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Obesity Inflamation

Adam M Sandor, Robin S Lindsay, Nathan Dyjack, Jennifer C Whitesell, Cydney Rios, Brenda J Bradley, Kathryn Haskins, David V Serreze, Aron M Geurts, Yi-Guang Chen, Max A Seibold, Jordan Jacobelli, Rachel S Friedman
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell mediated autoimmune disease that affects more than 19 million people with incidence increasing rapidly worldwide. For T cells to effectively drive T1D, they must first traffic to the islets and extravasate through the islet vasculature. Understanding the cues that lead to T cell entry into inflamed islets is important because diagnosed T1D patients already have established immune infiltration of their islets. Here we show that CD11c+ cells are a key mediator of T cell trafficking to infiltrated islets in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Jia Liu, Zhenqi Liu
Insulin is a vascular hormone and regulates vascular tone and reactivity. Muscle is a major insulin target that is responsible for the majority of insulin-stimulated glucose use. Evidence confirms that muscle microvasculature is an important insulin action site and critically regulates insulin delivery to muscle and action on myocytes, thereby affecting insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Insulin via activation of its signaling cascade in the endothelial cells increases muscle microvascular perfusion, which leads to an expansion of the endothelial exchange surface area...
January 29, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Afsar R Naqvi, Maria F Brambila, Gloria Martínez, Gabriela Chapa, Salvador Nares
AIM: To evaluate human and herpesvirus-encoded microRNA (miRNA) expression in healthy and diseased gingiva of obese and non-obese subjects and compare the impact of localized and systemic inflammation on human miRNA profiles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Healthy and inflamed gingival biopsies were collected from obese and non-obese subjects. Human and herpesvirus miRNA expression was quantified using quantitative PCR. Predicted targets of dysregulated miRNAs were identified using bioinformatics analysis, validated by dual luciferase assays and their expression assessed in healthy and diseased tissues...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Jèssica Latorre, José M Moreno-Navarrete, Mónica Sabater, Maria Buxo, José I Rodriguez-Hermosa, Jordi Girones, José M Fort, Ramón Vilallonga, Wifredo Ricart, Rafael Simo, Jose-Manuel Fernandez-Real, Francisco J Ortega
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity is characterized by the immune activation that eventually dampens insulin sensitivity and changes metabolism. This study explores the impact of different inflammatory/ anti-inflammatory paradigms on the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) found in adipocyte cultures, adipose tissue, and blood. METHODS: We evaluated by real time PCR the impact of acute surgery stress in vivo (adipose tissue) and macrophages (MCM) in vitro (adipocytes)...
November 26, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Susana Ceballos, Alis Guillén, Diana Lorena Muñoz, Adriana Castaño, Luis Fernando Echeverri, Sergio Acín, Norman Balcázar
BACKGROUND: Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm (Myrtaceae) is a plant used in traditional medicine to control obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Chronic adipose tissue inflammation is involved in generating insulin resistance, the greatest risk factor in developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, a mixture of triterpenes, as obtained from the starting plant material, was evaluated in inflamed adipose tissue cells models. AIM: Our goal is to advance into the understanding, at the cellular level, of the immunometabolic effects of the triterpene mixes from Eucalyptus tereticornis in in vitro models of mouse and human adipose tissues...
November 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Katarzyna Kornicka, Jolanta Szłapka-Kosarzewska, Agnieszka Śmieszek, Krzysztof Marycz
Obesity and endocrine disorders have become prevalent issues in the field of both human and veterinary medicine. Equine metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder involving alternation in metabolism and chronic systemic inflammation. It has been shown that unfavourable microenvironment of inflamed adipose tissue negatively affects adipose stem cell population (ASC) residing within, markedly limiting their therapeutic potential. ASCsEMS are characterized by increased senescence apoptosis, excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondria deterioration and "autophagic flux...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Masanori Iwasaki, Yumi Kimura, Hiroshi Ogawa, Takayuki Yamaga, Toshihiro Ansai, Taizo Wada, Ryota Sakamoto, Yasuko Ishimoto, Michiko Fujisawa, Kiyohito Okumiya, Hideo Miyazaki, Kozo Matsubayashi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Identification of modifiable factors for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is important since individuals with MCI are at a high risk of dementia and disability. Previous studies have suggested a potential association between periodontitis and cognitive impairment, but the results remain inconclusive. We designed a 5-year longitudinal study to explore the association between MCI and periodontitis and periodontal inflammation in older adults. METHODS: This study included 179 community-dwelling dentate individuals (62 men and 117 women, average age: 80...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Anja Bosy-Westphal, Wiebke Braun, Viktoria Albrecht, Manfred J Müller
Common obesity-associated hepatic steatosis (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)) and insulin resistance are mainly caused by dysfunctional adipose tissue. This adipose tissue dysfunction leads to increased delivery of NEFA and glycerol to the liver that (i) drives hepatic gluconeogenesis and (ii) facilitates the accumulation of lipids and insulin signaling inhibiting lipid intermediates. Dysfunctional adipose tissue can be caused by impaired lipid storage (overflow hypothesis, characterized by large visceral adipocytes) or increased lipolysis (due to impaired postprandial suppression of lipolysis in inflamed, insulin-resistant adipocytes)...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Marco Bauzá-Thorbrügge, Sergio Rodríguez-Cuenca, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Bel M Galmés-Pascual, Miquel Sbert-Roig, Magdalena Gianotti, Isabel Lladó, Ana M Proenza
Obesity is associated with inflammation, dysregulated adipokine secretion, and disrupted adipose tissue mitochondrial function. Estradiol (E2) has been previously reported to increase mitochondrial function and biogenesis in several cell lines, but neither the type of oestrogen receptor (ERα, ERβ and GPER) involved nor the mechanism whereby such effects are exerted have been fully described. Considering the anti-inflammatory activity of E2 as well as its effects in enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis, the aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of ERα, ERβ, and GPER signaling to the E2-mediated enhancement of adipocyte mitochondrial function in a pro-inflammatory situation...
January 2019: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Pamela Mattar, Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Nicolás Tobar, Cecilia Fuentes, Rodrigo Troncoso, Gerda Breitwieser, Sergio Lavandero, Mariana Cifuentes
Obesity is a major current public health problem worldwide due to the severe co-morbid conditions that this disease entails. The development of obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders is in direct association with adipose tissue inflammation that leads to its functional impairment. Activation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) in adipose tissue contributes to inflammation and adipose dysfunction. Autophagy, a process of cell component degradation, is closely related to inflammation in many diseases, however, whether autophagy is associated with CaSR-induced inflammation remains unknown...
November 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Chaw-Ning Lee, WenChieh Chen, Chao-Kai Hsu, Tzu-Teng Weng, Julia Yu-Yun Lee, Chao-Chun Yang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dissecting folliculitis (DF) or dissecting cellulitis of the scalp is regarded as a rare disease with disfiguring scarring alopecia. This study aimed to analyze the features of DF and to propose a classification to define its severity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted. Patients with a histopathological diagnosis or clinical features leading to diagnosis of DF were included and classified into three stages...
October 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Melissa J Conroy, Stephen G Maher, Ashanty M Melo, Suzanne L Doyle, Emma Foley, John V Reynolds, Aideen Long, Joanne Lysaght
The omentum is enriched with pro-inflammatory effector memory CD8+ T cells in patients with the obesity-associated malignancy, esophagogastric adenocarcinoma (EAC) and we have identified the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha as a key player in their active migration to this inflamed tissue. More recently, others have established that subsets of memory CD8+ T cells can be classified based on their surface expression of CX3CR1; the specific receptor for the inflammatory chemokine fractalkine. CD8+ T cells expressing intermediate levels (CX3CR1INT ) are defined as peripheral memory, those expressing the highest levels (CX3CR1HI ) are effector memory/terminally differentiated and those lacking CX3CR1 (CX3CR1NEG ) are classified as central memory...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tetsuo Horimatsu, Aaron S Patel, Rosaria Prasad, Lauren E Reid, Tyler W Benson, Abdalrahman Zarzour, Mourad Ogbi, Thiago Bruder do Nascimento, Eric Belin de Chantemele, Brian K Stansfield, Xin-Yun Lu, Ha Won Kim, Neal L Weintraub
PURPOSE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds the arterial adventitia and plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. PVAT expands in obesity, and inflamed PVAT can locally promote endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, using adipose tissue transplantation, we tested the hypothesis that expansion of PVAT can also remotely exacerbate vascular disease. METHODS: Fifty milligrams of abdominal aortic PVAT was isolated from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed wild-type mice and transplanted onto the abdominal aorta of lean LDL receptor knockout mice...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Ashlee Justice, Zeid Keilani, James Tribble
INTRODUCTION: Jejunoileal bypass (JIB) was an effective treatment for morbid obesity in the 1970s, but shortly after it fell out of favor due to horrific side effects, including liver failure, nephrolithiasis and drastic vitamin deficiencies. Although there are few living people with JIB, the management of these patients can be challenging. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 58-year-old female with a history of JIB 46 years prior who had an impending renal failure due to nephrolithiasis...
2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Xabier Unamuno, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Sara Becerril, Gema Frühbeck, Victoria Catalán
Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. Adipose tissue is considered one of the largest endocrine organs in the body as well as an active tissue for cellular reactions and metabolic homeostasis rather than an inert tissue for energy storage. The functional pleiotropism of adipose tissue relies on its ability to synthesize and release a large number of hormones, cytokines, extracellular matrix proteins and growth and vasoactive factors, collectively termed adipokines that influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes...
September 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Anna Beatriz Santana Luz, Júlia Braga Dos Santos Figueredo, Bianca Damásio Pereira Dantas Salviano, Ana Júlia Felipe Camelo Aguiar, Luiza Gabriella Soares Dantas Pinheiro, Matheus Felipe Dantas Krause, Christina da Silva Camillo, Fernando Vagner Lobo Ladd, Raul Hernandes Bortolin, Vivian Nogueira Silbiger, Bruna Leal Lima Maciel, Ana Heloneida de Araújo Morais
We investigated the inflammatory effect of a pellet-diet with high glycemic index and load (HGLI) on the histological organization of adipocytes, intestinal epithelium, and fat in liver and pancreas in adult male Wistar rats. Two groups ( n =10) received for 17 weeks: (1) HGLI diet or (2) Standard diet (Labina®). Histological analyses of adipose tissue, jejunum, liver, and pancreas were performed. Stereology analysis, visceral adiposity index, gene expression, and immunohistochemistry of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in visceral adipose tissue and plasma TNF-α were also assessed...
June 29, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Sandip Mukherjee, Snehasis Das, Dipanjan Chattopadhyay, Shuvasree Sarkar, Subhendu Kumar Chatterjee, Dhrubajyoti Talukdar, Sutapa Mukherjee, Subeer S Majumdar, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Mihir K Chaudhuri, Samir Bhattacharya
Accumulation and polarization of anti-inflammatory M2 to proinflammatory M1 macrophage in the adipose tissue of obese diabetic mice is an important pathogenic signature. It worsens lipid induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Here we demonstrate that a small molecule, a peroxyvanadate compound i.e. DmpzH [VO(O2 )2 (dmpz)] or dmp, could robustly decrease macrophage infiltration, accumulation and their polarization in high fat diet (HFD) induced obese diabetic mice. In searching the underlying mechanism it was revealed that SIRT1 level was strikingly low in the inflamed adipose tissue of HFD mice as compared to mice fed with standard diet (SD)...
June 27, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jiung-Pang Huang, Sheng-Chieh Hsu, Yaa-Jyuhn James Meir, Po-Shiuan Hsieh, Chih-Chun Chang, Kuan-Hsing Chen, Jan-Kan Chen, Li-Man Hung
Many studies have reported the causes of obese metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the causes of nonobese MS (NMS) remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that inflamed dysfunctional adipose tissue plays a crucial role in cholesterol-induced NMS. Control (C), high cholesterol (HC) and HC with 10% fructose in drinking water (HCF) diets were fed to Sprague-Dawley rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, the body weights of the C- and HC-fed rats were comparable, but the weights of the HCF-fed rats were relatively low...
May 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Devram S Ghorpade, Lale Ozcan, Ze Zheng, Sarah M Nicoloro, Yuefei Shen, Emily Chen, Matthias Blüher, Michael P Czech, Ira Tabas
Obesity-induced metabolic disease involves functional integration among several organs via circulating factors, but little is known about crosstalk between liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In obesity, VAT becomes populated with inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). In obese humans, there is a close correlation between adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance, and in obese mice, blocking systemic or ATM inflammation improves insulin sensitivity. However, processes that promote pathological adipose tissue inflammation in obesity are incompletely understood...
March 29, 2018: Nature
Marta Scatena, Melissa F Jackson, Mei Y Speer, Elizabeth M Leaf, Mary C Wallingford, Cecilia M Giachelli
OBJECTIVE: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cause of aortic stenosis (AS) and cardiac insufficiency. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at heightened risk for CAVD, and their valves have greater calcification than nondiabetic valves. No drugs to prevent or treat CAVD exist, and animal models that might help identify therapeutic targets are sorely lacking. To develop an animal model mimicking the structural and functional features of CAVD in people with T2DM, we tested a diabetogenic, procalcific diet and its effect on the incidence and severity of CAVD and AS in the, LDLr-/- ApoB100/100 mouse model...
May 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
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