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Mark Schieren, Frank Wappler
Consumption of clear liquids (including coffee and orange juice without pulp) up to 2 hours before the start of anaesthesia is unproblematic. Contrary to the recommendations of the professional societies, the intake of beverages containing milk (up to 50% of the total volume) in small quantities seems to be harmless. Drinks containing alcohol can considerably delay emptying of the stomach. Immediate preoperative nicotine consumption has no influence on the risk of aspiration, but short-term nicotine abstinence in patients with CHD can reduce the risk of intraoperative myocardial ischaemia...
February 2019: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Yang Zhuo, Yun Han, Qiliang Qu, Jie Li, Chen Zhong, Dangcong Peng
This study investigated the characteristics of low H2 S concentration biogas biodesulfurization using a lab-scale biotrickling filter (BTF). The influence of operational parameters on H2 S removal efficiency and H2 S distributions in packed bed was evaluated by establishing a counter-current one-dimensional multi-layer BTF model and statistical analysis of the simulation results. The overall biodesulfurization efficiency of counter-current BTF on treating low H2 S concentration was 92.27 ± 10.30%. The H2 S distribution of the BTF packed bed could be predicted by the calibrated BTF model...
February 2, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Qian Lu, Pei Han, Fufeng Chen, Tonggui Liu, Jun Li, Lijian Leng, Jingjing Li, Wenguang Zhou
Owning to the ammonium toxicity, some ammonium-rich wastewater may not be used for algae cultivation. To overcome this problem, herein, a novel approach of using zeolite to mitigate ammonium toxicity in wastewater for value-added Spirulina production was proposed. Synthetic zeolite was used as medium for ammonium adsorption in wastewater and subsequently as slow-releaser providing nitrogen to Spirulina growth. The optimal conditions for ammonium adsorption include pH value of 8.0, zeolite dose of 300 g/L, and adsorption time of 9 h...
February 10, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Ahmed Ashiq, Nadeesh M Adassooriya, Binoy Sarkar, Anushka Upamali Rajapaksha, Yong Sik Ok, Meththika Vithanage
This study investigates the adsorption of ciprofloxacin (CPX) onto a municipal solid waste derived biochar (MSW-BC) and a composite material developed by combining the biochar with bentonite clay. A bentonite-MSW slurry was first prepared at 1:5 ratio (w/w), and then pyrolyzed at 450 °C for 30 min. The composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy before and after CPX adsorption. Batch experiments were conducted to assess the effect of pH, reaction time and adsorbate dosage...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Nurettin Sahiner, Selin S Suner, Ramesh S Ayyala
Porous and degradable hyaluronic acid (HA) microparticles was synthesized in a single step using different ratio of crosslinker, divinylsulfone (DVS) ranging between 2.5 and 100% mole ratio of HA repeating unit. HA particles less than 25% (≤10%) crosslinker ratio were found to be mesoporous and provided the highest surface area, calculated as 21.54±10.31 m2 /g for 2.5% crosslinked HA particles via BET analysis. Hydrolytic degradation of 2.5% crosslinked HA microparticles in PBS (pH 7.4) and at 37.5 ºC revealed a linear weight loss up to 20 days and 94...
February 8, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Navish Kataria, V K Garg
This work explored the potential of magnetic sawdust carbon nanocomposites for cationic dyes removal from aqueous medium. EDTA modified magnetic sawdust carbon nanocomposites (EDTA@Fe3 O4 /SC ncs) were prepared by biogenic green reduction and precipitation approach. The surface properties, structure and composition of nanocomposites were characterized by HRTEM, FESEM, XRD, EDX, BET, FTIR etc. The Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were 10-20 nm in diameters and having 14 m2 /g surface area. Removal of Methylene blue (MB) and Brilliant green (BG) dyes from aqueous medium was studied in batch mode experiments...
February 2, 2019: Environmental Research
Paulius Ruzgys, Vitalij Novickij, Jurij Novickij, Saulius Šatkauskas
Electroporation is a widely-used methodology for permeabilization of cells using pulsed electric field (PEF). In this paper, we compare the electroporation efficiency in terms of molecular transport and the generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) between low (1 Hz) and high (1 MHz) frequency nanosecond range PEF bursts. We used aluminum, copper and stainless-steel electrodes and evaluated the influence of electrode material on ROS generation and electroporation. Bursts of 25 or 50 pulses of 7-14 kV/cm amplitude and 200 ns duration were applied, and the results were compared to those obtained using electroporation with pulses of equivalent energy in conventional microsecond range...
February 6, 2019: Bioelectrochemistry
Namrata Tomar, Shima Sadri, Allen W Cowley, Chun Yang, Nabeel Quryshi, Venkat R Pannala, Said H Audi, Ranjan K Dash
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in cell signaling, growth, and immunity. However, when produced in excess, they are toxic to the cell and lead to premature aging and a myriad of pathologies, including cardiovascular and renal diseases. A major source of ROS in many cells is the family of NADPH oxidase (NOX), comprising of membrane and cytosolic components. NOX2 is among the most widely expressed and well-studied NOX isoform. Although details on the NOX2 structure, its assembly and activation, and ROS production are well elucidated experimentally, there is a lack of a quantitative and integrative understanding of the kinetics of NOX2 complex, and the various factors such as pH, inhibitory drugs, and temperature that regulate the activity of this oxidase...
February 12, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Chunlai Feng, Haisheng Zhang, Jiaming Chen, Siqi Wang, Yuanrong Xin, Yang Qu, Qi Zhang, Wei Ji, Fumiyoshi Yamashita, Mengjie Rui, Ximing Xu
Combination therapy is a promising treatment for certain advanced drug-resistant cancers. Although effective inhibition of various tumor cells was reported in vitro, combination treatment requires improvement in vivo due to uncontrolled ratiometric delivery. In this study, a tumor-targeting lipodisk nanoparticle formulation was developed for ratiometric loading and the transportation of two hydrophobic model drugs, doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX), in one single platform. Furthermore, a slightly acidic pH-sensitive peptide (SAPSP) incorporated into lipodisks effectively enhanced the tumor-targeting and cell internalization...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Dominic H Banda, Paula M Perin, Richard J P Brown, Daniel Todt, Wladimir Solodenko, Patrick Hoffmeyer, Kamlesh Kumar Sahu, Michael Houghton, Philip Meuleman, Rolf Müller, Andreas Kirschning, Thomas Pietschmann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus infection causes chronic liver disease. Antivirals have been developed and cure infection. However, resistance can emerge and salvage therapies with alternative modes of action could be useful. Several licensed drugs have emerged as HCV entry inhibitors representing candidates for drug repurposing. We aimed to dissect their mode of action, identify improved derivatives and determine their viral targets. METHODS: HCV entry inhibition was tested for a panel of structurally related compounds, using chimeric viruses representing diverse genotypes, in addition to viruses containing previously determined resistance mutations...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Hepatology
Daniel Laengle, Tessa R Werner, Fabian Wesseler, Elena S Reckzeh, Niklas Schaumann, Lauren Drowley, Magnus Polla, Alleyn T Plowright, Marc N Hirt, Thomas Eschenhagen, Dennis Schade
Innovative therapeutic modalities for pharmacological intervention of TGFβ-dependent diseases are of great value. b-Annelated 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) might be such a class as they induce TGFβ receptor type-II degradation. However, intrinsic drawbacks are associated with this compound class and were systematically addressed in the presented study. It was possible to install polar functionalities and bioisosteric moieties at distinct sites of the molecules while keeping TGFβ inhibiting activities. The introduction of a 2-amino group or 7-N-alkyl modification proved successful strategies...
February 15, 2019: ChemMedChem
Nicolas Herman, Nathalie Bourgès-Abella, Jean-Pierre Braun, Camille Ancel, François Schelcher, Catherine Trumel
BACKGROUND: There are no reference intervals for urinalysis in cattle. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Characterize the urine of healthy cows, establish urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) reference intervals, and test possible differences among dairy and beef cattle, age groups, or stage of lactation. ANIMALS: Seventy-seven dairy and 74 beef 2.5 to 17 year-old cows of different breeds housed mainly in free stall. METHODS: In this prospective study, urine specimens were collected by catheterization...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Katharina Kirsch, Johann Detilleux, Didier Serteyn, Charlotte Sandersen
Portable blood gas analyzers are used to facilitate diagnosis and treatment of disorders related to disturbances of acid-base and electrolyte balance in the ambulatory care of equine patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether 2 portable analyzers produce results in agreement with a stationary analyzer. Blood samples from 23 horses hospitalized for various medical reasons were included in this prospective study. Blood gas analysis and electrolyte concentrations measured by the portable analyzers VetStat and epoc were compared to those produced by the cobas b 123 analyzer via concordance analysis, Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman analysis...
2019: PloS One
Akihiro Nishiguchi, Tetsushi Taguchi
An injectable bone may serve as a minimally invasive therapy for large orthopedic defects and osteoporosis and an alternative to allografting and surgical treatment. However, conventional bone substitutes lack the desirable biodegradability, bioresponsibility, and functionality to regulate the bone regeneration process. Here, we report an injectable, bioresponsive bone composed of bisphosphonate-modified nanocellulose (pNC) as a bone substitute for bone regeneration. Composites composed of nano-fibrillated cellulose and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) mimic bone structures in which apatite reinforces collagen fibrils...
February 15, 2019: Biomacromolecules
Jia Wen, Kui Yang, Xingcheng Ding, Hongjuan Li, Yongqian Xu, Fengyu Liu, Shiguo Sun
A folic acid (FA) functional drug delivery system (MT@L-PTX@FA) based on in situ formation of tellurium nanodots (Te NDs) in paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded MgAl layered double hydroxide (LDHs) gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) has been designed and fabricated for targeted chemo/PDT/PTT trimode combinatorial therapy. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, and UV-vis spectra were used to demonstrate the successful fabrication of MT@L-PTX@FA...
February 15, 2019: Inorganic Chemistry
Hai Liu, Xin-Ye Ni, Zheng-Yang Huo, Lu Peng, Guo-Qiang Li, Chun Wang, Yin-Hu Wu, Hong-Ying Hu
Flow-through configuration for electrochemical disinfection is considered as a promising approach to minimize the formation of toxic byproducts and energy consumption via the enhanced convective mass transport as compared with conventional flow-by one. Under this hydrodynamic condition, it is essential to ascertain the effect of sequential electro-redox processes with the cathode/anode then anode/cathode arrangements on disinfection performance. Here, carbon fiber felt (CFF) was utilized to construct two flow-through electrode systems (FESs) with sequential reduction-oxidation (cathode-anode) or oxidation-reduction (anode-cathode) processes to systematically compare their disinfection performance towards a model Escherichia coli (E...
February 15, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Gabriele Albertin, Stefano Antoniutti, Jesús Castro, Francesca Sibilla
Diazoalkane complexes [Os(η5-C5Me5)(N2CAr1Ar2)(PPh3){P(OR)3}]BPh4 (1, 2) [R = Me (1), Et (2); Ar1 = Ar2 = Ph (a); Ar1 = Ph, Ar2 = p-tolyl (b); Ar1Ar2 = C12H8 (fluorenyl) (c)] were prepared by reacting bromo-compounds OsBr(η5-C5Me5)(PPh3){P(OR)3} with an excess of diazoalkane in ethanol. The treatment of diazoalkane complexes 1 and 2 with acetylene under mild conditions (1 atm, RT) led to dipolar (3 + 2) cycloaddition affording 3H-pyrazole derivatives [Os(η5-C5Me5)(η1-[upper bond 1 start]N[double bond, length as m-dash]NC(C12H8)CH[double bond, length as m-dash]C[upper bond 1 end]H)(PPh3){P(OR)3}]BPh4 (6, 7) [R = Me (6), Et (7)] whereas reactions with terminal alkynes R1C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH (R1 = Ph, p-tolyl, COOMe) gave vinylidene derivatives [Os(η5-C5Me5){[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)R1}(PPh3){P(OR)3}]BPh4 (8b-d, 9b-d) [R = Me (8), Et (9); R1 = Ph (b), p-tolyl (c), COOMe (d)]...
February 15, 2019: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Chaoli Wang, Peng Chen, Youbei Qiao, Yuan Kang, Songyan Guo, Danfeng Wu, Jian Wang, Hong Wu
With the increase in antibiotic resistance, the development of new antibacterial agents is urgent. Photosensitizers with no detectable resistance are promising antibacterial agents. However, most photosensitizers are insoluble, structurally unstable and ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria due to their negatively charged cell wall that hinder their use. In this study, a novel bacteria-activated photosensitizer ionic liquid was designed and assembled to improve the solubility, stability and antibacterial ability of photodynamic therapy...
February 15, 2019: Biomaterials Science
A Monballiu, E Desmidt, K Ghyselbrecht, B Meesschaert
After treatment of the wastewater from the potato processing industry in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) the effluent is rich in phosphate and dissolved inorganic carbon (IC). Increasing the pH of the UASB effluent with NaOH to precipitate phosphate as calcium phosphate leads to contamination with magnesium phosphate. Increasing the pH with Ca(OH)2 had a positive effect on phosphate precipitation, but after increasing the pH with Na2 CO3 no precipitate was formed. After prior nitrification of the UASB effluent to remove IC, less NaOH was needed to increase the pH and the ions precipitated in a ratio that agreed with calcium phosphate formation...
December 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Ying Liu, Deli Wu, Hongping He
Catalytic ozonation has been widely used for refractory dye wastewater treatment due to highly reactive HO·. In this study, a kind of low-cost and environmental-friendly modified ceramsite sphere derived from pyrite cinder, silty clay and kaolin was prepared as ozonation catalyst. The degradation performances of cation red x-GRL were performed under a continuous mode. Being close to the practical treatment, continuous-flow ozonation study is vital for applying heterogeneous catalytic ozonation in wastewater treatment at a large industrial scale...
December 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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