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Baysian statistics

Chaeyoung Lee
Epistasis that may explain a large portion of the phenotypic variation for complex economic traits of animals has been ignored in many genetic association studies. A Baysian method was introduced to draw inferences about multilocus genotypic effects based on their marginal posterior distributions by a Gibbs sampler. A simulation study was conducted to provide statistical powers under various unbalanced designs by using this method. Data were simulated by combined designs of number of loci, within genotype variance, and sample size in unbalanced designs with or without null combined genotype cells...
November 2012: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
G Ian Gallicano
Embryonic stem cell (ESC), iPCs, and adult stem cells (ASCs) all are among the most promising potential treatments for heart failure, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. However, considerable uncertainty in the production of ESC-derived terminally differentiated cell types has limited the efficiency of their development. To address this uncertainty, we and other investigators have begun to employ a comprehensive statistical model of ESC differentiation for determining the role of intracellular pathways (e...
2013: Scientifica
Alireza Abadi, Farzaneh Amanpour, Chris Bajdik, Parvin Yavari
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study is to extend the applications of parametric survival models so that they include cases in which accelerated failure time (AFT) assumption is not satisfied, and examine parametric and semiparametric models under different proportional hazards (PH) and AFT assumptions. METHODS: The data for 12,531 women diagnosed with breast cancer in British Columbia, Canada, during 1990-1999 were divided into eight groups according to patients' ages and stage of disease, and each group was assumed to have different AFT and PH assumptions...
September 2012: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Adrien Gaudineau, Erik-André Sauleau, Israël Nisand, Bruno Langer
PURPOSE: To compare the intervention rates associated with labor in low-risk women who began their labor in the "home-like birth centre" (HLBC) and the traditional labor ward (TLW). METHODS: This retrospective study used data that were collected from January 2005 to June 2008, from women admitted to the HLBC (n = 316) and compared to a group of randomly selected low-risk women admitted to the TLW (n = 890) using the Baysian information criterion to select the best predictive model...
February 2013: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
A Gaudineau, E-A Sauleau, I Nisand, B Langer
OBJECTIVES: To compare intervention rates associated with labor in low-risk women who began their labor in the "home-like birth centre" and the traditional delivery room. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study used data that were collected from January 2005 through June 2008, from women admitted to the "home-like birth centre" (n=316) and compared to a group of randomly selected low-risk women admitted to the traditional labor ward (n=890) using the Baysian Information Criterion to select the best predictive model...
September 2012: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
T S Kiseleva, K I Pagava, I A Korinteli, M G Korinteli, D N Shonvadze
Different methods being used in the rare diseases clinical trials are examined. There is shown the purposefulness of using fuzzy approaches for such studies. Some advantages of Fuzzy logic methods in comparison with Baysian approach are substantiated.
April 2011: Georgian Medical News
Koen Van Leemput
This paper addresses the problem of creating probabilistic brain atlases from manually labeled training data. We propose a general mesh-based atlas representation, and compare different atlas models by evaluating their posterior probabilities and the posterior probabilities of their parameters. Using such a Baysian framework, we show that the widely used "average" brain atlases constitute relatively poor priors, partly because they tend to overfit the training data, and partly because they do not allow to align corresponding anatomical features across datasets...
2006: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
M A Miller
Women experience more adverse reactions to treatment with therapeutic drugs than men. Theories proposed to explain this include overdosing, different pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, women are more likely to report adverse events than men, or women take more medications than men. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Office of Women's Health (OWH) funds research to promote including women in clinical trials and understanding the biology of sex-related differences in the safety of FDA-regulated products. Including women in clinical trials advances the understanding of drug efficacy and safety in women by providing information on drug dosing, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics...
May 2001: International Journal of Toxicology
T R Fleming, D Y Lin
The field of survival analysis emerged in the 20th century and experienced tremendous growth during the latter half of the century. The developments in this field that have had the most profound impact on clinical trials are the Kaplan-Meier (1958, Journal of the American Statistical Association 53, 457-481) method for estimating the survival function, the log-rank statistic (Mantel, 1966, Cancer Chemotherapy Report 50, 163-170) for comparing two survival distributions, and the Cox (1972, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 34, 187-220) proportional hazards model for quantifying the effects of covariates on the survival time...
December 2000: Biometrics
Scott, Cogliano
adopt a traditional review of the mutagenicity data on TCE and its metabolites but instead raise several issues regarding the interpretation of mutagenicity and genetic toxicity tests in shedding light on whether these processes are key events in tumor initiation. As discussed in the U.S. EPA proposed cancer guidelines, a salient question is whether TCE or its metabolites interacts directly with and mutates DNA to bring about changes in gene expression or whether DNA mutation is achieved through some other process...
May 2000: Environmental Health Perspectives
N Ebrahimi
The problem of competing risks analysis arises often in public health, demography, actuarial science, industrial reliability applications, and experiments in medical therapeutics. In the classical competing risks scenario one models the risks with a vector (T = (T1, ..., Tk) of non-negative random variables that represents the potential times to death of k risks. One cannot see T directly but sees instead Y = min (T1, ..., Tk) and the actual cause of death. The major difficulty with this analysis is the requirement for the expert to specify the single cause of death that, in fact, may not be the actual cause...
July 30, 1996: Statistics in Medicine
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