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Andrew Turner
Seventy samples of laundry dryer lint from 19 households have been analysed for trace elements (As, Br, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, Zn) by energy-dispersive portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. Bromine, Fe and Zn were detected in more than sixty samples encompassing all households, with dry weight concentrations ranging from 5.5 to 213 μg g-1 , 76 to 3580 μg g-1 and 24 to 3540 μg g-1 , respectively. Lead and Sb were detected in twenty and eight samples from ten and seven households, respectively, with concentrations ranging from about 8 to 110 μg g-1 for Pb and 40 to 90 μg g-1 for Sb...
February 6, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Kannan Govindan, P C Jha, Vernika Agarwal, Jyoti Dhingra Darbari
The Indian electronics industry is facing immense pressure to include sustainability practices in order to meet customer expectations, comply with legislation and create an edge over competitors. This growing need for inclusion of sustainability is driving original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to collaborate with third-party reverse logistics providers (3PRLPs) to sustainably manage returns. Collaboration with 3PRLP will put OEMs in a stronger position regarding compliance with government legislation, improving upon their corporate image and customer satisfaction...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Tobias A Mattei, Caio M Perret, Julio C Nunes
During dissection of paraspinal muscles in posterior surgical approaches, the spine surgeon usually holds a subperiosteal (Cobb) elevator in one hand and a monopolar cautery in the other hand. In such a scenario, both the surgical smoke generated by the monopolar as well as eventual bleedings constitute a significant hindrance to simultaneous bilateral dissection of the paraspinal muscles by two surgeons. In order to address the identified shortcomings in the currently available instrumentation the authors initially analyzed the most common surgical techniques employed by residents and fellows at our institution for paraspinal muscle dissection during posterior spinal approaches...
February 15, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Jie Zheng, Weimin Yang, Jingyu Wang, Jinfeng Zhu, Lihua Qian, Zhilin Yang
Conventional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) modes based on gold and silver nanostructures only operate in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) regions. Nowadays, with the rapid development of strong coupling between molecules and plasmonic nanostructures and surface enhanced spectroscopy, it is highly desired to modulate the SPR modes with a narrow linewidth toward the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength region through a low cost and reproducible fabrication method. Herein, laser interference lithography is utilized to manufacture stable Al plasmonic arrays with well-controlled and tunable geometries...
February 18, 2019: Nanoscale
Rihwa Choi, Youngju Oh, Sukjung Lee, Sang Gon Lee
BACKGROUND: Our aims in this study were to evaluate the performance of the Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi), a liver fibrosis marker, using Sysmex HISCL following user verification guidelines before clinical use. We also evaluated the correlation between M2BPGi and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) because HbA1c is known as another biomarker associated with glycosylation. METHODS: The analytical performance of M2BPGi was verified following user verification guidelines by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute...
January 1, 2019: Clinical Laboratory
Nirmala Thapa, Suzanne E Tomasi, Jean M Cox-Ganser, Randall J Nett
BACKGROUND: Non-malignant respiratory disease (NMRD) cases have occurred among rubber manufacturing workers. We examined exposure to rubber manufacturing emissions as a risk factor for NMRD. METHODS: From a systematic literature review, we identified case reports and assessed cross-sectional and mortality studies for strength of evidence of positive association (strong, intermediate, non-significant positive association, none) between exposure to rubber manufacturing emissions and NMRD-related morbidity and mortality, and conducted two meta-analyses...
February 18, 2019: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Efraín M Castro-Alayo, Guillermo Idrogo-Vásquez, Raúl Siche, Fiorella P Cardenas-Toro
There are three main genetic varieties of cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L) used in chocolate making: Forastero, Trinitario and Criollo, which are distinguished by their aroma, an attribute that determines their quality. Criollo cocoa is of the highest quality and is used in the manufacture of fine chocolates because of its fruity aroma. The aroma of Criollo cocoa is defined by volatile compounds such as pyrazines and aldehydes, which are formed during roasting of the bean, from aroma precursors (reducing sugars and free amino acids) that are generated inside the bean via enzymatic reactions during fermentation; for this reason, fermentation is the most important process in the value chain...
January 2019: Heliyon
Ho Sung Kim, Eun Sun Jeong, Myung Hwa Yang, Seoung-Oh Yang
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has become the most common method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) of small animals in metabolic bone disease research, and errors should be minimized in all procedures involved in research studies in order to increase the accuracy of the study results. DXA is simpler and rapid compared to micro-computed tomography for quantitative analysis of change in trabecular bone of test subject. In human research, measuring BMD is widely used; postoperative evaluation on orthopedic surgery, evaluation of osteoporosis medication in menopause and many other areas of study...
September 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Henk J Busscher, Volker Alt, Henny C van der Mei, Paul H Fagette, Werner Zimmerli, T Fintan Moriarty, Javad Parvizi, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Michael J Raschke, Thorsten Gehrke, Roger Bayston, Larry M Baddour, Lynn C Winterton, Rabih O Darouiche, David W Grainger
Current regulatory requirements impede clinical translation and market introduction of many new antimicrobial combination implants and devices, causing unnecessary patient suffering, doctor frustration, and costs to healthcare payers. Regulatory requirements of antimicrobial combination implants and devices should be thoroughly revisited and their approval allowed based on enrichment of benefit demonstrations from high-risk patient groups and populations or device components to facilitate their clinical translation...
February 11, 2019: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Mark L Brantly, Jorge E Lascano, Abbas Shahmohammadi
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a largely monogenetic disorder associated with a high risk for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cirrhosis. Intravenous alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) therapy has been available for the treatment of individuals with AATD and COPD since the late 1980s. Initial Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval was granted based on biochemical efficacy. Following its approval, the FDA, scientific community and third-party payers encouraged manufacturers of AAT therapy to determine its clinical efficacy...
November 28, 2018: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
Karen S Sfanos, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, William G Nelson, Tamara L Lotan, Ibrahim Kulac, Jessica L Hicks, Qizhi Zheng, Charles J Bieberich, Michael C Haffner, Angelo M De Marzo
Antibodies are employed ubiquitously in biomedical sciences, including for diagnostics and therapeutics. One of the most important uses is for immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, a process that has been improving and evolving over decades. IHC is useful when properly employed, yet misuse of the method is widespread and contributes to the "reproducibility crisis" in science. We report some of the common problems encountered with IHC assays, and direct readers to a wealth of literature documenting and providing some solutions to this problem...
January 2019: Asian Journal of Urology
Andrea Camposeo, Luana Persano, Maria Farsari, Dario Pisignano
The combination of materials with targeted optical properties and of complex, 3D architectures, which can be nowadays obtained by additive manufacturing, opens unprecedented opportunities for developing new integrated systems in photonics and optoelectronics. The recent progress in additive technologies for processing optical materials is here presented, with emphasis on accessible geometries, achievable spatial resolution, and requirements for printable optical materials. Relevant examples of photonic and optoelectronic devices fabricated by 3D printing are shown, which include light-emitting diodes, lasers, waveguides, optical sensors, photonic crystals and metamaterials, and micro-optical components...
January 4, 2019: Advanced Optical Materials
Raam Kasinathan, Mario Marinaro, Peter Axmann, Margret Wohlfahrt-Mehrens
In this study Si-alloy/graphite composite electrodes are manufactured using water-soluble poly-acrylic acid (PAA) binder of different molecular weights (250, 450 and 1250 kg mol-1 ). The study aims to assess the behavior of the different binders across all the steps needed for electrodes preparation and on their influence on the electrodes electrochemical behavior. At first, rheological properties of the water-based slurries containing Si-alloy, graphite, conductive carbon and PAA are studied. After coating, the adhesion strength and electronic conductivity of the manufactured electrodes are evaluated and compared...
November 2018: Energy Technology: Generation, Conversion, Storage, Distribution
Muna A AbuDalo, Ismaeel R Al-Mheidat, Alham W Al-Shurafat, Colleen Grinham, Vinka Oyanedel-Craver
Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted great attention due to their outstanding electrical, optical, magnetic, catalytic, and antimicrobial properties. However, there is a need for alternative production methods that use less toxic precursors and reduce their undesirable by-products. Phyto-extracts from the leaves of olive and rosemary plants can be used as reducing agents and (in conjunction with Tollens' reagent) can even enhance AgNP antimicrobial activity. Methods: Conditions for the proposed hybrid synthesis method were optimized for olive leaf extracts (OLEs) and rosemary leaf extracts (RLEs)...
2019: PeerJ
Elizabeth Wojciechowski, Angela Y Chang, Daniel Balassone, Jacqueline Ford, Tegan L Cheng, David Little, Manoj P Menezes, Sean Hogan, Joshua Burns
Background: Ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) are prescribed to manage difficulty walking due to foot drop, bony foot deformities and poor balance. Traditional AFOs are handmade using thermoplastic vacuum forming which provides limited design options, is labour-intensive and associated with long wait times. 3D printing has the potential to transform AFO production and health service delivery. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the feasibility of designing, manufacturing and delivering customised 3D printed AFOs by evaluating the biomechanical outcomes, mechanical properties and fit of 3D printed compared to traditionally manufactured AFOs...
2019: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Rajat Vashistha, Prasoon Kumar, Arun Kumar Dangi, Naveen Sharma, Deepak Chhabra, Pratyoosh Shukla
Digitalization of health care practices is substantially manifesting itself as an effective tool to diagnose and rectify complex cardiovascular abnormalities. For cardiovascular abnormalities, precise non-invasive imaging interventions are being used to develop patient specific diagnosis and surgical planning. Concurrently, pre surgical 3D simulation and computational modeling are aiding in the effective surgery and understanding of valve biomechanics, respectively. Consequently, 3D printing of patient specific valves that can mimic the original one will become an effective outbreak for valvular problems...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Jianmeng Zhu, Zhilu Ye, Xiaoying Fan, Hongqin Wang, Zhen Wang, Bingyu Chen
Objective: This study aimed to construct a biosensor using Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) and reduced graphene-polyamide-amine-ferrocene (rGO-PAMAM-Fc) nanomaterials designed for rapid and sensitive detection of cholesterol. Materials and methods: In this study, a highly sensitive biosensor based on Au NPs/ rGO-PAMAM-Fc nanomaterials was manufactured for detection of cholesterol. The rGO-PAMAM-Fc and Au NPs were modified on the surface of the electrode and then coated with cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) to develop the ChOx&ChEt/Au NPs/rGO-PAMAM-Fc biosensor...
2019: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Giangiacomo Minak, Tommaso M Brugo, Cristiano Fragassa, Ana Pavlovic, Felipe V de Camargo, Nicola Zavatta
Cruisers are multi-occupant solar vehicles that are conceived to compete in long-range (over 3,000 km) solar races based on the best compromise between the energy consumption and the payload. They must comply to the race's rules regarding the overall dimensions, the solar panel size, functionality, and safety and structural requirements, while the shape, the materials, the powertrain, and the mechanics are considered at the discretion of the designer. In this work, the most relevant aspects of the structural design process of a full-carbon fiber-reinforced plastic solar vehicle are detailed...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lisa-Marie Faller, Johanna Zikulnig, Matic Krivec, Ali Roshanghias, Anze Abram, Hubert Zangl
A method to combine additively manufactured substrates or foils and multilayer inkjet printing for the fabrication of sensor devices is presented. First, three substrates (acrylate, ceramics, and copper) are prepared. To determine the resulting material properties of these substrates, profilometer, contact angle, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and focused ion beam (FIB) measurements are done. The achievable printing resolution and suitable drop volume for each substrate are, then, found through the drop size tests...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Amir H Noormohammadi, Kevin G Whithear
In order to compare the short-term efficacies of the live attenuated Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85, four groups of SPF chickens were vaccinated with each of the vaccines using eye drop and aerosol inoculations, and were subsequently challenged with a wild-type MG strain. When administered by the recommended routes (eye drop for ts-11 and fine aerosol for 6/85), both vaccines induced substantial and comparable levels of protection against airsacculitis and tracheitis caused by wild-type MG...
February 18, 2019: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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