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Adhd And Autism

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30895906/the-risk-of-making-false-confessions-the-role-of-developmental-disorders-conduct-disorder-psychiatric-symptoms-and-compliance
#1
Gisli Hannes Gudjonsson, Rafael Gonzalez, Susan Young
OBJECTIVE: To investigate salient predictors of self-reported false confessions. The conditions included mild intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD, conduct disorder (CD), psychiatric symptoms, and compliance. METHOD: The sample consisted of 386 male Scottish prisoners, who completed a diagnostic ADHD interview, psychometric tests, and a questionnaire about false confessions they had given to police over their lifetime. RESULTS: There was a high rate of reported false confessions (33...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892924/immunoglobulin-a-dysgammaglobulinemia-is-associated-with-pediatric-onset-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#2
Kyle Williams, Leah Shorser-Gentile, Suraj Sarvode Mothi, Noah Berman, Mark Pasternack, Daniel Geller, Jolan Walter
BACKGROUND: Inflammation and immune dysregulation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders such as Tourette syndrome (TS). Though few replicated studies have identified markers of immune dysfunction in this population, preliminary studies suggest that serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations may be abnormal in these children with these disorders. METHODS: This observational retrospective cohort study, conducted using electronic health records (EHRs), identified 206 children with pediatric-onset OCD and 1024 adults diagnosed with OCD who also had testing for serum levels of IgA...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30891437/modeling-human-brain-circuitry-using-pluripotent-stem-cell-platforms
#3
REVIEW
Annalisa M Hartlaub, Craig A McElroy, Nathalie L Maitre, Mark E Hester
Neural circuits are the underlying functional units of the human brain that govern complex behavior and higher-order cognitive processes. Disruptions in neural circuit development have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia. Until recently, major efforts utilizing neurological disease modeling platforms based on human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), investigated disease phenotypes primarily at the single cell level...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877993/internet-addiction-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Kentaro Kawabe, Fumie Horiuchi, Tomoe Miyama, Toshihiro Jogamoto, Kaori Aibara, Eiichi Ishii, Shu-Ichi Ueno
AIM: Several studies have reported that internet addiction (IA) is more prevalent in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the characteristics of ASD adolescents with IA are unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IA in ASD adolescents, and compare the characteristics between the IA and the non-IA groups in adolescents with ASD. METHODS: The study included 55 participants who were outpatients at Ehime University Hospital and Ehime Rehabilitation Center for Children in Japan, aged 10-19 years, diagnosed with ASD...
March 13, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873094/applying-item-response-theory-irt-modeling-to-an-observational-measure-of-childhood-pragmatics-the-pragmatics-observational-measure-2
#5
Reinie Cordier, Natalie Munro, Sarah Wilkes-Gillan, Renée Speyer, Lauren Parsons, Annette Joosten
Assessment of pragmatic language abilities of children is important across a number of childhood developmental disorders including ADHD, language impairment and Autism Spectrum Disorder. The Pragmatics Observational Measure (POM) was developed to investigate children's pragmatic skills during play in a peer-peer interaction. To date, classic test theory methodology has reported good psychometric properties for this measure, but the POM has yet to be evaluated using item response theory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the POM using Rasch analysis...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30866915/manual-therapy-for-the-pediatric-population-a-systematic-review
#6
Carol Parnell Prevost, Brian Gleberzon, Beth Carleo, Kristian Anderson, Morgan Cark, Katherine A Pohlman
BACKGROUND: This systematic review evaluates the use of manual therapy for clinical conditions in the pediatric population, assesses the methodological quality of the studies found, and synthesizes findings based on health condition. We also assessed the reporting of adverse events within the included studies and compared our conclusions to those of the UK Update report. METHODS: Six databases were searched using the following inclusion criteria: children under the age of 18 years old; treatment using manual therapy; any type of healthcare profession; published between 2001 and March 31, 2018; and English...
March 13, 2019: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30857571/maternal-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-risk-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders-in-offspring-prenatal-androgen-exposure-or-genetic-confounding
#7
Carolyn E Cesta, Anna S Öberg, Abraham Ibrahimson, Ikram Yusuf, Henrik Larsson, Catarina Almqvist, Brian M D'Onofrio, Cynthia M Bulik, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, David Mataix-Cols, Mikael Landén, Mina A Rosenqvist
BACKGROUND: Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been proposed as a model for investigating the role of prenatal androgen exposure in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, women with PCOS are at higher risk of developing psychiatric conditions and previous studies are likely confounded by genetic influences. METHODS: A Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted to disentangle the influence of prenatal androgen exposure from familial confounding in the association between maternal PCOS and offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and Tourette's disorder and chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD)...
March 12, 2019: Psychological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30849458/transplacental-transport-of-paracetamol-and-its-phase-ii-metabolites-using-the-ex-vivo-placenta-perfusion-model
#8
Sigrid Conings, Fotini Tseke, Annick Van den Broeck, Bing Qi, Jasmin Paulus, Frédéric Amant, Pieter Annaert, Kristel Van Calsteren
In Europe, 50-60% of pregnant women uses paracetamol (PCM), also known as acetaminophen. While it was considered to be safe, recent studies have shown an association between prenatal exposure to PCM and increased incidences of autism, cryptorchidism, asthma and ADHD. In this study the transplacental transfer of PCM and its metabolites was investigated using an ex vivo human placenta perfusion model (closed circuit; n = 38). Maternal-to-foetal (M-F) and foetal-to-maternal (F-M) transplacental transfer was determined at a concentration correlating with the maximum and steady state concentration in normal clinical use...
March 5, 2019: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30825496/parental-age-and-differential-estimates-of-risk-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders-findings-from-the-danish-birth-cohort
#9
Magdalena Janecka, Stefan N Hansen, Amirhossein Modabbernia, Heidi A Browne, Joseph D Buxbaum, Diana E Schendel, Abraham Reichenberg, Erik T Parner, Dorothy E Grice
OBJECTIVE: Parental age at birth has been shown to affect the rates of a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, but the understanding of the mechanisms through which it mediates different outcomes is still lacking. We used a population-based cohort to assess differential effects of parental age on estimates of risk across pediatric-onset neuropsychiatric disorders: autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder (TS/CT)...
February 27, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30802089/face-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-re-evaluated-through-diffusion-models
#10
Georgie Powell, Catherine R G Jones, Craig Hedge, Tony Charman, Francesca Happé, Emily Simonoff, Petroc Sumner
OBJECTIVE: Research using cognitive or perceptual tasks in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often relies on mean reaction time (RT) and accuracy derived from alternative-forced choice paradigms. However, these measures can confound differences in task-related processing efficiency with caution (i.e., preference for speed or accuracy). We examined whether computational models of decision-making allow these components to be isolated. METHOD: Using data from two face-processing tasks (face recognition and egocentric eye-gaze discrimination), we explored whether adolescents with ASD and wide-ranging intellectual ability differed from an age and IQ matched comparison group on model parameters that are thought to represent processing efficiency, caution, and perceptual encoding/motor output speed...
February 25, 2019: Neuropsychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30800062/distinct-methylphenidate-evoked-response-measured-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-during-go-no-go-task-as-a-supporting-differential-diagnostic-tool-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-comorbid-children
#11
Stephanie Sutoko, Yukifumi Monden, Tatsuya Tokuda, Takahiro Ikeda, Masako Nagashima, Masashi Kiguchi, Atsushi Maki, Takanori Yamagata, Ippeita Dan
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been frequently reported as co-occurring with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, ASD-comorbid ADHD is difficult to diagnose since clinically significant symptoms are similar in both disorders. Therefore, we propose a classification method of differentially recognizing the ASD-comorbid condition in ADHD children. The classification method was investigated based on functional brain imaging measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during a go/no-go task...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30796924/girls-attentive-traits-associate-with-cerebellar-to-dorsal-attention-and-default-mode-network-connectivity
#12
Christiane S Rohr, Dennis Dimond, Manuela Schuetze, Ivy Y K Cho, Limor Lichtenstein-Vidne, Hadas Okon-Singer, Deborah Dewey, Signe Bray
Attention traits are a cornerstone to the healthy development of children's performance in the classroom, their interactions with peers, and in predicting future success and problems. The cerebellum is increasingly appreciated as a region involved in complex cognition and behavior, and moreover makes important connections to key brain networks known to support attention: the dorsal attention and default mode networks (DAN; DMN). The cerebellum has also been implicated in childhood disorders affecting attention, namely autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggesting that attention networks extending to the cerebellum may be important to consider in relation to attentive traits...
February 20, 2019: Neuropsychologia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30791545/the-cognitive-profile-of-people-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
Atusa Rabiee, Sayyed Ali Samadi, Behnoosh Vasaghi-Gharamaleki, Soode Hosseini, Saba Seyedin, Mohammadreza Keyhani, Ameneh Mahmoodizadeh, Fatemeh Ranjbar Kermani
Several studies have examined the cognitive profile of people with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (IQ > 70), and its relationship with the symptoms of ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). However, no data exist on the similarities or differences in this profile in less affluent countries. The present study examined the cognitive profile and its relationship with the symptoms of ASD and ADHD in 30 subjects aged 6⁻16 years with high-functioning ASD and compared the results with those of 30 typically developing (TD) subjects...
February 20, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778834/iron-deficiency-cognitive-functions-and-neurobehavioral-disorders-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Lyudmila Pivina, Yuliya Semenova, Monica Daniela Doşa, Marzhan Dauletyarova, Geir Bjørklund
More than 25% of the world's population is affected by anemia, of which more than 50% suffers from iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Children below 7 years of age are the population group that is most vulnerable to iron deficiency. Iron is an essential element in brain metabolism. Iron deficiency can cause changes in neurotransmitter homeostasis, decrease myelin production, impair synaptogenesis, and decline the function of the basal ganglia. Therefore, IDA adversely affects cognitive functions and psychomotor development...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777604/functional-connectivity-of-frontoparietal-and-salience-ventral-attention-networks-have-independent-associations-with-co-occurring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-in-children-with-autism
#15
Benjamin E Yerys, Birkan Tunç, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Ligia Antezana, Maya G Mosner, Jennifer R Bertollo, Lisa Guy, Robert T Schultz, John D Herrington
BACKGROUND: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms have worse functional outcomes and treatment response than those without ADHD symptoms. There is limited knowledge of the neurobiology of ADHD symptoms in ASD. Here, we test the hypothesis that aberrant functional connectivity of two large-scale executive brain networks implicated in ADHD-the frontoparietal and salience/ventral attention networks-also play a role in ADHD symptoms in ASD...
January 9, 2019: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771627/towards-a-fuller-assessment-of-benefits-to-children-s-health-of-reducing-air-pollution-and-mitigating-climate-change-due-to-fossil-fuel-combustion
#16
REVIEW
F Perera, A Ashrafi, P Kinney, D Mills
BACKGROUND: Fossil fuel combustion by-products, including particulate matter (PM2.5 ), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ), are a significant threat to children's health and equality. Various policies to reduce emissions have been implemented to reduce air pollution and mitigate climate change, with sizeable estimated health and economic benefits. However, only a few adverse outcomes in children have been considered, resulting in an undercounting of the benefits to this vulnerable population...
December 12, 2018: Environmental Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768412/common-polygenic-variations-for-psychiatric-disorders-and-cognition-in-relation-to-brain-morphology-in-the-general-pediatric-population
#17
Silvia Alemany, Philip R Jansen, Ryan L Muetzel, Natália Marques, Hanan El Marroun, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Tinca J C Polderman, Henning Tiemeier, Danielle Posthuma, Tonya White
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between polygenic scores (PGS) for five major psychiatric disorders and two cognitive traits with brain MRI morphological measurements in a large population-based sample of children. Additionally, we tested whether differences in brain morphology mediated associations between PGS for psychiatric disorders and related behavioral phenotypes. METHOD: The participants included 1,139 children from the Generation R Study assessed at 10 years-of-age with genotype and neuroimaging data available...
January 9, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768399/sex-differences-in-comorbidity-patterns-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
Cæcilie Ottosen, Janne Tidselbak Larsen, Stephen V Faraone, Qi Chen, Catharina Hartman, Henrik Larsson, Liselotte Petersen, Søren Dalsgaard
OBJECTIVE: To investigate sex differences in associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a spectrum of comorbid disorders. METHOD: The study population included all children born in Denmark between 1981 and 2013 (N=1,665,729). We merged data from Danish registers and obtained information on birth characteristics, socioeconomic status, familial psychiatric history, and diagnoses of ADHD (n=32,308) and comorbid disorders. In order to estimate absolute and relative risks of comorbid disorders, incidence rates (IRs) and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were calculated for females and males...
January 8, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741482/investigating-the-factors-underlying-adaptive-functioning-in-autism-in-the-eu-aims-longitudinal-european-autism-project
#19
Julian Tillmann, Antonia San José Cáceres, Chris H Chatham, Daisy Crawley, Rosemary Holt, Bethany Oakley, Tobias Banaschewski, Simon Baron-Cohen, Sven Bölte, Jan K Buitelaar, Sarah Durston, Lindsay Ham, Eva Loth, Emily Simonoff, Will Spooren, Declan G Murphy, Tony Charman
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit significant impairments in adaptive functioning that impact on their ability to meet the demands of everyday life. A recurrent finding is that there is a pronounced discrepancy between level of cognitive ability and adaptive functioning, and this is particularly prominent among higher-ability individuals. However, the key clinical and demographic associations of these discrepancies remain unclear. This study included a sample of 417 children, adolescents, and adults with ASD as part of the EU-AIMS LEAP cohort...
February 11, 2019: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733955/epigenetic-and-neurological-impairments-associated-with-early-life-exposure-to-persistent-organic-pollutants
#20
REVIEW
Nathalie Grova, Henri Schroeder, Jean-Luc Olivier, Jonathan D Turner
The incidence of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases worldwide has dramatically increased over the last decades. Although the aetiology remains uncertain, evidence is now growing that exposure to persistent organic pollutants during sensitive neurodevelopmental periods such as early life may be a strong risk factor, predisposing the individual to disease development later in life. Epidemiological studies have associated environmentally persistent organic pollutant exposure to brain disorders including neuropathies, cognitive, motor, and sensory impairments; neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
2019: International Journal of Genomics
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