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Mitochondrial validation

Si Mi, Xia Li, Chun-Hui Zhang, Ji-Qian Liu, De-Qiong Huang
The primary aim of this study was to unravel key proteins for the differentiation of Tibetan (n = 15) and Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) (n = 15) pork. A platform consisting of LC-MS/MS analysis and label-free quantitative proteomics was utilized. Changes in the proteome profiles were observed for different pork cuts. A total of 91 and 116 differentially expressed proteins (fold change >2 or < 0.5, p-value<.05) were identified in the five cuts (e.g., shoulder, rump, loin, shank and belly) of Tibetan (TP) and Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) (DLY) pork, respectively...
May 2019: Food Research International
Gonçalo C Pereira, William J Allen, Daniel W Watkins, Lisa Buddrus, Dylan Noone, Xia Liu, Andrew P Richardson, Agnieszka Chacinska, Ian Collinson
Protein translocation is a fundamental process in biology. Major gaps in our understanding of this process arise due the poor sensitivity, low time-resolution and irreproducibility of translocation assays. To address this, we applied NanoLuc split-luciferase to produce a new strategy for measuring protein transport. The system reduces the timescale of data collection from days to minutes, and allows continuous acquisition with a time-resolution in the order of seconds - yielding kinetics parameters suitable for mechanistic elucidation and mathematical fitting...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Molecular Biology
Brooke E Hjelm, Brandi Rollins, Ling Morgan, Adolfo Sequeira, Firoza Mamdani, Filipe Pereira, Joana Damas, Michelle G Webb, Matthieu D Weber, Alan F Schatzberg, Jack D Barchas, Francis S Lee, Huda Akil, Stanley J Watson, Richard M Myers, Elizabeth C Chao, Virginia Kimonis, Peter M Thompson, William E Bunney, Marquis P Vawter
Deletions in the 16.6 kb mitochondrial genome have been implicated in numerous disorders that often display muscular and/or neurological symptoms due to the high-energy demands of these tissues. We describe a catalogue of 4489 putative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions, including their frequency and relative read rate, using a combinatorial approach of mitochondria-targeted PCR, next-generation sequencing, bioinformatics, post-hoc filtering, annotation, and validation steps. Our bioinformatics pipeline uses MapSplice, an RNA-seq splice junction detection algorithm, to detect and quantify mtDNA deletion breakpoints rather than mRNA splices...
March 14, 2019: Nucleic Acids Research
Audrey Gallud, Katharina Klöditz, Jimmy Ytterberg, Nataliya Östberg, Shintaro Katayama, Tiina Skoog, Vladimir Gogvadze, Yu-Zen Chen, Ding Xue, Sergio Moya, Jaime Ruiz, Didier Astruc, Roman Zubarev, Juha Kere, Bengt Fadeel
Systems biology is increasingly being applied in nanosafety research for observing and predicting the biological perturbations inflicted by exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). In the present study, we used a combined transcriptomics and proteomics approach to assess the responses of human monocytic cells to Au-NPs of two different sizes with three different surface functional groups, i.e., alkyl ammonium bromide, alkyl sodium carboxylate, or poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-terminated Au-NPs. Cytotoxicity screening using THP-1 cells revealed a pronounced cytotoxicity for the ammonium-terminated Au-NPs, while no cell death was seen after exposure to the carboxylated or PEG-modified Au-NPs...
March 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jose B N Moreira, Martin Wohlwend, Simone Fenk, Ingrid Åmellem, Arnar Flatberg, Jasenka Kraljevic, Jasna Marinovic, Marko Ljubkovic, Geir Bjørkøy, Ulrik Wisløff
The benefits of physical activity in cardiovascular diseases have long been appreciated. However, the molecular mechanisms that trigger and sustain the cardiac benefits of exercise are poorly understood, and it is anticipated that unveiling these mechanisms will identify novel therapeutic targets. In search of these mechanisms we took advantage of unbiased RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technology to discover cardiac gene targets whose expression is disrupted in heart failure (HF) and rescued by exercise in a rat model...
March 10, 2019: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
M A Motalib Hossain, Syed Muhammad Kamal Uddin, Zaira Zaman Chowdhury, Sharmin Sultana, Mohd Rafie Johan, Abdul Rohman, Yuny Erwanto, Md Eaqub Ali
Mislabelling in fish products is a highly significant emerging issue in world fish trade in terms of health and economic concerns. DNA barcoding is an efficient sequencing-based tool for detecting fish species substitution but due to DNA degradation, it is in many cases difficult to amplify PCR products of the full-length barcode marker (~650 bp), especially in severely processed products. In the present study, a pair of universal primers targeting a 198 bp sequence of the mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene was designed for identification of fish species in the processed fish products commonly consumed in Malaysia...
March 13, 2019: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Kian Fan Chung, Ian M Adcock
Although the complex disease of asthma has been defined as being heterogeneous, the extent of its endophenotypes remain unclear. The pharmacological approach to initiating treatment has, until recently, been based on disease control and severity. The introduction of antibody therapies targeting the Type2 inflammation pathway for patients with severe asthma has resulted in the recognition of an allergic and an eosinophilic phenotype, which are not mutually exclusive. Concomitantly, molecular phenotyping based on a transcriptomic analysis of bronchial epithelial and sputum cells has identified a Type-2-high inflammation cluster characterised by eosinophilia and recurrent exacerbations, as well as Type-2-low clusters linked with IL-6 trans-signalling, interferon pathways, inflammasome activation and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathways...
March 13, 2019: Allergy
Allison Tam, Noura Salem AlDhaheri, Krupa Mysore, Mary Elizabeth Tessier, John Goss, Luis A Fernandez, Anthony M D'Alessandro, Jessica Scott Schwoerer, Gregory M Rice, Sarah H Elsea, Fernando Scaglia
Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a rapidly progressive autosomal recessive mitochondrial disease caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in the ETHE1 gene that encodes the mitochondrial sulfur dioxygenase. It is characterized by neurodevelopmental delay and regression, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, recurrent petechiae, chronic diarrhea, and orthostatic acrocyanosis. Laboratory findings include elevated serum levels of lactate and C4-C5 acylcarnitines, and elevated urinary excretion of ethylmalonic acid and C4-C6 acylglycines, notably isobutyrylglycine and 2-methylbutyrylglycine...
March 12, 2019: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Yoshitake Cho, Shizuko Tachibana, Bethany C Hazen, James J Moresco, John R Yates, Bernard Kok, Enrique Saez, Robert S Ross, Aaron P Russell, Anastasia Kralli
OBJECTIVE: Endurance exercise training remodels skeletal muscle, leading to increased mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity. How exercise entrains skeletal muscle signaling pathways to induce adaptive responses remains unclear. In past studies, we identified Perm1 (PGC-1 and ERR induced regulator, muscle 1) as an exercise-induced gene and showed that Perm1 overexpression elicits similar muscle adaptations as endurance exercise training. The mechanism of action and the role of Perm1 in exercise-induced responses are not known...
February 27, 2019: Molecular Metabolism
Brendan J Pinto, James Titus-McQuillan, Juan D Daza, Tony Gamble
Determining the mechanisms that create and maintain biodiversity is a central question in ecology and evolution. Speciation is the process that creates biodiversity. Speciation is mediated by incompatibilities that lead to reproductive isolation between divergent populations and these incompatibilities can be observed in hybrid zones. Gecko lizards are a speciose clade possessing an impressive diversity of behavioral and morphological traits. In geckos, however, our understanding of the speciation process is negligible...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Heredity
Lorna R Fiedler, Kathryn Chapman, Min Xie, Evie Maifoshie, Micaela Jenkins, Pelin Arabacilar Golforoush, Mohamed Bellahcene, Michela Noseda, Dörte Faust, Ashley Jarvis, Gary Newton, Marta Abreu Paiva, Mutsuo Harada, Daniel J Stuckey, Weihua Song, Josef Habib, Priyanka Narasimham, Rehan Aqil, Devika Sanmugalingam, Robert Yan, Lorenzo Pavanello, Motoaki Sano, Sam C Wang, Robert D Sampson, Sunthar Kanayaganam, George E Taffet, Lloyd H Michael, Mark L Entman, Tse-Hua Tan, Sian E Harding, Caroline M R Low, Catherine Tralau-Stewart, Trevor Perrior, Michael D Schneider
Heart disease is a paramount cause of global death and disability. Although cardiomyocyte death plays a causal role and its suppression would be logical, no clinical counter-measures target the responsible intracellular pathways. Therapeutic progress has been hampered by lack of preclinical human validation. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase-4 (MAP4K4) is activated in failing human hearts and relevant rodent models. Using human induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) and MAP4K4 gene silencing, we demonstrate that death induced by oxidative stress requires MAP4K4...
March 1, 2019: Cell Stem Cell
Yongyi Liu, Lu Gao, Weinong Lv, Lin Lin, Yi Wang, Hailin He, Fan Jiang, Fan Feng
BACKGROUND Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The aims of this study were to develop a rat model of OSAS and to validate the use of the model by investigating respiratory and cardiovascular physiological parameters and morphological changes by light microscopy and electron microscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to the model group (n=30) and the control group (n=30). The rats in the OSAS model group were injected with 0...
March 9, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Eduardo Duarte-Silva, Danielle Macedo, Michael Maes, Christina Alves Peixoto
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by neuroinflammation, demyelination and neuroaxonal degeneration affecting >2 million people around the world. MS is often accompanied by psychiatric comorbidities such as major depressive disorder (MDD), which presents a lifetime prevalence of around 50% in MS patients. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model extensively used to study MS. EAE mimics the autoimmune nature of MS, as well as its inflammatory and demyelinating mechanisms also presenting predictive validity...
March 5, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Daviel Cardenas, Charity Sylvester, Bo Cao, Catherine S Nation, Juan C Pizarro, Hua Lu, Jessie Guidry, Edward J Wojcik, Ben L Kelly
During their parasitic life cycle, through sandflies and vertebrate hosts, Leishmania parasites confront strikingly different environments, including abrupt changes in pH and temperature, to which they must rapidly adapt. These adaptations include alterations in Leishmania gene expression, metabolism, and morphology, allowing them to thrive as promastigotes in the sandfly and as intracellular amastigotes in the vertebrate host. A critical aspect of Leishmania metabolic adaptation to these changes is maintenance of efficient mitochondrial function in the hostile vertebrate environment...
March 6, 2019: MSphere
Ting Zhang, Mark Gillies, Ying Wang, Weiyong Shen, Bobak Bahrami, Shaoxue Zeng, Meidong Zhu, Wenjuan Yao, Fanfan Zhou, Michael Murray, Ke Wang, Ling Zhu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Simvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor with multiple targets and effects. It protects neurons in the brain but its protective effects on photoreceptors are unclear. In this study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effect of simvastatin on photoreceptors exposed to stress induced by all-trans-retinal (atRAL). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: AlamarBlue and lactate dehydrogenase assays were used to evaluate the viability and metabolic activity of Y79 cells (a retinoblastoma cell line) exposed to atRAL-induced stress with or without simvastatin pre-treatment...
March 1, 2019: British Journal of Pharmacology
Xiaoli Liu, Wei Wang, Yanping Yin, Ming Li, Hong Li, Hang Xiang, Ao Xu, Xiaodong Mei, Bo Hong, Wenchu Lin
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly lethal malignancy with the 5-year survival rate of less than 7%. Chemotherapy-resistance is a major challenge for SCLC treatment in clinic. In the study, we developed a high-throughput drug screen strategy to identify new drugs that can enhance the sensitivity of chemo-drug cisplatin in SCLC. This screen identified auranofin, a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug used therapeutically for rheumatoid arthritis, as a sensitizer of cisplatin. Further study validated that auranofin synergistically enhanced the anti-tumor activity of cisplatin in chemo-resistant SCLC cells, which was accompanied by the enhanced induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis...
March 2, 2019: Investigational New Drugs
W Calvin Borden, Terry C Grande, Mark V H Wilson
The genus Polymixia is the only survivor of a Late Cretaceous marine fish radiation and is often said to be the most primitive living acanthomorph (i.e., Polymixia possesses the greatest number of primitive character states for Acanthomorpha). Recent studies, including this one, place Polymixia as the sister to all other Paracanthopterygii. Despite its importance, most species of Polymixia are extremely difficult to discriminate on the basis of morphology. As a result, the number of valid species is uncertain...
2019: PloS One
Sina Andalib, Mobin Mashhadi-Mousapour, Soroush Bijani, Mir-Jamal Hosseini
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) is a natural compound, is involved in the mitochondrial electron transfer chain (ETC) and plays an important pattern in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Amelioration of ATP is related to abnormalities in cognitive function and psychiatric diseases. Previous studies have shown that depression is accompanied by the induction of inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways and amelioration of antioxidant status. In a recent study, we investigated the beneficial effects of CoQ10 on behavioral dysfunction and CoQ10 level in the rat brain...
February 28, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Yang Li, Yanwei Sha, Xiong Wang, Lu Ding, Wensheng Liu, Zhiyong Ji, Libin Mei, Xianjing Huang, Shaobin Lin, Shuangbo Kong, Jinhua Lu, Weibing Qin, Xinzhong Zhang, Jianmin Zhuang, Yunge Tang, Zhongxian Lu
Multiple morphological abnormalities of flagella (MMAF) is one kind of severe teratozoospermia. Gene mutations reported in previous works only revealed the pathogenesis of approximately half of the MMAF cases, and more genetic defects in MMAF need to be explored. In the present study, we performed a genetic analysis on Han Chinese men with MMAF using Whole-Exome sequencing. After filtering out the cases with known gene mutations, we identified 5 novel mutation sites in the DNAH2 gene in 3 cases from 3 families...
February 27, 2019: Clinical Genetics
Ana Lucia Sereno-Uribe, Leopoldo Andrade Gómez, Margarita Ostrowski de Núñez, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León, Martín García-Varela
Adults of the genus Austrodiplostomum are parasites in cormorants of the New World, whereas metacercariae are parasites from eye globe and brain of freshwater and brackish water fishes. In this study, specimens of Austrodiplostomum mordax from South America (type-species) were analyzed together with other specimens of Austrodiplostomum spp. collected from several locations across Middle America and North America. Partial DNA sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ( COI), the internal transcribed spacers ( ITS1, ITS2, and 5...
February 2019: Journal of Parasitology
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