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Radiotherapy vaccine

Wedad M Hanna, Carlos Parra-Herran, Fang-I Lu, Elzbieta Slodkowska, Eileen Rakovitch, Sharon Nofech-Mozes
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a neoplastic proliferation of mammary ductal epithelial cells confined to the ductal-lobular system, and a non-obligate precursor of invasive disease. While there has been a significant increase in the diagnosis of DCIS in recent years due to uptake of mammography screening, there has been little change in the rate of invasive recurrence, indicating that a large proportion of patients diagnosed with DCIS will never develop invasive disease. The main issue for clinicians is how to reliably predict the prognosis of DCIS in order to individualize patient treatment, especially as treatment ranges from surveillance only, breast-conserving surgery only, to breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy and/or hormonal therapy, and mastectomy with or without radiotherapy...
February 13, 2019: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Shirin Mahmoodi, Navid Alexis Nezafat, Manica Negahdaripour, Younes Ghasemi
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a rare population of tumor cells, which play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, and maintenance. The concept that cancer cells arise from stem cells was presented about 150 years ago. Nowadays, because of the heterogeneity of tumor cells, this hypothesis has been renewed. CSCs are resistant to chemo-and radio-therapy; therefore, targeting CSCs could be a novel and effective strategy to struggle with tumor cells. <p> Objective: In this mini review article, we highlight that different immunotherapeutic approaches, which can be used to target cancer cells and to eradicate different tumor cells, one of the most important targets are specific markers like CD44, CD133, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and SOX family members that have been recognized on the CSCs surface as CSC antigens...
February 3, 2019: Current Molecular Medicine
Zahra Payandeh, Maral Yarahmadi, Ziba Nariman-Saleh-Fam, Vahideh Tarhriz, Maryam Islami, Abdolreza Mehdinavaz Aghdam, Shirin Eyvazi
Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer which develops from the occurrence of genetic mutations in the melanocytes. Based on the features of melanoma tumors such as location, genetic profile and stage, there are several therapeutic strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, because of the appearance resistance mechanisms, the efficiency of these treatments strategies may be reduced. It has been demonstrated that therapeutic monoclonal antibodies can improve the efficiency of melanoma therapies...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Nehad M Ayoub, Kamal M Al-Shami, Rami J Yaghan
Cancer immunotherapy has evolved dramatically with improved understanding of immune microenvironment and immunosurveillance. The immunogenicity of breast cancer is rather heterogeneous. Specific subtypes of breast cancer such as estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, human EGF receptor 2 (HER2)-positive, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have shown evidence of immunogenicity based on tumor-immune interactions. Several preclinical and clinical studies have explored the potential for immunotherapy to improve the clinical outcomes for different subtypes of breast cancer...
2019: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
O Leaman Alcibar, D Candini, F López-Campos, M Albert Antequera, V Morillo Macías, A J Conde, A Rodríguez Pérez, A Hervás Morón, J Contreras Martínez, C Ferrer Albiach, S Navarro Aguilar, M E Rodríguez-Ruiz
Harnessing the patient's own immune system against an established cancer has proven to be a successful strategy. Within the last years, several antibodies blocking critical "checkpoints" that control the activation of T cells, the immune cells able to kill cancer cells, have been approved for the use in patients with different tumours. Unfortunately, these cases remain a minority. Over the last years, radiotherapy has been reported as a means to turn a patient's own tumour into an in situ vaccine and generate anti-tumour T cells in patients who lack sufficient anti-tumour immunity...
January 14, 2019: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Paul A Cohen, Anjua Jhingran, Ana Oaknin, Lynette Denny
Each year, more than half a million women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and the disease results in over 300 000 deaths worldwide. High-risk subtypes of the human papilloma virus (HPV) are the cause of the disease in most cases. The disease is largely preventable. Approximately 90% of cervical cancers occur in low-income and middle-income countries that lack organised screening and HPV vaccination programmes. In high-income countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality have more than halved over the past 30 years since the introduction of formal screening programmes...
January 12, 2019: Lancet
Guy-Anne Turgeon, Andrew Weickhardt, Arun A Azad, Benjamin Solomon, Shankar Siva
Radiotherapy is an effective treatment modality commonly used in efforts to cure many localised cancers and in the palliation of symptoms in metastatic cancers. Immunotherapy has revolutionised cancer care by increasing the disease control and overall survival of patients in several cancer types; however, the majority of patients do not respond to currently available therapies based on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). The benefit of those agents is limited to patients who have a pre-existing active immune microenvironment that can be reactivated by ICIs...
January 2019: Medical Journal of Australia
Asami Yagi, Yutaka Ueda, Mamoru Kakuda, Yusuke Tanaka, Sayaka Ikeda, Shinya Matsuzaki, Eiji Kobayashi, Toshitaka Morishima, Isao Miyashiro, Keisuke Fukui, Yuri Ito, Tomio Nakayama, Tadashi Kimura
Cervical cancer screening rate is extremely low and the governmental recommendation of HPV vaccine has been suspended for 5years in Japan. Here we utilize data from the Osaka Cancer Registry, collected between 1976 and 2012, to evaluate cervical cancer trends in Japan. Age-adjusted incidence, relative survival, and conditional survival rates were calculated using multiple imputation methods and period analyses in 25,826 cervical cancer cases. Association of survival rates and clinical factors, including patients' age, clinical stage, and treatment procedures, were also analyzed...
January 11, 2019: Cancer Research
Adil Allahverdiyev, Gamze Tari, Melahat Bagirova, Emrah Sefik Abamor
Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. In developed as well as developing countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer found among women. Currently, treatment of breast cancer consists mainly of surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiotherapy. In recent years, because of increased understanding of the therapeutic potential of immunotherapy in cancer prevention, cancer vaccines have gained importance. Here, we review various immunotherapeutic breast cancer vaccines including peptide-based vaccines, whole tumor cell vaccines, gene-based vaccines, and dendritic cell vaccines...
December 2018: Journal of Breast Cancer
Snehal Gajiwala, Anna Torgeson, Ignacio Garrido-Laguna, Conan Kinsey, Shane Lloyd
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a deadly disease, with its mortality rate approaching its incidence rate every year. Accordingly, much interest has been generated in harnessing the immune system in order to improve survival outcomes for these patients. Pancreatic cancer is not thought to be as immunogenic as other cancers that have seen promising results with immune checkpoint inhibitors alone, therefore likely several targets within the cancer-immunity cycle will need to be employed for successful treatment...
December 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Constance Thibault
Therapeutic advances in the last 3 decades in bladder cancer were very limited. The 21th century will be more promising with the advent of immunotherapies, with at the top of the list the immune-checkpoint inhibitors. The promising results of the early trials let us hope that these new therapies will soon enroll in the therapeutic landscape of urothelial carcinoma. This article reviews the clinical data of ongoing immunotherapeutic trials (checkpoint inhibitors, vaccine, cytokine) and also the association of the therapies with chemotherapy, antiangiogenics and radiotherapy...
December 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Liya Zhang, Yi Jiang, Xiaofan Lu, Huiling Zhao, Chen Chen, Yaoyan Wang, Wenjun Hu, Yue Zhu, Hangyu Yan, Fangrong Yan
OBJECTIVE: It is uncommon for cervical cancer patients to be diagnosed without a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. As prophylactic vaccines against high-risk HPV types are an ineffective preventive measure for these patients it is essential to identify differential biomarkers that may be associated with detection, prognosis and novel targeted therapies. The objective of this study was to compare the two entities, HPV+ and HPV- cervical cancers, based on TCGA public data. METHODS: We collected and analyzed clinical information of 299 cervical cancer patients as the first step, then identified differential expressed genes and conducted downstream analyses to characterize this tumor based on HPV status, including functional annotation, pathway mapping, survival analysis and comparative somatic mutation landscapes...
December 20, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Mandy van Gulijk, Floris Dammeijer, Joachim G J V Aerts, Heleen Vroman
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that are essential for the activation of immune responses. In various malignancies, these immunostimulatory properties are exploited by DC-therapy, aiming at the induction of effective anti-tumor immunity by vaccination with ex vivo antigen-loaded DCs. Depending on the type of DC-therapy used, long-term clinical efficacy upon DC-therapy remains restricted to a proportion of patients, likely due to lack of immunogenicity of tumor cells, presence of a stromal compartment, and the suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), thereby leading to the development of resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Derin B Keskin, Annabelle J Anandappa, Jing Sun, Itay Tirosh, Nathan D Mathewson, Shuqiang Li, Giacomo Oliveira, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Kristen Felt, Evisa Gjini, Sachet A Shukla, Zhuting Hu, Letitia Li, Phuong M Le, Rosa L Allesøe, Alyssa R Richman, Monika S Kowalczyk, Sara Abdelrahman, Jack E Geduldig, Sarah Charbonneau, Kristine Pelton, J Bryan Iorgulescu, Liudmila Elagina, Wandi Zhang, Oriol Olive, Christine McCluskey, Lars R Olsen, Jonathan Stevens, William J Lane, Andres M Salazar, Heather Daley, Patrick Y Wen, E Antonio Chiocca, Maegan Harden, Niall J Lennon, Stacey Gabriel, Gad Getz, Eric S Lander, Aviv Regev, Jerome Ritz, Donna Neuberg, Scott J Rodig, Keith L Ligon, Mario L Suvà, Kai W Wucherpfennig, Nir Hacohen, Edward F Fritsch, Kenneth J Livak, Patrick A Ott, Catherine J Wu, David A Reardon
Neoantigens, which are derived from tumour-specific protein-coding mutations, are exempt from central tolerance, can generate robust immune responses1,2 and can function as bona fide antigens that facilitate tumour rejection3 . Here we demonstrate that a strategy that uses multi-epitope, personalized neoantigen vaccination, which has previously been tested in patients with high-risk melanoma4-6 , is feasible for tumours such as glioblastoma, which typically have a relatively low mutation load1,7 and an immunologically 'cold' tumour microenvironment8 ...
December 19, 2018: Nature
Aleksei A Stepanenko, Vladimir P Chekhonin
To date, no targeted drugs, antibodies or combinations of chemotherapeutics have been demonstrated to be more efficient than temozolomide, or to increase efficacy of standard therapy (surgery, radiotherapy, temozolomide, steroid dexamethasone). According to recent phase III trials, standard therapy may ensure a median overall survival of up to 18⁻20 months for adult patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. These data explain a failure of positive non-controlled phase II trials to predict positive phase III trials and should result in revision of the landmark Stupp trial as a historical control for median overall survival in non-controlled trials...
December 5, 2018: Cancers
Julia Krombach, Roman Hennel, Nikko Brix, Michael Orth, Ulrike Schoetz, Anne Ernst, Jessica Schuster, Gabriele Zuchtriegel, Christoph A Reichel, Susanne Bierschenk, Markus Sperandio, Thomas Vogl, Steffen Unkel, Claus Belka, Kirsten Lauber
The major goal of radiotherapy is the induction of tumor cell death. Additionally, radiotherapy can function as in situ cancer vaccination by exposing tumor antigens and providing adjuvants for anti-tumor immune priming. In this regard, the mode of tumor cell death and the repertoire of released damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are crucial. However, optimal dosing and fractionation of radiotherapy remain controversial. Here, we examined the initial steps of anti-tumor immune priming by different radiation regimens (20 Gy, 4 × 2 Gy, 2 Gy, 0 Gy) with cell lines of triple-negative breast cancer in vitro and in vivo ...
2019: Oncoimmunology
Mostafa Sarvizadeh, Faezeh Ghasemi, Fatemeh Tavakoli, Sara Sadat Khatami, Ebrahim Razi, Hossein Sharifi, Nousin Moussavi Biouki, Mohsen Taghizadeh
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is known as the third most common and fourth leading cancer associated death worldwide. The occurrence of metastasis has remained as a critical challenge in CRC, so that distant metastasis (mostly to the liver) has been manifested in about 20%-25% of patients. Several screening approaches have introduced for detecting CRC in different stages particularly in early stages. The standard treatments for CRC are surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, in alone or combination. Immunotherapy is a set of novel approaches with the aim of remodeling the immune system battle with metastatic cancer cells, such as immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (immune checkpoint inhibitors), adoptive cell transfer (ACT) and cancer vaccine...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Marcela de la Torre
Cervical cancer is a major global health problem for women. Despite the screening and vaccines available today, it continues to be the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide with 85% of cases occurring in developing countries. Standard treatments for early or locally advanced cervical cancer are surgery (S) or concomitant chemo-radiotherapy (CT-RT). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) prior to surgery or radiotherapy has been proposed and tested in clinical trials and has been included in clinical practice in some countries...
November 2018: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Ryan P Werntz, Brittany Adamic, Gary D Steinberg
PURPOSE: BCG is the gold standard in management of high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HRNMIBC). However, in patients who fail BCG, there are few effective intrasvesical options. This review aims to explore standard and emerging therapies in HRNMIBC. METHODS: A non-systematic literature review was performed using Medline and PubMed. Literature focused on HRNMIBC and BCG failure studies, with particular attention to Phase II and III clinical trials. RESULTS: The only FDA approved therapy for BCG failure patients in Valrubicin...
December 4, 2018: World Journal of Urology
J M Mor, K R Koch, V Kakkassery, C Cursiefen, L M Heindl
BACKGROUND: Benign iridal tumors rarely necessitate a therapeutic intervention. In contrast, malignant tumors of the iris can threaten the patient's life and eyesight and require early treatment to prevent the development of metastases. OBJECTIVE: Presentation of current treatment options for iridal tumors with special emphasis on iridal melanoma. METHODS: This article gives an overview of the current literature based on a PubMed search as well as own clinical experience...
December 4, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
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