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Graham Thornicroft, Nicole Votruba
In 2015, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set the course for a more equitable distribution of resources globally. For the first time in history, this collective global commitment explicitly included mental health-related objectives, and manifested them as targets in the health SDG 3. This represents a unique opportunity to increase coverage and quality of services, especially in low- and middle-income countries, in which the current treatment gap surpasses 80% even for the most severe disorders...
November 2018: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Meredith Minkler, Jessica Estrada, Shelley Dyer, Susana Hennessey-Lavery, Patricia Wakimoto, Jennifer Falbe
In low-income neighborhoods without supermarkets, lack of healthy food access often is exacerbated by the saturation of small corner stores with tobacco and unhealthy foods and beverages. We describe a municipal healthy retail program in San Francisco, California, focusing on the role of a local coalition in program implementation and outcomes in the city's low income Tenderloin neighborhood. By incentivizing selected corner stores to become healthy retailers, and through community engagement and cross-sector partnerships, the program is seeing promising outcomes, including a "ripple effect" of improvement across nonparticipating neighborhood stores...
February 2019: American Journal of Public Health
André Luiz Sá de Oliveira, Carlos Feitosa Luna, Louisiana Regadas de Macedo Quinino, Mônica de Avelar Figueirêdo Mafra Magalhães, Vinícius César de Moura Santana
OBJECTIVE: to describe spatial patterns of intentional homicides in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, 2011-2016. METHODS: this was an ecological study using census tracts as units of analysis; the study used data on intentional homicides of victims living in João Pessoa obtained by cross-checking Mortality Information System SIM information with Public Security information; mortality coefficients were calculated for the whole period and its triennia and were later smoothed using the local empirical Bayesian method; spatial autocorrelation techniques were applied to the smoothed coefficients which were using Moran's spatial statistics...
February 18, 2019: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Anas Aaqel Salim Salim Al-Ani, Thiago Henrique Scarabello Stape, Murat Mutluay, Leo Tjäderhane, Arzu Tezvergil-Mutluay
OBJECTIVE: To understand dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) interaction with distinct methacrylate monomer blends and the impact on polymer formation by investigating the combined relationship among degree of resin hydrophilicity, presence of DMSO and specific physico/mechanical properties. METHODS: One hydrophobic (R2) and one hydrophilic (R5) methacrylate-based resins with different monomer compositions were solvated in ascending DMSO concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 w/w %)...
February 14, 2019: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Michelle Helena van Velthoven, Carlos Cordon, Goutam Challagalla
BACKGROUND: This paper builds on an integrated framework of digital opportunities, based on information theory that was initially proposed by Claude Shannon: 1) providers of infrastructure for transmitting information; 2) platforms, devices, and software to bundle, store and deliver others' content; 3) original content creator); 4) platforms enabling peer-to-peer exchange; and 5) connected intelligence embed in devices. We aimed to clarify the meaning of digitization of organisations in the healthcare landscape and answer 'how can healthcare organisations compete in a world that is rapidly digitizing?'...
April 2019: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Cinzia Colombo, Anna Roberto, Karmela Krleza-Jeric, Elena Parmelli, Rita Banzi
OBJECTIVES: To gather knowledge on the current debate, opinions and attitudes of Italian patient and citizen groups on individual participant data (IPD) sharing from clinical studies. DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A 22-item online questionnaire was sent by email to 2003 contacts of patient and citizen groups in Italy. We received 311 responses, checked for duplicate respondents (16); 295 single groups responded, 280 providing questionnaires eligible for analysis (response rate 15%)...
February 19, 2019: BMJ Open
Lindsey Turner, Nicole O'Reilly, Katherine Ralston, Joanne F Guthrie
OBJECTIVE: The US Department of Agriculture's Summer Food Service Program and Seamless Summer Option (summer nutrition programmes (SNP)) aim to relieve food insecurity for children and teens during summer months. More needs to be known about when and where SNP are available, and how availability varies by community characteristics, particularly in rural areas where food insecurity and reduced food access are more prevalent. DESIGN: The present study examined the geographic availability of SNP and summer meal uptake rates in 2016, using state-wide administrative claims data...
February 18, 2019: Public Health Nutrition
Robert G Hauser, Jay Sengupta, Edward J Schloss, Larissa I Stanberry, Moses K Wananu, Raed Abdelhadi
BACKGROUND: Internal insulation breaches (IBR) may result ICD lead failure and adverse clinical events. Concerns exist that the Durata lead may be prone to IBR. OBJECTIVE: Assess Durata failures in the FDA MAUDE database and compare them to failures in MAUDE for Endotak Reliance (ER) and Sprint Quattro Secure (QS) leads. METHODS: We searched the MAUDE database from 2008-2018 for IBR and other failure modes. Included were explanted leads whose manufacturers found an insulation or conductor defect not caused by extrinsic factors...
February 14, 2019: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Francisca Di Pillo, Gustavo Anríquez, Pablo Alarcón, Pedro Jimenez-Bluhm, Pablo Galdames, Vanesa Nieto, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Christopher Hamilton-West
Backyard production systems (BPS) that involve poultry are a good way to improve food security and poverty alleviation. Few studies have been carried out to quantify the contribution of poultry production to these households and the constraints they might face if a priority animal disease enters these systems. This study aims to characterize the poultry-rearing BPS in central Chile and to identify socio-economic factors associated to households' consumption of poultry. Data was collected from 384 BPS through a face-to-face semi-structured questionnaire...
March 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Yangchun Li, Zhaoping Wang, Zongwu Zhao, Yuting Cui
Low salinity treatment is proven to be the practical polyploidy inducing method for shellfish with advantages of lower cost, higher operability and reliable food security. However, little is known about the possible molecular mechanism of hypotonic induction. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) based proteomic profiling was pursued to investigate the responses of zygotes of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to low salinity. A total of 2235 proteins were identified and 87 proteins were considered differentially expressed, of which 14 were up-regulated and 69 were down-regulated...
December 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Trina L Gipson-Jones, LaToya J OʼNeal, Jylana L Sheats, Roland J Thorpe, Bettina M Beech, Marino A Bruce
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between food security, parental health behaviors, and overweight/obesity among 2- to 5-year-old children in West Tennessee (N = 264). Results from logistic regression models indicate that the association between parental characteristics and child weight status varies by child sex and household food security. These findings highlight the need for more nuanced analysis that can produce results that inform and shape the development of precise health promotion and intervention strategies designed for diverse low-resource populations...
April 2019: Family & Community Health
Michelle L Kaiser, Julia Dionne, Jake K Carr
This study explored health outcomes of 301 individuals living within three food secure and three food insecure neighborhoods in a midwestern city by using a multi-level model that included household-level and neighborhood-level variables. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between household participation in food assistance programs, perceptions of neighborhood food access, distance to food stores where participants purchased food regularly, reliance upon social support systems for food provisioning, and use of community-based food system markets and/or programs with various diet-related health outcomes...
February 15, 2019: Social Work in Public Health
Abasiama Etuknwa, Kevin Daniels, Constanze Eib
Purpose A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of important personal and social factors on sustainable return to work (RTW) after ill-health due musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and common mental disorders (CMDs) and to compare the effects of these personal and social factors across both conditions. Sustainable RTW is defined as a stable full-time or part-time RTW to either original or modified job for a period of at least 3 months without relapse or sickness absence re-occurrence. Methods A literature search was conducted in 13 databases and 79 studies were selected for the review, of which the methodological design was graded as very high, high and low quality...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
Alison H Norris, Nisha Rao, Sarah Huber-Krum, Sarah Garver, Elly Chemey, Abigail Norris Turner
Poverty has widespread impacts on health. In dealing with resource scarcity, individuals' thoughts are narrowed to address immediate resource limitations, thus crowding out other information, a phenomenon called the scarcity mindset. To assess for indication of a scarcity mindset in sexual and reproductive decision making in rural Malawi, a setting with extreme resource scarcity, we collected qualitative data in the form of eight focus group discussions and 28 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with women and men of varying ages and marital status...
February 14, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Anadi Gupta, Rohit Srivastava
Low cost, environmentally friendly and industrial-scale approaches for the synthesis of anti-counterfeiting and antibacterial materials are a challenging task. The current research reports novel and inexpensive approaches for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanostructures (ZnO-NSs) using Mini Submersible Pump (MSP) assisted sonochemical reactors. Zinc oxide nanoleaves (ZnO-NLs) were synthesized using MSP assisted sonochemical mixing reactor at gram-scale (4 g). Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were synthesized using MSP assisted sonochemical flow loop reactor at gram-scale (11...
December 12, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Carolin Goetz, Nora-Maria Burian, Jochen Weitz, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Oliver Bissinger
BACKGROUND: Temporary tracheotomies are often used in oral microvascular flap reconstruction surgery to secure postoperative airway management and avoid emergency tracheotomies. Even when planned electively, a tracheotomy can cause severe and life-threatening complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the complications of tracheotomies performed on oral cancer patients with microvascular flap reconstructions and differentiated patterns, which could lead to postoperative complications...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Emily L Tuthill, Lila A Sheira, Kartika Palar, Edward A Frongillo, Tracey E Wilson, Adebola Adedimeji, Daniel Merenstein, Mardge H Cohen, Eryka L Wentz, Adaora A Adimora, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Lisa Metsch, Margot Kushel, Janet M Turan, Deborah Konkle-Parker, Phyllis C Tien, Sheri D Weiser
Background: Food insecurity and mental health negatively affect the lives of women in the United States. Participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) provided the opportunity to understand the association of food insecurity with depression and mental well-being over time. Objective: We investigated the association between current and persistent food insecurity and depression among women at risk of or living with HIV in the United States. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the WIHS, a prospective cohort study in women at risk of or living with HIV from multiple sites in the United States...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Santu Ghosh, Srishti Sinha, Tinku Thomas, Harshpal S Sachdev, Anura V Kurpad
Anemia in Indian women continues to be highly prevalent, and is thought to be due to low dietary iron content. The high risk of dietary iron deficiency is based on the Indian Council of Medical Research recommendation of 21 mg/d, but there is a need for a secure and transparent determination of the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of iron in this population. In nonpregnant, nonlactating women of reproductive age (WRA), the EAR of iron was determined to be 15 mg/d. Applying this value to daily iron intakes among WRA in nationally representative Indian state-based data showed that the median risk of dietary iron deficiency was lower than previously thought (65%; IQR: 48-78%), with considerable heterogeneity between states (range: 25-93%)...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Jay S Johnson, Sai Zhang, Gabriela M Morello, Jacob M Maskal, Nathalie L Trottier
The ability to determine total heat production (THP) in individual sows and litters can be logistically difficult and often requires the use of multiple animals to generate data on a per room basis. Furthermore, these systems may be costly to construct precluding their use by many researchers. Therefore, the objective was to develop a low cost indirect calorimetry system to determine THP in individual lactating sows and litters. Six indirect calorimeters were constructed to house 1 sow and litter in a crate throughout farrowing and a 21-d lactation period...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Daniel J Papapietro
Risk assessment in a forensic hospital is a complex process. Decisions made about individuals and their lives cannot be made lightly and must include relevant information from as many sources as possible. The forensic hospital and the greater legal system that oversees forensic treatment have an obligation to protect the safety of the community. Thus, any decision about a forensic patient's progress from high to low security or eventual transition and discharge into the community must be thoughtful and balanced, and must include input from the patients themselves...
February 11, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
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