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Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Ippei Kanazawa, Masakazu Notsu, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
OBJECTIVE: Sarcopenia has been recognized as a diabetic complication, and hyperuricemia is often accompanied by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is unknown whether serum uric acid (UA) levels are associated with reduced muscle mass in T2DM. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the association of serum UA with muscle mass in 401 subjects with T2DM (209 men and 192 postmenopausal women). The relative skeletal muscle mass index (RSMI) was evaluated using whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry...
December 12, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Juha Suuronen, Samu Sjöblom, Marjo Tuppurainen, Risto Honkanen, Toni Rikkonen, Heikki Kröger, Joonas Sirola
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the association of hormonal contraception and other life-style factors and habits affecting body composition (BC) and muscle strength. STUDY DESIGN: We measured the body composition of 400 healthy Finnish women (aged 20-40 years) using total body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (TB-DXA) as well as grip strength (GS [kPa]) with a hand-held dynamometer and knee extension strength (KES [kg]) between 2011 and 2014...
November 22, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Yaron S Feldheim, Tal Zusman, Anya Kapach, Gil Segal
The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila translocates more than 300 effector proteins into host cells during infection. The PmrAB two-component system (TCS) has been shown to activate the expression of a large pool of these effector-encoding genes (EEGs) and the LetAS TCS, as part of the LetAS-RsmYZ-CsrA cascade, has been shown to repress the expression of another pool of EEGs. We identified a single-domain response regulator (SDRR), named LerC, which functions as a connector protein between the PmrAB and the LetAS TCSs...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Liliana López-Pliego, Liliana García-Ramírez, Emma Aurora Cruz-Gómez, Patricia Domínguez-Ojeda, Alejandra López-Pastrana, Luis Ernesto Fuentes-Ramírez, Cinthia Núñez, Miguel Castañeda
The GacS/A system in Azotobacter vinelandii regulates alginate and alkylresorcinols production through RsmZ1, a small regulatory RNA (sRNA) that releases the translational repression of the algD and arpR mRNAs caused by the RsmA protein. In the Pseudomonadaceae family, the Rsm-sRNAs are grouped into three families: RsmX, RmsY and RsmZ. Besides RsmZ1, A. vinelandii has six other isoforms belonging to the RsmZ family and another one to the RsmY. Environmental signals controlling rsmsRNAs genes in A. vinelandii are unknown...
July 10, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Vincenzo Carnevale, Valeria Castriotta, Pamela Angela Piscitelli, Luciano Nieddu, Maria Mattera, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Alfredo Scillitani
OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia is a common geriatric syndrome, whose diagnosis implies the assessment of muscle mass. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the reference method for clinical practice, but it is not universally available. We compared DXA with 2 anthropometry-based methods to assess muscle mass in older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Ambulatory patients. PARTICIPANTS: 148 (87 female and 61 male) white older adults...
September 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Gary R Hunter, David R Bryan, Juliano H Borges, M David Diggs, Stephen J Carter
OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether there are race-specific differences in the maintenance of skeletal muscle during energy restriction. Changes in relative skeletal muscle index (RSMI; limb lean tissue divided by height squared) were compared following (1) diet alone, (2) diet + aerobic training, or (3) diet + resistance training. METHODS: Overweight, sedentary African American (AA; n = 72) and European American (EA; n = 68) women were provided an 800-kcal/d diet to reduce BMI < 25 kg/m2 ...
August 2018: Obesity
Kayley H Janssen, Manisha R Diaz, Cindy J Gode, Matthew C Wolfgang, Timothy L Yahr
The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has distinct genetic programs that favor either acute or chronic virulence gene expression. Acute virulence is associated with twitching and swimming motility, expression of a type III secretion system (T3SS), and the absence of alginate, Psl, or Pel polysaccharide production. Traits associated with chronic infection include growth as a biofilm, reduced motility, and expression of a type VI secretion system (T6SS). The Rsm posttranscriptional regulatory system plays important roles in the inverse control of phenotypes associated with acute and chronic virulence...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Yang Liu, Zheng Wang, Muhammad Bilal, Hongbo Hu, Wei Wang, Xianqing Huang, Huasong Peng, Xuehong Zhang
Pseudomonas chlororaphis HT66 is a plant-beneficial bacterium that exhibits wider antagonistic spectrum against a variety of plant pathogenic fungi due to its main secondary metabolite, i.e., phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN). In the present study, a spontaneous phenotypic variant designated as HT66-FLUO was isolated from the fermentation process of wild-type HT66 strain. The newly isolated phenotypic variant was morphologically distinct from the wild-type strain such as larger cell size, semi-transparent, non-production of PCN (Green or yellow crystals) and enhanced fluorescence under UV light...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nilmini Mendis, Peter McBride, Joseph Saoud, Thangadurai Mani, Sebastien P Faucher
Surviving the nutrient-poor aquatic environment for extended periods of time is important for the transmission of various water-borne pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila (Lp). Previous work concluded that the stringent response and the sigma factor RpoS are essential for the survival of Lp in water. In the present study, we investigated the role of the LetA/S two-component signal transduction system in the successful survival of Lp in water. In addition to cell size reduction in the post-exponential phase, LetS also contributes to cell size reduction when Lp is exposed to water...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Erich Michel, Olivier Duss, Frédéric H-T Allain
Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) is an important control mechanism that modulates bacterial metabolism, motility, and pathogenesis. Using the bacterial carbon storage regulator/regulator of secondary metabolism (Csr/Rsm) system, we here describe an E. coli-based cell-free translation assay that allows a quantitative analysis of translation regulation by ncRNAs and their corresponding translation repressor proteins. The assay quantifies the translation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in cell-free expression reactions that contain defined amounts of ncRNA and repressor protein...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kayley H Janssen, Manisha R Diaz, Matthew Golden, Justin W Graham, Wes Sanders, Matthew C Wolfgang, Timothy L Yahr
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen with distinct acute and chronic virulence phenotypes. Whereas acute virulence is typically associated with expression of a type III secretion system (T3SS), chronic virulence is characterized by biofilm formation. Many of the phenotypes associated with acute and chronic virulence are inversely regulated by RsmA and RsmF. RsmA and RsmF are both members of the CsrA family of RNA-binding proteins and regulate protein synthesis at the posttranscriptional level...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Tatiana Munhoz da Rocha Lemos Costa, Fabio Marcelo Costa, Thaísa Hoffman Jonasson, Carolina Aguiar Moreira, César Luiz Boguszewski, Victória Zeghbi Cochenski Borba
PURPOSE: Changes in body composition are commonly present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The main aim of this study were to evaluate changes in body composition and the prevalence of pre-sarcopenia and sarcopenia in patients with COPD, compared with two control groups and correlate these parameters with indices of COPD severity (VEF1 and GOLD) and prognosis (BODE). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in COPD patients (DG) that undergone body composition assessment by DXA...
April 2018: Endocrine
Yacong Bo, Changfeng Liu, Zhe Ji, Ruihong Yang, Qianqian An, Xueyuan Zhang, Jie You, Dandan Duan, Yafei Sun, Yiwei Zhu, Han Cui, Quanjun Lu
OBJECTIVE: Sarcopenia, an age-related decline of muscle mass, strength, and physical function, was associated with falls, frailty, and poor quality of life. The aim of the current study is to examine the effect of nutritional supplement containing whey protein, vitamin D and E on measures of sarcopenia. METHODS: A total of 60 sarcopenic older adult subjects participated in the current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled (iso-caloric control product) trial for 6 months...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ahmad Ali-Ahmad, Firas Fadel, Corinne Sebban-Kreuzer, Moly Ba, Gauthier Dangla Pélissier, Olivier Bornet, Françoise Guerlesquin, Yves Bourne, Christophe Bordi, Florence Vincent
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium responsible for both acute and chronic infections and has developed resistance mechanisms due to its ability to promote biofilm formation and evade host adaptive immune responses. Here, we investigate the functional role of the periplasmic detector domain (GacSPD) from the membrane-bound GacS histidine kinase, which is one of the key players for biofilm formation and coordination of bacterial lifestyles. A gacS mutant devoid of the periplasmic detector domain is severely defective in biofilm formation...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wu Liu, Menggang Li, Jinyong Yan, Yunjun Yan
Pseudomonas lipase is a well-studied lipase. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the lipase expression. Hfq is a global regulatory protein that, among others, controls the expression of multiple genes, regulate bacterial peristalsis, and participates in the regulation of quorum-sensing (QS) system. In this study, the effects of Hfq on lipase expression were investigated by knocking out the hfq and rsmY genes or overexpressing of hfq and rsmY genes...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
S L Qazi, T Rikkonen, H Kröger, R Honkanen, M Isanejad, O Airaksinen, J Sirola
OBJECTIVES: 1) To study if limb length explains variability in appendicular and total muscle mass better than height and 2) if muscle mass adjusted for limb length rather than height correlates better with grip and knee extension strength. METHODS: 400 healthy women aged 20-40 were recruited as a reference population. Body composition, limb length, grip strength and knee extension strength were measured. New relative muscle mass indexes were computed by adjusting upper limb muscle mass for upper limb length (ULRSMI) and lower limb muscle mass for lower limb length (LLRSMI)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Tim H Jakobsen, Anders N Warming, Rebecca M Vejborg, Joana A Moscoso, Marc Stegger, Frederik Lorenzen, Morten Rybtke, Jens B Andersen, Rico Petersen, Paal Skytt Andersen, Thomas E Nielsen, Tim Tolker-Nielsen, Alain Filloux, Hanne Ingmer, Michael Givskov
For the last decade, chemical control of bacterial virulence has received considerable attention. Ajoene, a sulfur-rich molecule from garlic has been shown to reduce expression of key quorum sensing regulated virulence factors in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we show that the repressing effect of ajoene on quorum sensing occurs by inhibition of small regulatory RNAs (sRNA) in P. aeruginosa as well as in Staphylococcus aureus, another important human pathogen that employs quorum sensing to control virulence gene expression...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shubham Chakravarty, Cameron N Melton, Adam Bailin, Timothy L Yahr, Gregory G Anderson
Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes numerous acute and chronic opportunistic infections in humans. One of its most formidable weapons is a type III secretion system (T3SS), which injects powerful toxins directly into host cells. The toxins lead to cell dysfunction and, ultimately, cell death. Identification of regulatory pathways that control T3SS gene expression may lead to the discovery of novel therapeutics to treat P. aeruginosa infections. In a previous study, we found that expression of the magnesium transporter gene mgtE inhibits T3SS gene transcription...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
Liping Meng, Qingqing Man, Linhong Yuan, Lingxia Shen, Weimin Li, Guiyuan Guo, Lixiang Li, Shanshan Jia, Yixiong Gao, Pengkun Song, Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and function among the elderly in an urban area in northern China. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 912 participants (316 men, 596 women) aged more than 60 years from 4 communities in Beijing were enrolled. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured through radioimmunoassay. SMM was assessed through bioelectrical impendence analysis, whereas skeletal muscle function was assessed through grip strength and 4-m regular gait speed measurements...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Óscar Huertas-Rosales, Manuel Romero, Stephan Heeb, Manuel Espinosa-Urgel, Miguel Cámara, María Isabel Ramos-González
Expression of cfcR, encoding the only GGDEF/EAL response regulator in Pseudomonas putida, is transcriptionally regulated by RpoS, ANR and FleQ, and the functionality of CfcR as a diguanylate cyclase requires the multisensor CHASE3/GAF hybrid histidine kinase named CfcA. Here an additional level of cfcR control, operating post-transcriptionally via the RNA-binding proteins RsmA, RsmE and RsmI, is unraveled. Specific binding of the three proteins to an Rsm-binding motif (5'CANGGANG3') encompassing the translational start codon of cfcR was confirmed...
September 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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