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DNase And Cancer

Jiaxuan Liu, Wei Zhao, Farah Ammous, Stephen T Turner, Thomas H Mosley, Xiang Zhou, Jennifer A Smith
Changes in DNA methylation may be a potential mechanism that mediates the effects of smoking on physiological function and subsequent disease risk. Given the dynamic nature of the epigenome, longitudinal studies are indispensable for investigating smoking-induced methylation changes over time. Using blood samples collected approximately five years apart in 380 African Americans (mean age 60.7 years) from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study, we measured DNA methylation levels using Illumina HumanMethylation BeadChips...
February 14, 2019: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Silvia Fischer
The innate immune system protects against infectious microbes by the recognition of pathogen- associated molecular patterns, which serve to detect pathogens on the host cell surface or in endosomes by pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein-1-like receptors, mannose-receptor, or retinoic acid-inducible gene-1- like receptors that initiate proper host defense mechanisms. In addition to pathogen-associated molecular patterns, a series of endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns, such as nucleic acids, are recognized by pattern recognition receptors, which serve as body´s own alarm signals under sterile conditions, such as ischemic injuries, trauma, tumors, tissue transplants, or autoimmune diseases...
January 10, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Shining Ma, Tao Jiang, Rui Jiang
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in sequencing technologies have enabled parallel assays of chromatin accessibility and gene expression for major human cell lines. Such innovation provides a great opportunity to decode phenotypic consequences of genetic variation via the construction of predictive gene regulatory network models. However, there still lacks a computational method to systematically integrate chromatin accessibility information with gene expression data to recover complicated regulatory relationships between genes in a tissue-specific manner...
December 31, 2018: BMC Genomics
Juncheng Dai, Zhihua Li, Christopher I Amos, Rayjean J Hung, Adonina Tardon, Angeline Andrew, Chu Chen, David C Christiani, Demetrios Albanes, Erik H F M van der Heijden, Eric Duell, Gadi Rennert, Mckay D James, Jian-Min Yuan, John K Field, Manjer Jonas, Kjell Grankvist, Loic Le Marchand, M Dawn Teare, Matthew B Schabath, Melinda C Aldrich, Ming-Sound Tsao, Philip Lazarus, Lam Stephen, Stig E Bojesen, Arnold Susanne, Xifeng Wu, Aage Haugen, Janout Vladimir, Mikael Johansson, Brhane Yonathan, Ana Fernandez-Somoano, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Michael Davies, Shanbeh Zienolddiny, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen
DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) are abundant in regulatory elements, such as promoter, enhancer and transcription factor binding sites. Many studies have revealed that disease-associated variants were concentrated in DHS related regions. However, limited studies are available on the roles of DHS-related variants in lung cancer. In the current study, we performed a large-scale case-control study with 20,871 lung cancer cases and 15,971 controls to evaluate the associations between regulatory genetic variants in DHS and lung cancer susceptibility...
December 24, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Pardis Mokhtary, Bita Javan, Mahrokh Sharbatkhari, Alireza Soltani, Vahid Erfani-Moghadam
Introduction: Novel and safe delivery solutions for RNAi therapeutics are essential to obtain the full potential of cancer gene therapy. Methods: In this study, cationic vesicular nanocarrier was applied for delivering lnc urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (lnc UCA1) shRNA expression vector to MCF-7 cells. The physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficiency of cationic vesicles prepared from various molar ratios of amphiphilic surfactant Tween 80 (T), squalene (S), cationic charge lipid didodecyldimethylammonium bromide, and polyethylenimine were investigated...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Tingtao Chen, Xiaoxiao Zhao, Yimeng Ren, Yuqing Wang, Xianyao Tang, Puyuan Tian, Huan Wang, Hongbo Xin
The strong human immunity and the associated toxicities of attenuated Salmonella severely limit the clinical use of Salmonella in tumour suppression. In the present study, we constructed an engineered VNP20009-DNase I strain and evaluated the synergistic effects of triptolide (TPL) and VNP20009-DNase I against melanoma in mice. Our results indicated that TPL could significantly inhibit the cell growth and cell migration and significantly enhanced the apoptosis rate of B16F10 cells in vitro. The in vivo results indicated that TPL markedly improved tumour colonisation of VNP20009-DNase I and led to a larger necrotic area in the melanoma...
November 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Mamta Sharma, Prajna Hegde, Kavita Hiremath, Vishwanath Reddy H, A S Kamalanathan, Bale M Swamy, Shashikala R Inamdar
Plant lectins are gaining interest because of their interesting biological properties. Several Adenia species, that are being used in traditional medicine to treat many health ailments have shown presence of lectins or carbohydrate binding proteins. Here, we report the purification, characterization and biological significance of N-Acetyl galactosamine specific lectin from Adenia hondala (AHL) from Passifloraceae family. AHL was purified in a single step by affinity chromatography on asialofetuin Sepharose 4B column, characterized and its fine sugar specificity determined by glycan array analysis...
December 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Dorian R A Swarts, Emma R Stewart, Gillian S Higgins, Dawn Coverley
CIZ1 promotes cyclin-dependent DNA replication and resides in sub-nuclear foci that are part of the protein nuclear matrix (NM), and in RNA assemblies that are enriched at the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in female cells. It is subjected to alternative splicing, with specific variants implicated in adult and pediatric cancers. CIZ1-F is characterized by a frame shift that results from splicing exons 8-12 leading to inclusion of a short alternative reading frame (ARF), excluding the previously characterized C-terminal NM anchor domain...
2018: Cell Cycle
Wei Yan, Mingyue Tao, Baofei Jiang, Mengchu Yao, Yali Jun, Weijie Dai, Zhuang Tang, Yong Gao, Li Zhang, Xiaofei Chen, Qi-Long Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the most common cause of chemotherapy failure. Upregulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the main mechanisms underlying MDR. METHODS: In this study, we developed a targeted drug and small interfering (si)RNA co-delivery system based on specific aptamer-conjugated grapefruit-derived nanovectors (GNVs) that we tested in MDR LoVo colon cancer cells. The internalization of nanovectors in cancer cells was tested by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ashraf Hassanpour, Tahereh Talaei-Khozani, Elias Kargar-Abarghouei, Vahid Razban, Zahra Vojdani
BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients with ovarian insufficiency due to autoimmune disorders, genetic predisposition, or iatrogenic effects of treatment such as cancer therapies necessitates an urgent measure to find a safe and transplantable alternative ovary. A bioengineered ovary is one of the strategies on which the researchers have recently been working. An engineered ovary should be able to mimic the natural ovary aspects. Recent studies suggest that the decellularized organ-specific extracellular matrix-based scaffolds can serve as a native niche to bioengineering artificial organs...
September 26, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Bauke de Boer, Janine Prick, Maurien G Pruis, Peter Keane, Maria Rosaria Imperato, Jennifer Jaques, Annet Z Brouwers-Vos, Shanna M Hogeling, Carolien M Woolthuis, Marije T Nijk, Arjan Diepstra, Sebastian Wandinger, Matthias Versele, Ricardo M Attar, Peter N Cockerill, Gerwin Huls, Edo Vellenga, André B Mulder, Constanze Bonifer, Jan Jacob Schuringa
Intra-tumor heterogeneity caused by clonal evolution is a major problem in cancer treatment. To address this problem, we performed label-free quantitative proteomics on primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples. We identified 50 leukemia-enriched plasma membrane proteins enabling the prospective isolation of genetically distinct subclones from individual AML patients. Subclones differed in their regulatory phenotype, drug sensitivity, growth, and engraftment behavior, as determined by RNA sequencing, DNase I hypersensitive site mapping, transcription factor occupancy analysis, in vitro culture, and xenograft transplantation...
October 8, 2018: Cancer Cell
Rihito Kanamaru, Hideyuki Ohzawa, Hideyo Miyato, Hironori Yamaguchi, Yoshinori Hosoya, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Naohiro Sata, Joji Kitayama
Activated neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can capture and destroy microbes. Recent studies suggest that NETs are involved in various disease processes, such as autoimmune disease, thrombosis, and tumor metastases. Here, we show a detailed in vitro technique to detect NET activity during the trapping of free tumor cells, which grow after attachment to NETs. First, we collected low density neutrophils (LDN) from postoperative peritoneal lavage fluid from patients who underwent laparotomies...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yasser Hussein Eissa Mohammed, Shaukath Ara Khanum
In modern biology, one of the major topics of importance is progress in anti-cancer drugs with specific targets. The angiopreventive and in vitro tumor inhibition activities of novel synthetic benzophenone analogs have been investigated intensively and explored in a very systematic way. Novel benzophenone analogs ( 9a-d and 10a-d ) substituted with methyl, chloro and fluoro groups at different positions on an identical chemical backbone and incorporating variations in the number of substituents have been synthesized in a multistep process and characterized...
April 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Marcello Monti, Viviana De Rosa, Francesca Iommelli, Maria Vincenza Carriero, Cristina Terlizzi, Rosa Camerlingo, Stefania Belli, Rosa Fonti, Giovanni Di Minno, Silvana Del Vecchio
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), in addition to their function as a host defense mechanism, play a relevant role in thrombus formation and metastatic dissemination of cancer cells. Here we screened different cancer cell lines endogenously expressing a variety of integrins for their ability to bind to NETs. To this end, we used NETs isolated from neutrophil-like cells as a substrate for adhesion assays of HT1080, U-87 MG, H1975, DU 145, PC-3 and A-431 cells. Levels of α5, αIIb, αv, β1, β3 and β5 chains were determined by western blot analysis in all cell lines and levels of whole integrins on the plasma membrane were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lee A Hadwiger, Kiwamu Tanaka
Over the last decades, medical research has utilized DNA altering procedures in cancer treatments with the objective of killing cells or suppressing cell proliferation. Simultaneous research related to enhancing disease resistance in plants reported that alterations in DNA can enhance defense responses. These two opposite perspectives have in common their effects on the center for gene transcription, the nuclear chromatin. A review of selected research from both anticancer- and plant defense-related research provides examples of some specific DNA altering actions: DNA helical distortion, DNA intercalation, DNA base substitution, DNA single cleavage by DNases, DNA alkylation/methylation, and DNA binding/exclusion...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Evgenii A Lekchnov, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Ol'ga D Zakharova, Sergey E Sedykh, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
OBJECTIVE: Since during pregnancy and lactation women tend to develop autoimmune processes, characterization of placenta immunoglobulins and their possible catalytic functions is a very important step towards understanding the function of placenta. METHODS: ELISA, affinity chromatography, SDS-PAGE and MALDI mass spectrometry were used. RESULTS: It was shown, that ten placentas contain in average 1.1 ± 0.33 mg IgGs/g of placenta and 0...
August 2018: Placenta
Xin Wei, Lili Yu, Xuefei Jin, Lide Song, Yanting Lv, Yuping Han
Prostate cancer is a type of adenocarcinoma arising from the peripheral zone of the prostate gland, and metastasized prostate cancer is incurable with the current available therapies. The present study aimed to identify open chromosomal regions and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with prostate cancer development. The DNase sequencing data (GSE33216) and RNA sequencing data (GSE22260) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. DNase I hypersensitive sites were detected and analyzed...
August 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yan Gao, Xian Du, Jing Zeng, Ruimin Wu, Yijia Chen, Fuyan Li, Wei Li, Hong Zhou, Yi Yang, Zhijun Pei
The glycoprotein dickkopf 1 (DKK1) is highly expressed in lung cancer cell lines and tissues. Our previous study demonstrated that DKK1 promoter activity is low in lung cancer cell lines. This may be because it lacks the necessary transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) required for higher activity levels. However, it is difficult to computationally predict functionally significant TREs, as TREs from different locations can affect large segments of distant DNA. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project features multiple integrated technologies and approaches for the discovery and definition of functional elements, including enhancer elements and enhancer-blocking insulators...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Chiara Botto, Giuseppa Augello, Erika Amore, Maria Rita Emma, Antonina Azzolina, Gennara Cavallaro, Melchiorre Cervello, Maria Luisa Bondì
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most important causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Gene therapy is a novel approach for treating HCC. A safe and efficient gene delivery method, using viral or non-viral vectors, is a crucial factor for developing a successful HCC gene therapy. Among non-viral vectors, cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLN) have advantages such as biocompatibility and transfection efficiency. In this study, novel cSLN were prepared, characterized and complexed with a plasmid (shNUPR1) capable of inhibiting the expression of the NUPR1 gene, which is involved in HCC growth and chemoresistance...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Eugenia Fraile-Bethencourt, Alberto Valenzuela-Palomo, Beatriz Díez-Gómez, Mar Infante, Mercedes Durán, Germán Marcos, Enrique Lastra, Susana Gómez-Barrero, Eladio A Velasco
PURPOSE: Promoter mutations may affect transcription and can be associated with human diseases. However, the promoters of the breast cancer (BC) genes are not regularly screened. Our goal was to investigate the BRCA2 promoter in order to study a possible correlation between impaired transcription and disease. METHODS: The proximal and core promoter of the BRCA2 gene was sequenced in 95 high-risk BC patients. A BRCA2-promoter insert [- 938 to + 312 from the transcription start site (TSS)] was generated and cloned into the firefly luciferase vector pGL4...
May 15, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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