014: Prescrire International
J M Cornelius, M Zylberberg, C W Breuner, A C Gleiss, T P Hahn
A spring emergence of avian haemosporidian infections is nearly universal among temperate zone birds and is often described as a cost of reproductive effort. We take advantage of the opportunistic (i.e. aseasonal) breeding schedule of the red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) to determine the relative contributions of season versus host physiology to the timing and intensity of Haemoproteus infections in the temperate zone. Despite breeding activity in both the winter and summer, Haemoproteus infections were highly seasonal--occurring largely from May through September--and measures of host physiology (i...
March 15, 2014: Journal of Experimental Biology
Aidan J O'Donnell, Nicole Mideo, Sarah E Reece
BACKGROUND: In the blood, the synchronous malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi, exhibits a cell-cycle rhythm of approximately 24 hours in which transitions between developmental stages occur at particular times of day in the rodent host. Previous experiments reveal that when the timing of the parasite's cell-cycle rhythm is perturbed relative to the circadian rhythm of the host, parasites suffer a (~50%) reduction in asexual stages and gametocytes. Why it matters for parasites to have developmental schedules in synchronization with the host's rhythm is unknown...
October 26, 2013: Malaria Journal
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