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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769837/in-dram-cache-management-for-low-latency-and-low-power-3d-stacked-drams
#1
Ho Hyun Shin, Eui-Young Chung
Recently, 3D-stacked dynamic random access memory (DRAM) has become a promising solution for ultra-high capacity and high-bandwidth memory implementations. However, it also suffers from memory wall problems due to long latency, such as with typical 2D-DRAMs. Although there are various cache management techniques and latency hiding schemes to reduce DRAM access time, in a high-performance system using high-capacity 3D-stacked DRAM, it is ultimately essential to reduce the latency of the DRAM itself. To solve this problem, various asymmetric in-DRAM cache structures have recently been proposed, which are more attractive for high-capacity DRAMs because they can be implemented at a lower cost in 3D-stacked DRAMs...
February 14, 2019: Micromachines
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742246/dielectric-enhancement-of-atomic-layer-deposited-al-2-o-3-zro-2-al-2-o-3-mim-capacitors-by-microwave-annealing
#2
Bao Zhu, Xiaohan Wu, Wen-Jun Liu, Shi-Jin Ding, David Wei Zhang, Zhongyong Fan
For metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors applicated in the fields of RF, DRAM, and analog/mixed-signal integrated circuits, a high capacitance density is imperative with the downscaling of the device feature size. In this work, the microwave annealing technique is investigated to enhance the dielectric characteristics of Al2 O3 /ZrO2 /Al2 O3 based MIM capacitors. The results show that the permittivity of ZrO2 is increased to 41.9 (~ 40% enhanced) with a microwave annealing at 1400 W for 5 min. The substrate temperature is lower than 400 °C, which is compatible with the back end of line process...
February 11, 2019: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705770/dram-is-involved-in-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-autophagic-apoptosis-in-hepatocytes
#3
Jianji Xu, Yunjin Zang, Dongjie Liu, Tongwang Yang, Jieling Wang, Yanjun Wang, Xiaoni Liu, Dexi Chen
Liver hypoxia/ischemia injury leads to acute liver injury, delayed graft dysfunction, and failure during liver transplantation. Previous studies showed that autophagy is involved in liver hypoxia/ischemia injury. Our and others' studies have found that the damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) could induce the autophagic apoptosis. However, the role of DRAM regulating autophagy in liver hypoxia/ischemia injury remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether DRAM is involved in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced hepatocyte autophagic apoptosis...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668734/detection-of-pretreatment-minority-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-resistant-variants-by-ultra-deep-sequencing-has-a-limited-impact-on-virological-outcomes
#4
Bin Su, Xin Zheng, Yan Liu, Lifeng Liu, Ruolei Xin, Hongyan Lu, Chun Huang, Lishi Bai, Fabrizio Mammano, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Lijun Sun, Lili Dai
Objectives: Ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) is a powerful tool for exploring the impact on virological outcome of minority variants with low frequencies, some even <1% of the virus population. Here, we compared HIV-1 minority variants at baseline, through plasma RNA and PBMC DNA analyses, and the dominant variants at the virological failure (VF) point, to evaluate the impact of minority drug-resistant variants (MDRVs) on virological outcomes. Methods: Single-molecule real-time sequencing (SMRTS) was performed on baseline RNA and DNA...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624043/thermal-barrier-phase-change-memory
#5
Jiabin Shen, Shilong Lv, Xin Chen, Tao Li, Sifan Zhang, Zhitang Song, Min Zhu
Phase change memory is widely considered as the most promising candidate as storage class memory (SCM), bridging the performance gaps between DRAM and Flash. However, high required operation current remains the major limitation for the SCM application, even after using defect engineering materials, e. g. Ti-doped Sb2Te3. Here, we demonstrate ~87% current can be reduced by spatially separating Sb2Te3 and TiTe2 layer thanks to the semimetallic TiTe2, severing as a thermal barrier in the Reset process. Moreover, the stable crystalline TiTe2 layer provides ordered interface to speed up the crystallization process of amorphous Sb2Te3 layer, enabling ~10 ns ultrafast crystallization speed...
January 9, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30405029/a-novel-one-transistor-dynamic-random-access-memory-1t-dram-featuring-partially-inserted-wide-bandgap-double-barriers-for-high-temperature-applications
#6
Myeongsun Kim, Jongmin Ha, Ikhyeon Kwon, Jae-Hee Han, Seongjae Cho, Il Hwan Cho
These days, the demand on electronic systems operating at high temperature is increasing owing to bursting interest in applications adaptable to harsh environments on earth, as well as in the unpaved spaces in the universe. However, research on memory technologies suitable to high-temperature conditions have been seldom reported yet. In this work, a novel one-transistor dynamic random-access memory (1T DRAM) featuring the device channel with partially inserted wide-bandgap semiconductor material toward the high-temperature application is proposed and designed, and its device performances are investigated with an emphasis at 500 K...
November 7, 2018: Micromachines
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30229669/genetic-diversity-and-drug-resistance-of-hiv-1-circulating-in-north-sulawesi-indonesia
#7
Shuhei Ueda, Adiana Mutamsari Witaningrum, Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Tomohiro Kotaki, Nasronudin Nasronudin, Masanori Kameoka
Manado, the capital city of North Sulawesi, is a unique region in Indonesia because of its religion. We collected peripheral blood samples from 63 individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The amplification of viral genomic fragments, viral subtyping, detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance-associated mutations (DRAMs), and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Viral subtyping revealed that the most prevalent HIV type 1 (HIV-1) subtype/circulating recombinant form (CRF) was CRF01_AE (84...
September 19, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30217494/relationship-between-diastasis-of-the-rectus-abdominis-muscle-dram-and-musculoskeletal-dysfunctions-pain-and-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Deenika R Benjamin, Helena C Frawley, Nora Shields, Alexander T M van de Water, Nicholas F Taylor
BACKGROUND: Diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM) is common during and after pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between: the presence of DRAM and low back pain, lumbo-pelvic pain, incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, abdominal muscle performance or health-related quality of life; and between DRAM width and severity of these outcomes. DATA SOURCES: Six electronic databases (EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL, PUBMED, AMED and PEDro)...
March 2019: Physiotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30160244/a-ru-pt-alloy-electrode-to-suppress-leakage-currents-of-dynamic-random-access-memory-capacitors
#9
Jung Joon Pyeon, Cheol Jin Cho, Doo Seok Jeong, Jin-Sang Kim, Chong-Yun Kang, Seong Keun Kim
Rutile TiO2 , a high temperature phase, has attracted interest as a capacitor dielectric in dynamic random-access memories (DRAMs). Despite its high dielectric constant of >80, large leakage currents caused by a low Schottky barrier height at the TiO2 /electrode interface have hindered the use of rutile TiO2 as a commercial DRAM capacitor. Here, we propose a new Ru-Pt alloy electrode to increase the height of the Schottky barrier. The Ru-Pt mixed layer was grown by atomic layer deposition. The atomic ratio of Ru/Pt varied in the entire range from 100 at...
November 9, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30135453/electrochemical-metallization-cell-with-anion-supplying-active-electrode
#10
Ziyang Zhang, Yaoyuan Wang, Yan Luo, Yuhan He, Mingyuan Ma, Rongrong Yang, Huanglong Li
Electrochemical metallization (ECM) memories are among the various emerging non-volatile memory technologies, contending to replace DRAM and Flash and enabling novel neuromorphic computing applications. Typically, the operation of ECM cell is based on the electrochemical redox reactions of the cation supplying active electrode (e.g., Ag, Cu). Although extensively investigated, the possibility of utilizing new materials for the active electrode remains largely undiscussed. In this paper, an ECM cell with a Te active electrode is fabricated...
August 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30043803/transient-and-flexible-polymer-memristors-utilizing-full-solution-processed-polymer-nanocomposites
#11
Zhe Zhou, Huiwu Mao, Xiangjing Wang, Tao Sun, Qing Chang, Yingying Chen, Fei Xiu, Zhengdong Liu, Juqing Liu, Wei Huang
Building transient and flexible memristors is a promising strategy for developing emerging memory technologies. Here, a transient and flexible memristor based on a polymer nanocomposite, with a configuration of silver nanowire (AgNW)/citric acid quantum dot (CA QD)-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/AgNW, is fabricated using a full-solution process method. The obtained device exhibits reversible resistive switching behavior and a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) storage feature, with the significant merits of a high ON/OFF ratio, low switching voltage, excellent reproducibility and desirable high flexibility, indicating outstanding memory characteristics such as low misreading, low power operation and low cost potential...
August 9, 2018: Nanoscale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29846589/dynamics-of-drug-resistance-associated-mutations-in-hiv-1-dna-reverse-transcriptase-sequence-during-effective-art
#12
A Nouchi, T Nguyen, M A Valantin, A Simon, S Sayon, R Agher, V Calvez, C Katlama, A G Marcelin, C Soulie
Objectives: To investigate the dynamics of HIV-1 variants archived in cells harbouring drug resistance-associated mutations (DRAMs) to lamivudine/emtricitabine, etravirine and rilpivirine in patients under effective ART free from selective pressure on these DRAMs, in order to assess the possibility of recycling molecules with resistance history. Patients and methods: We studied 25 patients with at least one DRAM to lamivudine/emtricitabine, etravirine and/or rilpivirine identified on an RNA sequence in their history and with virological control for at least 5 years under a regimen excluding all drugs from the resistant class...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29844830/dna-damage-regulated-autophagy-modulator-1-recovers-the-function-of-apoptosis-stimulating-of-p53-protein-2-on-inducing-apoptotic-cell-death-in-huh7-5-cells
#13
Dongjie Liu, Rui Li, Xianghua Guo, Lijun Pang, Yunjin Zang, Kai Liu, Dexi Chen
Overexpression of apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2 (ASPP2) can induce apoptotic cell death in hepatoma cells, which contributes to a killing effect of ASPP2 on treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, ASPP2 overexpression failed to induce apoptotic cell death in the HCC Huh7.5 cell line, but promoted autophagy development by inhibiting AKT/mTOR pathway. Inhibition of autophagy using 3-methyladenosine recovered the function of ASPP2 on inducing apoptotic cell death, indicating that ASPP2-induced autophagy has an anti-apoptotic role in Huh7...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29756454/short-communication-discordance-in-drug-resistance-mutations-between-blood-plasma-and-semen-or-rectal-secretions-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-1-infected-thai-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#14
Akarin Hiransuthikul, Rapeeporn Wongkanya, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Deondara Trachunthong, Thanthip Sungsing, Tippawan Pankam, Praphan Phanuphak, Nittaya Phanuphak
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection is most commonly transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces. Information on concordance in drug resistance profile between blood plasma and anogenital compartments in resource-limited settings is limited. We aimed to determine discordances in genotypic drug resistance-associated mutations (DRAMs) between blood plasma and semen or rectal secretions among newly diagnosed, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-1-infected Thai men who have sex with men (MSM)...
July 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29717216/scandium-doping-brings-speed-improvement-in-sb-2-te-alloy-for-phase-change-random-access-memory-application
#15
Xin Chen, Yonghui Zheng, Min Zhu, Kun Ren, Yong Wang, Tao Li, Guangyu Liu, Tianqi Guo, Lei Wu, Xianqiang Liu, Yan Cheng, Zhitang Song
Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) has gained much attention as a candidate for nonvolatile memory application. To develop PCRAM materials with better properties, especially to draw closer to dynamic random access memory (DRAM), the key challenge is to research new high-speed phase change materials. Here, Scandium (Sc) has been found it is helpful to get high-speed and good stability after doping in Sb2 Te alloy. Sc0.1 Sb2 Te based PCRAM cell can achieve reversible switching by applying even 6 ns voltage pulse experimentally...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29677840/simulation-of-one-transistor-dynamic-random-access-memory-based-on-symmetric-double-gate-si-junctionless-transistor
#16
Bo Gyeong Kim, Jae Hwa Seo, Young Jun Yoon, Min Su Cho, Eunseon Yu, Jung-Hee Lee, Seongjae Cho, In Man Kang
In this study, one-transistor dynamic random-access memory (1T-DRAM) based on a symmetric double-gate Si junctionless transistor is proposed using technology computer-aided design simulation. The proposed device uses double gates that play different roles in realizing 1T-DRAM operation. Gate 1 is used as a switching node, and Gate 2 is used as a storage node. By controlling the different two gate workfunctions, a potential barrier is adjusted to store hole effectively. The operation characteristics were investigated regarding four different memory operation states to write "1", write "0", read, and hold...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29677717/a-1t-dynamic-random-access-memory-cell-based-on-gated-thyristor-with-surrounding-gate-structure-for-high-scalability
#17
Hyungjin Kim, Sihyun Kim, Hyun-Min Kim, Kitae Lee, Sangwan Kim, Byung-Gook Pak
In this study, we investigate a one-transistor (1T) dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell based on a gated-thyristor device utilizing voltage-driven bistability to enable high-speed operations. The structural feature of the surrounding gate using a sidewall provides high scalability with regard to constructing an array architecture of the proposed devices. In addition, the operation mechanism, I-V characteristics, DRAM operations, and bias dependence are analyzed using a commercial device simulator. Unlike conventional 1T DRAM cells utilizing the floating body effect, excess carriers which are required to be stored to make two different states are not generated but injected from the n+ cathode region, giving the device high-speed operation capabilities...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29677710/volatile-and-nonvolatile-characteristics-of-asymmetric-dual-gate-thyristor-ram-with-vertical-structure
#18
Hyun-Min Kim, Dae Woong Kwon, Sihyun Kim, Kitae Lee, Junil Lee, Euyhwan Park, Ryoongbin Lee, Hyungjin Kim, Sangwan Kim, Byung-Gook Park
In this paper, the volatile and nonvolatile characteristics of asymmetric dual-gate thyristor random access memory (TRAM) are investigated using the technology of a computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation. Owing to the use of two independent gates having different gate dielectric layers, volatile and nonvolatile memory functions can be realized in a single device. The first gate with a silicon oxide layer controls the one-transistor dynamic random access memory (1T-DRAM) characteristics of the device. From the simulation results, a rapid write speed (<8 ns) and a large on-off current ratio (>107) can be achieved...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29540528/phospholipid-flippases-and-sfk1p-a-novel-regulator-of-phospholipid-asymmetry-contribute-to-low-permeability-of-the-plasma-membrane
#19
Tetsuo Mioka, Konomi Fujimura-Kamada, Nahiro Mizugaki, Takuma Kishimoto, Takamitsu Sano, Hitoshi Nunome, David E Williams, Raymond J Andersen, Kazuma Tanaka
Phospholipid flippase (type 4 P-type ATPase) plays a major role in the generation of phospholipid asymmetry in eukaryotic cell membranes. Loss of Lem3p-Dnf1/2p flippases leads to the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the cell surface in yeast, resulting in sensitivity to PS- or PE-binding peptides. We isolated Sfk1p, a conserved membrane protein in the TMEM150/FRAG1/DRAM family, as a multicopy suppressor of this sensitivity. Overexpression of SFK1 decreased PS/PE exposure in lem3Δ mutant cells...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29508093/the-optimization-of-spacer-engineering-for-capacitor-less-dram-based-on-the-dual-gate-tunneling-transistor
#20
Wei Li, Hongxia Liu, Shulong Wang, Shupeng Chen, Qianqiong Wang
The DRAM based on the dual-gate tunneling FET (DGTFET) has the advantages of capacitor-less structure and high retention time. In this paper, the optimization of spacer engineering for DGTFET DRAM is systematically investigated by Silvaco-Atlas tool to further improve its performance, including the reduction of reading "0" current and extension of retention time. The simulation results show that spacers at the source and drain sides should apply the low-k and high-k dielectrics, respectively, which can enhance the reading "1" current and reduce reading "0" current...
March 5, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
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