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Autism Microbiome

Julio Plaza-Díaz, Antonio Gómez-Fernández, Natalia Chueca, María José de la Torre-Aguilar, Ángel Gil, Juan Luis Perez-Navero, Katherine Flores-Rojas, Pilar Martín-Borreguero, Patricio Solis-Urra, Francisco Javier Ruiz-Ojeda, Federico Garcia, Mercedes Gil-Campos
New microbiome sequencing technologies provide novel information about the potential interactions among intestinal microorganisms and the host in some neuropathologies as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The microbiota⁻gut⁻brain axis is an emerging aspect in the generation of autistic behaviors; evidence from animal models suggests that intestinal microbial shifts may produce changes fitting the clinical picture of autism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fecal metagenomic profiles in children with ASD and compare them with healthy participants...
February 5, 2019: Nutrients
Joby Pulikkan, Agnisrota Mazumder, Tony Grace
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorder with elusive etiology and obscure pathophysiology. Cognitive inabilities, impaired communication, repetitive behavior pattern, and restricted social interaction and communication lead to a debilitating situation in autism. The pattern of co-occurrence of medical comorbidities is most intriguing in autism, compared to any other neurodevelopmental disorders. They have an elevated comorbidity burden among which most frequently are seizures, psychiatric illness, and gastrointestinal disorders...
2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Eugene Rosenberg, Ilana Zilber-Rosenberg
All natural animals and plants are holobionts, consisting of the host and microbiome, which is composed of abundant and diverse microorganisms. Health and disease of holobionts depend as much on interactions between host and microbiome and within the microbiome, as on interactions between organs and body parts of the host. Recent evidence indicates that a significant fraction of the microbiome is transferred by a variety of mechanisms from parent to offspring for many generations. Genetic variation in holobionts can occur in the microbiome as well as in the host genome, and it occurs more rapidly and by more mechanisms in genomes of microbiomes than in host genomes (e...
January 28, 2019: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Soaleha Shams, Kelly A Foley, Martin Kavaliers, Derrick F MacFabe, Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp
The role of the gut microbiome and its enteric metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has recently received increased attention. Of particular interest has been the SCFA, propionic acid (PPA). Several different rodent models have been developed using PPA treatment to examine behaviors of relevance to ASD. The effects of systemic (intraperitoneal, i.p.) administration of PPA on social behavior, anxiety-related behavior, and locomotor activity in juvenile male rats (age 35 days) were examined in this study...
January 28, 2019: Developmental Psychobiology
Simeng Liu, Enyao Li, Zhenyu Sun, Dongjun Fu, Guiqin Duan, Miaomiao Jiang, Yong Yu, Lu Mei, Pingchang Yang, Youcai Tang, Pengyuan Zheng
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impairments in social interactions and communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Several studies report a high prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in autistic individuals. Cumulative evidence reveals that the gut microbiota and its metabolites (especially short-chain fatty acids, SCFAs) play an important role in GI disorders and the pathogenesis of ASD. However, the composition of the gut microbiota and its association with fecal SCFAs and GI symptoms of autistic children remain largely unknown...
January 22, 2019: Scientific Reports
Narek Israelyan, Kara Gross Margolis
Autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and repetitive patterns of behavior. ASD is, however, often associated with medical comorbidities and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is among the most common. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between GI dysfunction and the degree of social impairment in ASD. The etiology of GI abnormalities in ASD is unclear, though the association between GI dysfunction and ASD-associated behaviors suggest that overlapping developmental defects in the brain and the intestine and/or a defect in communication between the enteric and central nervous systems (ENS and CNS, respectively), known as the gut-brain axis, could be responsible for the observed phenotypes...
January 15, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Helen E Vuong, Elaine Y Hsiao
The gut microbiome is increasingly implicated in the regulation of social behavior across model organisms. In this issue of Neuron, Sgritta et al. (2018) examine the role of the gut microbiome in social reward circuits and sociability in three mouse models of autism spectrum disorder.
January 16, 2019: Neuron
Megan R Sanctuary, Jennifer N Kain, Shin Yu Chen, Karen Kalanetra, Danielle G Lemay, Destanie R Rose, Houa T Yang, Daniel J Tancredi, J Bruce German, Carolyn M Slupsky, Paul Ashwood, David A Mills, Jennifer T Smilowitz, Kathleen Angkustsiri
Over half of all children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have gastrointestinal (GI) co-morbidities including chronic constipation, diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome. The severity of these symptoms has been correlated with the degree of GI microbial dysbiosis. The study objective was to assess tolerability of a probiotic (Bifidobacterium infantis) in combination with a bovine colostrum product (BCP) as a source of prebiotic oligosaccharides and to evaluate GI, microbiome and immune factors in children with ASD and GI co-morbidities...
2019: PloS One
Holly A Swain Ewald, Paul W Ewald
The microbiome is composed of hundreds of interacting species that have co-evolved with the host and alterations in microbiome composition have been associated with health and disease. Insights from evolutionary ecology may aid efforts to ameliorate microbiome-associated diseases. One step toward this goal involves recognition that the idea of commensalism has been applied too broadly to human/microbe symbioses. Commensalism is most accurately viewed on a symbiosis continuum as a dividing line that separates a spectrum of mutualisms of decreasing positive interdependence from parasitisms of increasing severity...
December 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Fang Liu, Kayla Horton-Sparks, Vanessa Hull, Robert W Li, Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño
Background: Gut microbiota has the capacity to impact the regular function of the brain, which can in turn affect the composition of microbiota. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients suffer from gastrointestinal problems and experience changes in gut microbiota; however, it is not yet clear whether the change in the microbiota associated with ASD is a cause or a consequence of the disease. Methods: We have investigated the species richness and microbial composition in a valproic acid (VPA)-induced rat model autism...
2018: Molecular Autism
Kaylah Curtis, Christopher J Stewart, Meghan Robinson, David L Molfese, Savannah N Gosnell, Thomas R Kosten, Joseph F Petrosino, Richard De La Garza, Ramiro Salas
The gut microbiota has recently gained attention as a possible modulator of brain activity. A number of reports suggest that the microbiota may be associated with neuropsychiatric conditions such as major depressive disorder, autism, and anxiety. The gut microbiota is thought to influence the brain via vagus nerve signaling, among other possible mechanisms. The insula processes and integrates these vagal signals. To determine if microbiota diversity and structure modulate brain activity, we collected fecal samples and examined insular function using resting state functional connectivity (RSFC)...
December 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Martina Sgritta, Sean W Dooling, Shelly A Buffington, Eric N Momin, Michael B Francis, Robert A Britton, Mauro Costa-Mattioli
Currently, there are no medications that effectively treat the core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We recently found that the bacterial species Lactobacillus (L.) reuteri reverses social deficits in maternal high-fat-diet offspring. However, whether the effect of L. reuteri on social behavior is generalizable to other ASD models and its mechanism(s) of action remains unknown. Here, we found that treatment with L. reuteri selectively rescues social deficits in genetic, environmental, and idiopathic ASD models...
December 3, 2018: Neuron
Maureen Cowan, William A Petri
Microglia, the tissue-resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), have characterized roles in combating infection, clearing cellular debris, and maintaining tissue homeostasis. In addition to these typical immunological roles, microglia have been revealed to be active players in complex neurodevelopmental programs such as neurogenesis and synaptic pruning, during which they interact with neurons and macroglia to provide trophic support, respond to cytokine, and metabolic signals derived from the local neural environment, and drive the refinement of functional neuronal circuits...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Elena Minakova, Barbara B Warner
Maternal immune activation (MIA) refers to a maternal immune system triggered by infectious or infectious-like stimuli. A cascade of cytokines and immunologic alterations are transmitted to the fetus, resulting in adverse phenotypes most notably in the central nervous system. Epidemiologic studies implicate maternal infections in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. In animal models, MIA causes neurochemical and anatomic changes in the brain that correspond to those found in humans with the disorders...
November 14, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Barbara B Warner
Bidirectional communication between the gut and brain is well recognized, with data now accruing for a specific role of the gut microbiota in that link, referred to as the microbiome-gut-brain axis. This review will discuss the emerging role of the gut microbiota in brain development and behavior. Animal studies have clearly demonstrated effects of the gut microbiota on gene expression and neurochemical metabolism impacting behavior and performance. Based on these changes, a modulating role of the gut microbiota has been demonstrated for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and movement including Parkinson's, and importantly for the pediatric population autism...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Research
Yvonne Vallès, M Pilar Francino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review how an altered microbiome in early life impacts on immune, metabolic, and neurological development, focusing on some of the most widespread diseases related to each of these processes, namely atopic disease, obesity, and autism. RECENT FINDINGS: The early development of the microbial communities that inhabit the human body is currently challenged by factors that range from reduced exposure to microbes, antibiotic use, and poor dietary choices to widespread environmental pollution...
September 29, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Corey L Kamen, Danna L Zevy, Jordan M Ward, Indra R Bishnoi, Martin Kavaliers, Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by cognitive and sensorimotor deficits, among others. Hypo-sensitivity and hyper-sensitivity to different stimuli within the same sensory modality, a prominent symptom of ASD, can be assessed by acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Propionic acid (PPA) is a short-chain fatty acid and a by-product of the human gut microbiome. Rodents treated with PPA has been found to produce ASD-related behavioral abnormalities, gastrointestinal discomfort, and conditioned aversions...
September 27, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Karina Colonetti, Luiz Fernando Roesch, Ida Vanessa Doederlein Schwartz
Research into the influence of the microbiome on the human body has been shedding new light on diseases long known to be multifactorial, such as obesity, mood disorders, autism, and inflammatory bowel disease. Although inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are monogenic diseases, genotype alone is not enough to explain the wide phenotypic variability observed in patients with these conditions. Genetics and diet exert a strong influence on the microbiome, and diet is used (alone or as an adjuvant) in the treatment of many IEMs...
July 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Mengxiang Zhang, Wei Ma, Juan Zhang, Yi He, Juan Wang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Recent studies reported that children with ASD have altered gut microbiota profiles compared with typical development (TD) children. However, few studies on gut bacteria of children with ASD have been conducted in China. Here, in order to elucidate changes of fecal microbiota in children with ASD, 16S rRNA sequencing was conducted and the 16S rRNA (V3-V4) gene tags were amplified. We investigated differences in fecal microbiota between 35 children with ASD and 6 TD children...
September 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Josemar Marchezan, Eduardo Geyer Arrussul Winkler Dos Santos, Iohanna Deckmann, Rudimar Dos Santos Riesgo
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiology and currently few effective therapies. Immune system alterations have being demonstrated in ASD, both in humans and via animal models; immune imbalance thus arises as a possible pathway for drug intervention. In this review, the studies were classified into 2 major groups: (1) clinical research whose authors classify therapies with primary anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions, making use of: sulforaphane, celecoxib, lenalidomide, pentoxifylline, spironolactone, flavonoid luteolin, corticosteroids, oral immunoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, cell therapy, dialyzable lymphocyte extracts, minocycline, and pioglitazone; and (2) other ASD therapies already used or currently under study whose initial characteristics were neither anti-inflammatory nor immunomodulatory initially, but displayed a capacity for immunomodulation throughout the treatment: risperidone, vitamin D, omega-3, Ginkgo biloba, L-carnosine, N-acetylcysteine, and microbiome restoration...
September 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
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