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integrative approach

Carlos Silva, Neil McNaughton
Many see the periaqueductal grey (PAG) as a region responsible for the downstream control of defensive reactions. Here we provide a detailed review of anatomical and functional data on the different parts of the PAG together with the dorsal raphe, which completes the circle of periaqueductal nuclei. Based on anatomical features, we propose a new subdivision of the periaqueductal grey that accounts for the distinct characteristics of the area. We provide a comprehensive functional view of the periaqueductal grey, going beyond simple panic and escape to integrate data on fear, anxiety, and depression...
February 17, 2019: Progress in Neurobiology
Jinpeng Li, Raja Settivari, Matthew J LeBaron, M Sue Marty
Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is an important endpoint for the safety assessment of chemicals. However, the current in vivo animal model for DNT assessment is resource-intensive and may not fully capture all mechanisms that may be relevant to DNT in humans. As a result, there is a growing need for more reliable, time- and cost-efficient approaches for DNT evaluation. Towards this end, many stem/progenitor cell-based in vitro models and alternative organism-based models are becoming available with the potential for high throughput screening of DNT...
February 17, 2019: Neurotoxicology
Claire Rioualen, Lucie Charbonnier-Khamvongsa, Julio Collado-Vides, Jacques van Helden
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming a routine approach in most domains of the life sciences. To ensure reproducibility of results, there is a crucial need to improve the automation of NGS data processing and enable forthcoming studies relying on big datasets. Although user-friendly interfaces now exist, there remains a strong need for accessible solutions that allow experimental biologists to analyze and explore their results in an autonomous and flexible way. The protocols here describe a modular system that enable a user to compose and fine-tune workflows based on SnakeChunks, a library of rules for the Snakemake workflow engine (Köster and Rahmann, 2012)...
February 20, 2019: Current Protocols in Bioinformatics
Nadine Marshall, Paul Marshall, Matt Curnock, Petina Pert, Adam Smith, Bernard Visperas
The aesthetic appreciation of natural places is one of the most fundamental ways in which people relate to their environment. It provides wellbeing, an opportunity for recreation and reflection, a sense of place, and cultural enrichment. It also motivates people to take care of natural places and to conserve them for current and future appreciation. Aesthetically valuable places also support significant economic activity. However, there is little guidance available to assist environmental managers and policy-makers to consider and integrate aesthetic values into decision-making processes...
2019: PloS One
Karl Philipp Puchner, Rodrigo Rodriguez-Fernandez, Matthew Oliver, Zisimangelos Solomos
The epidemiological transitions that have occurred in low and middle income countries (LMIC) during the past decades have led to an increased prevalence on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in these countries, where the burden of infectious diseases (IDs), especially tuberculosis (TB), remains high. Although the true dimensions of this comorbidity have not yet been fully understood, there is a growing amount of data, over the last 10 years, that suggest a clear association between NCDs and TB. In particular, there is a continuously increasing body of evidence that diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory conditions, tobacco use, mental health illnesses and chronic kidney disease increase TB morbidity and mortality and vice versa...
February 20, 2019: Global Public Health
Brian E Bunnell, Gina Sprague, Suparna Qanungo, Michelle Nichols, Kathryn Magruder, Steven Lauzon, Jihad S Obeid, Leslie A Lenert, Brandon M Welch
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials are key to ensuring high-quality, effective, and safe health care interventions, but there are many barriers to their successful and timely implementation. Difficulties with participant recruitment and enrollment are largely affected by difficulties with obtaining informed consent. Teleconsent is a telemedicine- based approach to obtaining informed consent and offers a unique solution to limitations of traditional consent approaches. METHODS: We conducted a survey among 134 clinical trial researchers in academic/university-, industry-, and clinically based settings...
February 20, 2019: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Jeehan Chang, Jaekyeong Lee, Andrei Georgescu, Dan Huh, Taewook Kang
Century-old Langmuir monolayer deposition still represents the most convenient approach to the production of monolayers of colloidal nanoparticles on solid substrates for practical biological and chemical sensing applications. However, this approach simply yields arbitrarily-shaped large monolayers on a flat surface, and is strongly limited by substrate topography and interfacial energy. Here we describe a generalized and facile method of rapidly producing uniform monolayers of various colloidal nanoparticles on arbitrary solid substrates by using an ordinary capillary tube...
February 20, 2019: Nano Letters
Cindy Perscheid, Bastien Grasnick, Matthias Uflacker
The advance of high-throughput RNA-Sequencing techniques enables researchers to analyze the complete gene activity in particular cells. From the insights of such analyses, researchers can identify disease-specific expression profiles, thus understand complex diseases like cancer, and eventually develop effective measures for diagnosis and treatment. The high dimensionality of gene expression data poses challenges to its computational analysis, which is addressed with measures of gene selection. Traditional gene selection approaches base their findings on statistical analyses of the actual expression levels, which implies several drawbacks when it comes to accurately identifying the underlying biological processes...
December 22, 2018: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
Somiraa S Said, Hao Yin, Mai Elfarnawany, Zengxuan Nong, Caroline O'Neil, Hon Leong, James C Lacefield, Kibret Mequanint, J Geoffrey Pickering
Delivery of angiogenic growth factors lessens ischemia in preclinical models but has demonstrated little benefit in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Augmenting the wrapping of nascent microvessels by mural cells constitutes an alternative strategy to regenerating a functional microvasculature, particularly if integrated with a sustained delivery platform. Herein, electrospun poly(ester amide) (PEA) nanofiber mats are fabricated for delivering a mural cell-targeting factor, fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9)...
February 20, 2019: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Yi Tao, Surun Huang, Jizhong Yan, Weidong Li, Baochang Cai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Achyranthes bidentata Blume (AB) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine for treating osteoporosis and bone fracture. In the current, researches on pharmacological mechanism of AB mostly focused on molecular pathways, knowledge about its metabolic signatures is largely unclear. This study aims to develop an integrative metabolomics and metallomic approach for deciphering the biochemical basis of anti-osteoporosis effects of raw and salt-processed AB...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
M Hedlund, B J Landstad, J Q Tritter
We explore how Norwegian self-help groups are defined and managed to create a particular form of health system governmentality. Self-help groups are typically framed as therapeutic communities where participants define the agenda creating a space where open and equal interaction can produce individual learning and personal growth. In Norway, however, self-help groups are managed in a way that integrates them in to the health system but insulates them from clinical medicine; an approach that disciplines participants to act in a particular way in relation to the health system...
February 4, 2019: Social Science & Medicine
Ruijuan Hao, Xiaodong Du, Chuangye Yang, Yuewen Deng, Zhe Zheng, Qingheng Wang
Similar to other marine bivalves, Pinctada fucata martensii presents unsynchronized growth, which is one of the problems farmers currently face. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been studied. In the present study, pearl oyster P. f. martensii from cultured stocks were selected to produce a progeny stock. At 180 days, the stock was sorted by size, and fast- and slow-growing individuals were separately sampled. Then, metabolomic and transcriptomic approaches were applied to assess the metabolic and transcript changes between the fast- and slow-growing P...
February 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Yuanyuan Zhao, Chengxiao Hu, Xu Wang, Xuejiao Qing, Peng Wang, Ying Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Xiaohu Zhao
Excessive chromium (Cr) causes toxicity to plants, while the beneficial effects of selenium (Se) have been verified in plants under various adverse conditions. Under Cr stress, the impacts of exogenous Se on root morphology and metal element uptake were investigated in root of Chinese cabbage by cellular and biochemical approaches. Exogenous Se alleviated Cr-induced irreversible damage to root morphology, plasma membrane integrity and ultrastructure of root tip cells. Compared with Cr treatment alone, exogenous Se reduced root Cr content by 17%...
February 18, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Alessandra Vigilante, Anna Laddach, Nathalie Moens, Ruta Meleckyte, Andreas Leha, Arsham Ghahramani, Oliver J Culley, Annie Kathuria, Chloe Hurling, Alice Vickers, Erika Wiseman, Mukul Tewary, Peter W Zandstra, Richard Durbin, Franca Fraternali, Oliver Stegle, Ewan Birney, Nicholas M Luscombe, Davide Danovi, Fiona M Watt
Large cohorts of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from healthy donors are a potentially powerful tool for investigating the relationship between genetic variants and cellular behavior. Here, we integrate high content imaging of cell shape, proliferation, and other phenotypes with gene expression and DNA sequence datasets from over 100 human iPSC lines. By applying a dimensionality reduction approach, Probabilistic Estimation of Expression Residuals (PEER), we extracted factors that captured the effects of intrinsic (genetic concordance between different cell lines from the same donor) and extrinsic (cell responses to different fibronectin concentrations) conditions...
February 19, 2019: Cell Reports
Johannes Hamann, Stephan Heres
Patient involvement (shared decision making ) and caregiver involvement (family involvement, etc.) are mostly seen as different aspects of care, and efforts to integrate them are limited. This Open Forum posits that both approaches are critical and that caregiver involvement should always be considered during shared decision making, potentially as an integral component. The authors argue that the two approaches can overlap and work synergistically rather than antagonistically. When caregiver involvement is integrated into shared decision making, caregivers may assume any of a variety of roles and need to develop certain competencies to better engage in decision making...
February 20, 2019: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Dušan Hemzal, Yu Ri Kang, Jan Dvořák, Tomasz Kabzinski, Karel Kubíček, Young Dong Kim, Josef Humlíček
To deal with the general problem of biomolecule specific binding analysis, we have applied the technique of difference spectra to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-enhanced total internal reflection ellipsometry measurement. We suggest a three-step treatment of the SPR background that can easily be integrated with the usual measurement routine. First, making use of the difference spectrum in ellipsometric angle Δ, single peak footprints of the topmost layer are obtained that facilitate its sensitive detection during film growth...
February 20, 2019: Applied Spectroscopy
Ning Li, Zhiran Yi, Ye Ma, Feng Xie, Yue Huang, Yingwei Tian, Xiaoxue Dong, Yang Liu, Xin Shao, Yang Li, Lei Jin, Jingquan Liu, Zhiyun Xu, Bin Yang, Hao Zhang
Implantable medical devices are widely used for monitoring and treatment of severe diseases. In particular, an implantable cardiac pacemaker is the most effective therapeutic device for treating bradyrhythmia, however its surgical replacement is inevitable every 5-12 years due to the limited life of the built-in battery. Although several approaches of energy harvesting have been explored in this decade for powering cardiac pacemakers, the modern, commercial, and full-function pacemaker has never been powered effectively yet...
February 20, 2019: ACS Nano
Alicia S Kriete, Natasha Ginzburg, Nima Shah, Richard B Huneke, Emily Reimold, Katsiaryna Prudnikova, Owen Montgomery, J Steve Hou, Evan R Phillips, Michele S Marcolongo
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), a serious condition which affects ~56% of postmenopausal women, is the involuntary leakage of urine through urethra during physical activity that causes an increase in abdominal pressure. SUI is associated with a decrease in compliance and volume of urethral tissue, likely due to a reduced proteoglycan: collagen ratio in the extracellular matrix and collagen disorganization. Here, we investigated the use of biomimetic proteoglycans (BPGs) to molecularly engineer urethral tissue of New Zealand White rabbits to examine biocompatibility in vivo...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Christy Kollath-Cattano, Tyler Dorman, Andrew W Albano, Meenu Jindal, Scott M Strayer, James F Thrasher
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: There is limited research on how health care providers approach the topic of e-cigarettes in clinical encounters, especially in conjunction with other best-practice recommendations for smoking cessation. This qualitative study explored physician perceptions and recommendations involving e-cigarettes in the context of smoking cessation counselling, including their opinions about the implementation and content of patient educational materials that focus on e-cigarettes...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Rebecca Bailey, Stephanie M Jones
A growing body of research explores the ways in which regulatory skills are important contributors to school readiness, school success, and other positive developmental outcomes in childhood and throughout the lifespan. Research and theory suggest that children with strong regulatory skills may be better equipped to manage the complex academic, social, and emotional demands of early learning and school environments; and alternatively, deficits in regulatory skills can lead to problems in school adjustment, academic outcomes, and other measures of well-being...
February 19, 2019: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
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