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Foot Intrinsic

Junichiro Yamauchi, Keiji Koyama
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the ankle joint angle and maximum isometric force of the toe flexor muscles. Toe flexor strength and electromyography activity of the foot muscles were measured in 12 healthy men at 6 different ankle joint angles with the knee joint at 90 deg in the sitting position. To measure the maximum isometric force of the toe flexor muscles, subjects exerted maximum force on a toe grip dynamometer while the activity levels of the intrinsic and extrinsic plantar muscles were measured...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Dominic James Farris, Luke A Kelly, Andrew G Cresswell, Glen A Lichtwark
Human feet have evolved to facilitate bipedal locomotion, losing an opposable digit that grasped branches in favor of a longitudinal arch (LA) that stiffens the foot and aids bipedal gait. Passive elastic structures are credited with supporting the LA, but recent evidence suggests that plantar intrinsic muscles (PIMs) within the foot actively contribute to foot stiffness. To test the functional significance of the PIMs, we compared foot and lower limb mechanics with and without a tibial nerve block that prevented contraction of these muscles...
January 17, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Betül Asena Kara, Deniz Uzmansel, Orhan Beger
BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study is to describe the innervation patterns of foot lumbrical muscles and its morphological properties in human fetuses. Another objective is to define the communicating branches between medial (MPN) and lateral (LPN) plantar nerves, which play a part in innervation of those muscles. METHODS: Thirty formalin-fixed fetuses (13 males - 17 females) with a mean gestational age of 25.5±3.8 (range, 18-36) weeks within the inventory of Mersin University Faculty of Medicine Anatomy Department were bilaterally dissected...
January 16, 2019: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Kazunori Okamura, Shusaku Kanai, Masaki Hasegawa, Akira Otsuka, Sadaaki Oki
BACKGROUND: The short foot (SF) exercise is a strengthening exercise for the intrinsic foot muscles that is difficult to master. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of three different electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback methods on learning the SF exercise. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy subjects were randomly allocated to the control group (CTG), EMG-controlled electrical stimulation group (ESG), visual EMG biofeedback group (VSG), and combination EMG-controlled electrical stimulation with visual EMG biofeedback group (CBG)...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Alexander K Foote, Lydia H Manger, Michael R Holden, Martin Margittai, Randall H Goldsmith
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are crucial to many cellular processes and have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Single molecules of tau, an IDP associated with Alzheimer's disease, are trapped in solution using a microfluidic device, and a time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay is recorded for each molecule. Multiple rotational components are resolved and a novel k-means algorithm is used to sort the molecules into two families of conformations. Differences in rotational dynamics suggest a change in the rigidity and steric hindrance surrounding a sequence (306VQIVYK311) which is central to paired helical filament formation...
January 11, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Luwei Zou, Rui Liu, Suhaib Hashem, Joe Fujiou Lo
In contrast to labor intensive and destructive histological techniques, intrinsic autofluorescence lifetimes of extra cellular matrix proteins can provide label-free imaging of tissue modifications in diseases, including the diabetic ulcers. However, decoupling the complex mixture of tissue fluorophores requires costly and complicated fluorescent lifetime instrumentation. Furthermore, a list of autofluorescent and fluorogenic proteins must be characterized to profile their changes during disease progression...
December 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Melinda M Franettovich Smith, Julie A Hides, Paul W Hodges, Natalie J Collins
BACKGROUND: The intrinsic foot muscles (IFMs) are important contributors to optimal foot function. While assessment of IFM morphology using ultrasound imaging in non-weight bearing has been established, this does not evaluate the foot in its primary functional position of weight bearing. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is ultrasound imaging a reliable and clinically feasible method of measuring IFM morphology in weight bearing, do these measures differ to those from non-weight bearing and are they associated with participant characteristics? METHODS: Ultrasound images were obtained by a single rater from twenty-four healthy participants on two occasions, one week apart...
December 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
Lauro V Ojeda, Peter G Adamczyk, John R Rebula, Linda V Nyquist, Debra M Strasburg, Neil B Alexander
Older adults experience slips, trips, stumbles, and other losses of balance (LOBs). LOBs are more common than falls and are closely linked to falls and fall-injuries. Data about real-world LOBs is limited, particularly information quantifying the prevalence, frequency, and intrinsic and extrinsic circumstances in which they occur. This paper describes a new method to identify and analyze LOBs through long-term recording of community-dwelling older adults. The approach uses wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) on the feet, trunk and one wrist, together with a voice recorder for immediate, time-stamped self-reporting of the type, context and description of LOBs...
December 20, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Kazunori Okamura, Shusaku Kanai, Kengo Fukuda, Satoshi Tanaka, Takeya Ono, Sadaaki Oki
BACKGROUND: Strengthening exercises of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles (PIFMs) are often prescribed to flat-footed subjects because of the capacity of the PIFMs to support the medial longitudinal arch (MLA). However, it is unclear whether the capacity of the PIFMs to support the MLA is enough to change the foot kinematics in flat-footed subjects. To confirm this, the current study examined changes in foot kinematics in flat-footed subjects during standing and gait accompanied by changes in the activity of the PIFMs...
November 6, 2018: Foot
Faaiz Ul Hassan, Muhammad Suhaib Qudus, Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Jawad Ahmed, Momin Khan, Khayam Ul Haq, Shahina Mumtaz, Muhammad Arshad, Sami Siraj
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogen associated with acute tissue damage in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). Antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa often bodes unpredictable and unfavourable clinical outcomes, owing to a variety of intrinsic and acquired molecular mechanisms. The study aimed to determine the frequency of ESBLs in Multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa from diabetic foot patients. METHOD: Present study's duration was one year and 100 patients with DFU were enrolled...
November 27, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Luke A Kelly, Dominic J Farris, Andrew G Cresswell, Glen A Lichtwark
The human foot is uniquely stiff to enable forward propulsion, yet also possesses sufficient elasticity to act as an energy store, recycling mechanical energy during locomotion. Historically this dichotomous function has been attributed to the passive contribution of the plantar aponeurosis. However, recent evidence highlights the potential for muscles to actively modulate the energetic function of the foot. Here we test the hypothesis that the central nervous system can actively control the foot's energetic function, via activation of the muscles within the foot's longitudinal arch...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Julie Choisne, Anthony McNally, Matthew C Hoch, Stacie I Ringleb
It is clinically challenging to distinguish between ankle and subtalar joints instability in vivo. Understanding the changes in load-displacement at the ankle and subtalar joints after ligament injuries may detect specific changes in joint characteristics that cannot be detected by investigating changes in range of motion alone. The effect of restricting joints end range of motion with ankle braces was already established, but little is known about the effect of an ankle brace on the flexibility of the injured ankle and subtalar joints...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Behnaz Jarrahi, Katherine T Martucci, Aneesha S Nilakantan, Sean Mackey
Fibromyalgia is a multifaceted chronic pain condition of unknown etiology. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) such as cold water pressor test of the foot, is widely documented as being disrupted in patients with fibromyalgia. To date, the mechanisms underlying such dysregulation of the descending control of pain in fibromyalgia remain poorly understood. In this study, we used ICA-based network analysis to comprehensively compare differences in functional network connectivity among relevant (nonartifactual) intrinsic connectivity brain networks during the resting state before and after cold pressor test in patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Renan L Monteiro, Cristina D Sartor, Jane S S P Ferreira, Milla G B Dantas, Sicco A Bus, Isabel C N Sacco
BACKGROUND: Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) negatively affects foot and ankle function (strength and flexibility), which itself affects the daily physical activity and quality of life of patients. A physical therapy protocol aiming to strengthen the intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscles and increase flexibility may be a promising approach to improve lower-extremity function, prevent further complications, and improve autonomy for daily living activities in these patients. Thus, the inclusion of a specific foot-related exercises focused on the main musculoskeletal impairments may have additional effects to the conventional interventions in the diabetic foot...
November 14, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Thomas P Knellwolf, Alexander R Burton, Elie Hammam, Vaughan G Macefield
We recently developed an approach to record from muscle spindles in the intrinsic muscles of the foot in free-standing humans by inserting a tungsten microelectrode into the posterior tibial nerve behind the medial malleolus of the ankle. Here, we characterize the behaviour of muscle spindles in the small muscles of the foot in (i) seated subjects with the leg horizontal and foot naturally plantarflexed and (ii) in standing subjects. In the first study recordings were made from 26 muscle spindle afferents located within flexor digiti minimi brevis (n=4), abductor digiti minimi (n=3), quadratus plantae (n=3), plantar interossei (n=4), flexor digitorum brevis (n=3), dorsal interossei (n=2) and lumbricals (n=2), with one each supplying abductor hallucis, adductor hallucis and flexor hallucis brevis...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Calvin C Smith, Roger W P Kissane, Samit Chakrabarty
In order to successfully perform motor tasks such as locomotion, the central nervous system must coordinate contractions of antagonistic and synergistic muscles across multiple joints. This coordination is largely dependent upon the function of proprioceptive afferents (PAs), which make monosynaptic connections with homonymous motoneurons. Homonymous pathways have been well studied in both health and disease but their collateral fibers projecting to heteronymous, synergistic muscles receive relatively less attention...
September 2018: ENeuro
Simone Romoli, Maria Lucia Angelotti, Giulia Antonelli, Santhosh Kumar Vr, Shrikant R Mulay, Jyaysi Desai, Lidia Anguiano Gomez, Dana Thomasova, Dirk Eulberg, Sven Klussmann, Maria Elena Melica, Carolina Conte, Duccio Lombardi, Laura Lasagni, Hans-Joachim Anders, Paola Romagnani
Insufficient podocyte regeneration after injury is a central pathomechanism of glomerulosclerosis and chronic kidney disease. Podocytes constitutively secrete the chemokine CXCL12, which is known to regulate homing and activation of stem cells; hence we hypothesized a similar effect of CXCL12 on podocyte progenitors. CXCL12 blockade increased podocyte numbers and attenuated proteinuria in mice with Adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Similar studies in lineage-tracing mice revealed enhanced de novo podocyte formation from parietal epithelial cells in the setting of CXCL12 blockade...
October 22, 2018: Kidney International
Hai-Cheng Wei, Ming-Xia Xiao, Hong-Yu Chen, Yun-Qin Li, Hsien-Tsai Wu, Cheuk-Kwan Sun
To investigate the value of decomposed short-time digital volume pulse (DVP) signals in discerning systemic vascular anomaly in diabetic patients, demographic and anthropometric parameters, serum lipid profile, fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were obtained from 29 healthy adults (Group 1) and 29 age-matched type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (Group 2). Six-second DVP signals from right index finger acquired through photoplethysmography were decomposed using ensemble empirical mode decomposition...
October 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tatsuya Nakanowatari, Tadaki Koseki, Takuya Sato, Hideto Kanzaki, Yoshiro Kiyoshige
Quadratus plantae (QP), one of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles, assist plantarflexion of the lesser toes. QP has medial and lateral muscle heads with different anatomical structures. The two heads of this muscle may have different roles in foot function. Ultrasound real-time tissue elastography (RTE) measurements have allowed quantitative assessment of deep-layer muscle elasticity. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the QP in flexion movements of the lateral four toes using RTE. Thirteen healthy subjects performed maximal voluntary contractions using a hand-held dynamometer with external belt fixation for each toe flexion movement...
March 5, 2018: Foot
Miller Linda Renfrew, Paul Flowers, Anna C Lord, Danny Rafferty, Angus K McFadyen, Roy Bowers, Paul Mattison, Lorna Paul
PURPOSE: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is effective in improving walking in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) with foot drop. There is limited research exploring people's experiences of using this device. This study aims to explore the utility, efficacy, acceptability, and impact on daily life of the device in people with MS. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological approach was employed. Ten participants who had used FES for 12 months were interviewed...
October 9, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
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