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Drug Analysis

Eran Ellenbogen, Shmuel Epshteyn, Shir Azrielant, Mor Pavlovski, Andrea Gat, Eli Sprecher, Ilan Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Frozen section (FS) is often performed when histopathological evaluations are urgently required for implementation of therapeutic measures. In dermatology, this method is most commonly used to evaluate excision margins of tumors. FS are also routinely employed to differentiate toxic epidermal necrolysis from staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. However, little is currently known about the performance of FS in the diagnosis of inflammatory dermatoses. OBJECTIVES: To compare histopathological diagnoses in a series of patients with a clinical diagnosis of an inflammatory dermatosis for which FS and paraffin-section (PS) specimens were obtained on the same day...
February 2019: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Juan Fernando Suárez-Varela Úbeda, Sara Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Antonio Ordóñez Barranco, Gilberto Vega Caldera, Pedro Pablo Pérez Alvárez, Francisco Buitrago
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of smoking cessation interventions can be quite diverse in day-to-day clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effectiveness in smoking cessation of multicomponent interventions carried out in groups or individually in primary care practices. METHODS: A quasi-experimental, multicentre study of 12-month follow-up of patients treated in multicomponent smoking cessation interventions was carried out in Urban health care centres in Sevilla, Spain...
February 17, 2019: Family Practice
Wei Du, Danijela Gnjidic, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Sarah N Hilmer, Andrew J McLachlan, Fiona Blyth, Rosalie Viney, Grace Joshy, Cathy Day, Emily Banks
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the relationship between home medicines review (HMR) receipt in older adults and sociodemographic, medication-related and health factors. DESIGN: Prospective cohort analysis. SETTINGS, PARTICIPANTS, MEASUREMENTS: Questionnaire data from a population-based cohort study of individuals aged ≥45 years, Sydney, Australia were linked with primary healthcare data, medication and hospitalisation data, to ascertain factors associated with HMR receipt during the period July 2009-June 2014...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Mubshara Saadia, Muhammad Sher, Sajid Bashir, Mian Anjum Murtaza, Amin Shah, Mahmood Ahmad Khan
Synthetic drugs are associated with adverse side-effects and rapid increase in resistance to most of them inspires to evaluate plants for their therapeutic values. We have been aimed to suggest the medicinal use of Nigella sativa seed aqueous extract to minimize the severity of liver damage via its antioxidant properties and its role in maintenance of cell ion-homeostasis. Annoyances in serum levels of some antioxidants and trace metals in human hepatitis C infected patients were compared with that from acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxic rabbits...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Fizza Naqvi, Saida Haider, Faizan Naqvi, Sadia Saleem, Tahira Perveen, Zehra Batool
Curcumin possesses wide spectrum of biological actions, on that account the current study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effectiveness of curcumin on memory and oxidative stress if any, over synthetic drug donepezil approved for the treatment of memory disorders. Eighteen Albino wistar (male) rats were divided into 3 groups namely vehicle control which received neutral oil orally and 0.9% saline intraperitoneally, curcumin which received curcumin orally dissolved in neutral oil at the dose of 100mg/ml/kg for seven days, donepezil which received donepezil intraperitoneally at the dose of 1mg/ml/kg for seven days...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
N Baldwin, R Gray, A Goel, E Wood, J Buxton, L Rieb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Fayaz Ali Larik, Muhammad Faisal, Aamer Saeed, Pervaiz Ali Channar, Jan Korabecny, Farukh Jabeen, Ihsan Ali Mahar, Mehar Ali Kazi, Qamar Abbas, Ghulam Murtaza, Gul Shahzada Khan, Mubashir Hassan, Sung-Yum Seo
The increasing resistance of pathogens to common antibiotics, as well as the need to control urease activity to improve the yield of soil nitrogen fertilization in agricultural applications, has stimulated the development of novel classes of molecules that target urease as an enzyme. In this context, the newly developed compounds on the basis of 1-heptanoyl-3-arylthiourea family were evaluated for Jack bean urease enzyme inhibition activity to validate their role as potent inhibitors of this enzyme. 1-Heptanoyl-3-arylthioureas were obtained in excellent yield and characterized through spectral and elemental analysis...
February 8, 2019: Bioorganic Chemistry
Somnath Chowdhury, Jaya Sikder, Tamal Mandal, Gopinath Halder
The current investigation deals with how chemically activated carbon derived from industrial paper sludge (ACPS) performs on sorptive removal of enrofloxacin (ENF), an antibacterial drug from its water solution. Thermogravimetric (TGA) and proximate analysis of raw paper sludge (RPS) were conducted. ACPS was characterized with proximate analysis, XRD, FT-IR, SEM and BET. The influence of five operational parameters viz. adsorbate concentration (initial), dose of adsorbent, pH, temperature, and contact time on the adsorption of ENF onto ACPS has been conducted using batch experiments...
February 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Bin Xie, Yuan-Yuan Lu, Zhuo-Hui Luo, Zhao Qu, Chun-Ge Zheng, Xin-An Huang, Hong-Yan Zhou, Ying-Jie Hu, Xiao-Ling Shen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Marsdenia tenacissima (Roxb.) Wight et Arn is a vine distributed in southwest area of China and used in folk medicine for treatment of tumors. Recent decades of studies on this plant reveal its synergistic effects with certain anticancer drugs in cancer therapy. In our previous study, an extract ETA which contains total aglycones made from M. tenacissima significantly enhanced antitumor activity of paclitaxel in tumor-bearing mice. However, the effective constituents inETA and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Patrick W Sullivan, Ghushchyan Vahram, Kavati Abhishek, Navaratnam Prakash, Howard S Friedman, Ortiz Benjamin
BACKGROUND: Examining national trends in asthma treatment and control is essential to inform treatment and public health initiatives. OBJECTIVE: Explore national trends in asthma control and treatment over time among children and those residing in poor-urban areas. METHODS: This was an analysis of trends from 2003-2014 among children (aged 1-17) in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Indicators of poor control included use of >3 canisters short-acting beta agonist (SABA) in 3 months, asthma attack, Emergency Department (ED)/inpatient (IP) hospitalization and systemic corticosteroids (SCS)...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Serge Ducommun, Maria Deak, Anja Zeigerer, Olga Göransson, Susanne Seitz, Caterina Collodet, Agnete B Madsen, Thomas E Jensen, Benoit Viollet, Marc Foretz, Philipp Gut, David Sumpton, Kei Sakamoto
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, acting as a sensor of energy and nutrient status. As such, AMPK is considered a promising drug target for treatment of medical conditions particularly associated with metabolic dysfunctions. To better understand the downstream effectors and physiological consequences of AMPK activation, we have employed a chemical genetic screen in mouse primary hepatocytes in an attempt to identify novel AMPK targets. Treatment of hepatocytes with a potent and specific AMPK activator 991 resulted in identification of 65 proteins phosphorylated upon AMPK activation, which are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as lipid/glycogen metabolism, vesicle trafficking, and cytoskeleton organization...
February 14, 2019: Cellular Signalling
Marilena Celano, Valentina Maggisano, Saverio Massimo Lepore, Diego Russo, Stefania Bulotta
Phenolic secoiridoids from olive, including oleocanthal, oleuropein and related derivatives, are bioactive natural products with documented anticancer activities, that have mainly been attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. This review summarizes the results of the preclinical studies on the natural secoiridoids of olive used as single agents or in combination with other chemotherapeutics against cancer cells. The molecular targets of their action are described. A critical analysis of the importance of the experimental studies in view of the possible use in humans is also discussed...
February 14, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Ibrahim Khadra, Mohammad A Obeid, Claire Dunn, Stewart Watts, Gavin Halbert, Steve Ford, Alexander Mullen
Oral Thin Film (OTF) is a newly emerging drug delivery system which has many benefits for patients. Although there has been some formulation of OTF products, these have mainly been as confectionary or dental health products. The most significant benefit of this dosage format will only be realised once more pharmaceutical products become available. Within this paper, OTF strips containing Diclofenac Sodium were prepared using the solvent casting method and then characterised to ensure the method could conform to acceptable levels of uniformity, the mean (SD) diclofenac sodium content was 25...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Emma Saavedra, Rusely Encalada, Citlali Vázquez, Alfonso Olivos-García, Paul A M Michels, Rafael Moreno-Sánchez
Entamoeba histolytica has neither Krebs cycle nor oxidative phosphorylation activities; therefore, glycolysis is the main pathway for ATP supply and provision of carbon skeleton precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules. Glucose is metabolized through fermentative glycolysis, producing ethanol as its main end-product as well as some acetate. Amoebal glycolysis markedly differs from the typical Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway present in human cells: (i) by the use of inorganic pyrophosphate, instead of ATP, as the high-energy phospho group donor; (ii) with one exception, the pathway enzymes can catalyze reversible reactions under physiological conditions; (iii) there is no allosteric regulation and sigmoidal kinetic behavior of key enzymes; and (iv) the presence of some glycolytic and fermentation enzymes similar to those of anaerobic bacteria...
February 14, 2019: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Michael M McKee, Michelle A Meade, Philip Zazove, Haylie J Stewart, Mary L Jannausch, Mark A Ilgen
INTRODUCTION: Hearing loss is common and associated with poorer health and impeded communication. Little is known about the association between hearing loss and substance use disorders in the general population. The objective of this study was to assess substance use disorder prevalence among individuals with hearing loss, versus those without hearing loss, in a nationally representative sample of adults. METHODS: Two years (2015 and 2016) of National Survey on Drug Use and Health (unweighted N=86,186) were combined to compare substance use disorders among adults with and without self-reported hearing loss...
February 14, 2019: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jack Cunliffe, David Décary-Hêtu, Thomas A Pollak
BACKGROUND: Nonmedical prescription psychiatric drug use (NMPDU) is an increasing global health problem, with recent concern focusing on darknet cryptomarkets as sources of procurement. There is a shortage of evidence regarding comparative worldwide NMPDU trends, due in part to data collection difficulties. This problem is particularly marked for non-opioid drugs, particularly those psychiatric drugs which act on the central nervous system (CNS) and have high misuse potential and are associated with high levels of dependency and fatal overdose...
February 12, 2019: International Journal on Drug Policy
Xiao Wang, Wei Liao, Shaoqiang Han, Jiao Li, Yan Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disease associated with dysfunction of brain regions and networks. Recent, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have determined that the global signal (GS) is an important source of the local neuronal activity. However, the dynamics of this effect in SCZ remains unknown. To address this issue, 39 drug-naive patients with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and 31 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI scans...
February 14, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Ivana H Šrámková, Laura Carbonell-Rozas, Burkhard Horstkotte, Martina Háková, Jakub Erben, Jiří Chvojka, František Švec, Petr Solich, Ana M García-Campaña, Dalibor Šatínský
A novel application of the three-dimensional printing technology for the automation of solid phase extraction procedures in a low-pressure sequential injection analysis system is presented. A 3D printed device was used as a housing for nanofiber membranes in solid phase extraction. The applicability of the device is demonstrated with the extraction of substances of various physical-chemical properties. Pharmaceuticals including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistaminics, and steroidal structures, as well as emerging pollutants such as bisphenols and pesticide metsulfuron methyl were used as model analytes to study the extraction performance of the nanofibers...
May 15, 2019: Talanta
Piret Saar-Reismaa, Anastassia Tretjakova, Jekaterina Mazina-Šinkar, Merike Vaher, Mihkel Kaljurand, Maria Kulp
In the present study, a capillary electrophoresis method, with a native fluorescence detection for the quantification of three amphetamine derivatives, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in an oral fluid is described. The reported CE method has made it possible to assess Ecstasy abuse in approximately 15 min, including a saliva sample collection, pretreatment procedures and capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis. The proof of the principle that was demonstrated on a home-made lab scale instrument has had the potential to be easily translated onto a truly portable instrument for on-site measurements...
May 15, 2019: Talanta
Yi Li, Weilu Zhang, Xiangmei Jiang, Yanxia Kou, Jiajia Lu, Liang Tan
Copper ions play an essential role in some biological processes. Currently, there is a need for the development of convenient and reliable analytical methods for the Cu2+ measurement. In the present work, a sensitive fluorescence method was developed for the determination of copper ions. Amino-functionalized graphene quantum dots (af-GQDs) and selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) were synthetized, respectively, and they were characterized via transmission electron microscope, infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectrum measurement...
May 15, 2019: Talanta
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