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"Calorie Restriction"

Ana Cristina Christovam, Viviane Theodoro, Fernanda Aparecida Sampaio Mendonça, Marcelo Augusto Marretto Esquisatto, Gláucia Maria Tech Dos Santos, Maria Esméria Corezola do Amaral
Caloric restriction (CR) and resveratrol activate SIRT1 and induce anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We perform excisional lesion on the dorsum of four groups anesthetized animals: ad libitum-AL diet, AL diet with topical application of 2% resveratrol-Rv, 30% calorie restricted, and finally 30% calorie restricted with 2% resveratrol and we examine CR and Rv effects in wound repair. Restricted animals remained with CR for 31 days. The lesion was performed on day 18 of CR, and resveratrol application was started on day 19...
February 19, 2019: Archives of Dermatological Research
Shuhei Nakamura, Masaki Oba, Mari Suzuki, Atsushi Takahashi, Tadashi Yamamuro, Mari Fujiwara, Kensuke Ikenaka, Satoshi Minami, Namine Tabata, Kenichi Yamamoto, Sayaka Kubo, Ayaka Tokumura, Kanako Akamatsu, Yumi Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi Kawabata, Maho Hamasaki, Koji Fukui, Kazunori Sango, Yoshihisa Watanabe, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Tomoya S Kitajima, Yukinori Okada, Hideki Mochizuki, Yoshitaka Isaka, Adam Antebi, Tamotsu Yoshimori
Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved cytoplasmic degradation system, has been implicated as a convergent mechanism in various longevity pathways. Autophagic activity decreases with age in several organisms, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we show that the expression of Rubicon, a negative regulator of autophagy, increases in aged worm, fly and mouse tissues at transcript and/or protein levels, suggesting that an age-dependent increase in Rubicon impairs autophagy over time, and thereby curtails animal healthspan...
February 19, 2019: Nature Communications
Willemijn A van Gemert, Petra H Peeters, Anne M May, Adriaan J H Doornbos, Sjoerd G Elias, Job van der Palen, Wouter Veldhuis, Maaike Stapper, Jantine A Schuit, Evelyn M Monninkhof
BACKGROUND: We assessed the effect of equivalent weight loss with or without exercise on (intra-) abdominal fat in postmenopausal women in the SHAPE-2 study. METHODS: The SHAPE-2 study is a three-armed randomised controlled trial conducted in 2012-2013 in the Netherlands. Postmenopausal overweight women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), exercise plus diet (n = 98) or control group (n = 48). Both intervention groups aimed for equivalent weight loss (6-7%) following a calorie-restricted diet (diet group) or a partly supervised intensive exercise programme (4 h per week) combined with a small caloric restriction (exercise plus diet group)...
February 11, 2019: BMC Public Health
Kelvin Yohanes Tang, Shih-Yi Huang, Tsai-Mu Cheng, Chyi-Huey Bai, Jung-Su Chang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Haptoglobin (Hp) is associated with risks of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction; however, the role of the Hp phenotype in diet-induced weight loss remains to be elucidated. This study investigated whether the Hp phenotype contributes to inter-individual variations in body weight reduction as well as changes in the metabolic profile. METHODS: Secondary data analysis from a randomized controlled trial. In total, 151 abdominally obese Taiwanese women with ≥2 metabolic components were randomized to each of four dietary programs [calorie restriction (CR), calorie restriction plus fish oil supplementation (CRF), calorie restricted meal replacement (CRMR), and calorie restricted meal replacement with fish oil supplementation (CRMRF)] for 12 weeks...
January 26, 2019: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Presheet P Patkar, Zheng Hao, Michael B Mumphrey, R Leigh Townsend, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Andrew C Shin
OBJECTIVES: Dieting often fails because weight loss triggers strong counter-regulatory biological responses such as increased hunger and hypometabolism that are thought to be critically dependent on the master fuel sensor in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). Because prolonged starvation has been shown to increase AgRP and NPY, the expression level of these two orexigenic genes has been taken as an experimental readout for the presence or absence of hunger. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery leads to a significant weight loss without inducing the associated hunger, indicating possible changes in hypothalamic neuropeptides and/or signaling...
February 4, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
M Kujawska-Luczak, M Szulinska, D Skrypnik, K Musialik, E Swora-Cwynar, M Kregielska-Narozna, L Markuszewski, M Grzymislawska, P Bogdanski
A range of studies showed confusing data about the relationship between obesity, weight reduction and circulating total insulin-like growth factor -1 (IGF-1). The aim of the study was to compare the influence of orlistat (IO), metformin (IM), or calorie-restricted diet (LC) on IGF-1, with special respect to insulin-resistance status. One hundred and fourteen obese women aged from 18 to 40 years were divided into insulin sensitive (IS) and insulin resistant (IR) groups and received a low calorie diet (LC), or an isocaloric diet and 500 mg metformin twice daily (IM), or isocaloric diet with 120 mg orlistat three times daily (IO)...
October 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Jinjin Zhang, Qian Chen, Dingfu Du, Tong Wu, Jingyi Wen, Meng Wu, Yan Zhang, Wei Yan, Su Zhou, Yan Li, Yan Jin, Aiyue Luo, Shixuan Wang
Aging has been regarded as a treatable condition, and delaying aging could prevent some diseases. Ovarian aging, a special type of organ senescence, is the earliest-aging organ, as ovaries exhibit an accelerated rate of aging with characteristics of gradual declines in ovarian follicle quantity and quality since birth, compared to other organs. Ovarian aging is considered as the pacemaker of female body aging, which drives the aging of multiple organs of the body. Hence, anti-ovarian aging has become a research topic broadly interesting to both biomedical scientists and pharmaceutical industry...
January 23, 2019: Aging
Juen Guo, Jennifer L Robinson, Christopher D Gardner, Kevin D Hall
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare self-reported with objective measurements of energy intake changes (∆EI) during a 1-year weight-loss intervention with subjects randomized to low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets. METHODS: Repeated body weight measurements were used as inputs to an objective mathematical model to calculate ∆EIModel and to compare with self-reported energy intake changes assessed by repeated 24-hour recalls (∆EIRecall ). RESULTS: ∆EIRecall indicated a relatively persistent state of calorie restriction of ~500 to 600 kcal/d at 3, 6, and 12 months with no significant differences between the diets...
January 22, 2019: Obesity
Andrew Z Wang, Jerry F Husak, Matthew Lovern
Life-history trade-offs result from allocation of limited energetic resources to particular traits at the expense of others. When resources are scarce, some traits will take priority over others in the degree of their expression. For example, the current reproduction may be sacrificed to enhance survival. Although intuitive from an evolutionary perspective, such priorities must be based on proximate mechanisms that respond to the current conditions. The hormone leptin serves as a signal of energy availability in vertebrates, and has been proposed as a mediator of energy allocation between reproduction and traits that enhance survival, such as the immune system...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Roy Taylor
Starting with a hypothesis which postulated a simple explanation arising from the basic cause of type 2 diabetes, a series of studies has introduced a paradigm shift in our understanding of the condition. Gradual accumulation of fat in the liver and pancreas leads eventually to beta cell dedifferentiation and loss of specialised function. The consequent hyperglycaemia can be returned to normal by removing the excess fat from liver and pancreas. At present this can be achieved only by substantial weight loss, and a simple practical and efficacious method for this has been developed and applied in a series of studies...
January 2019: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Jan Martel, David M Ojcius, Yun-Fei Ko, Chih-Jung Chang, John D Young
Aging is influenced by many lifestyle choices that are under human control, including nutrition and exercise. The most effective known antiaging intervention consists of calorie restriction (CR), which increases lifespan in yeasts, worms, fruit flies, mice, and nonhuman primates. CR also improves healthspan by preventing the development of various aging-related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Many compounds isolated from plants and fungi prolong lifespan and prevent age-related diseases in model organisms...
January 15, 2019: Medicinal Research Reviews
Yiyi Lu, Fengxing Tao, Meng-Tao Zhou, Kai-Fu Tang
Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to promote longevity and ameliorate aging-associated diseases, including cancer. Extensive research over recent decades has revealed that CR reduces IGF-1/PI3K/AKT signaling and increases sirtuin signaling. We recently found that CR also enhances ALDOA/DNA-PK/p53 signaling. In the present review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of the IGF-1/PI3K/AKT pathway, sirtuin signaling, and the ALDOA/DNA-PK/p53 pathway by CR. We also summarize the evidence concerning the roles of these signaling pathways in carcinogenesis, and discuss how they are regulated by CR...
January 12, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Deana M Apple, Swetha Mahesula, Rene Solano Fonseca, Chang Zhu, Erzsebet Kokovay
The brain can generate new neurons from neural stem cells throughout life. However, the capacity for neurogenesis declines with age, reducing the potential for learning and repair. We explored the effects of calorie restriction, an established anti-aging intervention, on neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of young and aged mice. Calorie restriction transiently enhanced proliferation of neural progenitor cells in young, but not aged mice. However, calorie restriction prevented the age-related loss of neurogenesis in the aged brain...
January 8, 2019: Aging
Namiki Fujii, Seira Uta, Masaki Kobayashi, Tsugumichi Sato, Naoyuki Okita, Yoshikazu Higami
Caloric restriction (CR) suppresses age-related pathophysiology and extends lifespan. We recently reported that metabolic remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT) plays an important role in the beneficial actions of CR; however, the detailed molecular mechanisms of this remodeling remain to be established. In the present study, we aimed to identify CR-induced alterations in the expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, and of its downstream signaling mediators in liver and WAT, across the lifespan of rats...
January 5, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
A-Ra Cho, Ju-Yeon Moon, Sue Kim, Ki-Yong An, Minsuk Oh, Justin Y Jeon, Dong-Hyuk Jung, Man Ho Choi, Ji-Won Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of alternate day fasting (ADF) and exercise on serum sterol signatures, which are surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption and biosynthesis. METHODS: We randomly assigned 112 overweight or obese participants to four groups: 1) ADF and exercise (E-ADF); 2) ADF; 3) exercise; and 4) control. We studied 31 completers in this exploratory analysis and measured their serum sterol signatures using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
January 4, 2019: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Yao-Hua Gu, Jin-Bing Bai, Xiao-Li Chen, Wen-Wen Wu, Xiang-Xiang Liu, Xiao-Dong Tan
Due to dramatic growth of the aging population worldwide, there has been an urgent call for a public health strategy to manage healthy aging, with the ultimate goal being advancement of aging research. Considerable progress has been made in uncovering the mystery of aging process using multidisciplinary methods. There is a growing consensus in the field that aging traits which were originally thought to be disparate are likely to be interconnected. Thus, emerging research is needed to incorporate current findings of aging by building multiscale network models...
December 24, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Kuldeep Makwana, Neha Gosai, Allan Poe, Roman V Kondratov
Calorie restriction (CR) delays aging and affects the circadian clocks by reprogramming circadian rhythms in gene expression. To expand on the circadian mechanisms in CR, we assayed rhythms in the protein translation by analyzing polysome-associated mRNAs in the liver of mice fed ad libitum (AL) and CR diets. Global comparison of the diets revealed that <1% of transcripts were differentially abundant in the polysomes. In contrast, the large differential, up to 10%, was detected when CR and AL diets were compared at individual times throughout the day...
December 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ahmed E Hegab, Mari Ozaki, Fatma Y Meligy, Makoto Nishino, Shizuko Kagawa, Makoto Ishii, Tomoko Betsuyaku
Aging is associated with decreased lung function and an increased incidence of lung infections. Several studies have suggested that long-term calorie restriction (CR) promotes health and longevity and results in the reduced risk of several diseases. The effect of CR is thought to be through improving the function of tissue stem cells. Stem cell function is known to decline with aging. In this study, we examined the effects of aging on lung epithelial and stem cells, and the effect of CR on young and old lungs...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Jie Song, Bing Yang, Xiaobin Jia, Mingyu Li, Wei Tan, Shitang Ma, Xinhong Shi, Liang Feng
Dysregulation of metabolic pathways leads to type 2 diabetes, characteristic of high glucose concentration caused by insulin resistance. The histone deacetylases sirtuins exhibit remarkable enzymatic activities. Accumulating evidence indicates that sirtuins can be pharmacologically activated to ameliorate diabetes. Here, we evaluated different roles of sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) in diabetes progression and described their involvement in metabolic pathways of skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver. The nuclear sirtuins, SIRT1, SIRT6, and SIRT7, regulate the activity of key transcription factors and cofactors in almost all tissues with the cellular responses to energy demands...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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