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Statins and liver

Alper Sonmez, Volkan Yumuk, Cem Haymana, Ibrahim Demirci, Cem Barcin, Sinem Kıyıcı, Sibel Güldiken, Gonca Örük, Basak Ozgen Saydam, Süleyman Baldane, Faruk Kutlutürk, Ferit Kerim Küçükler, Oğuzhan Deyneli, Berrin Çetinarslan, Tevfik Sabuncu, Fahri Bayram, Ilhan Satman
BACKGROUND: Obesity is the main obstacle for metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Turkey has the highest prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in Europe. The effect of obesity on the metabolic control, and the macro- and microvascular complications of patients are not apparent. OBJECTIVES: This nationwide survey aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among patients with type 2 diabetes and to search for the impact of obesity on the metabolic control of these patients...
March 20, 2019: Obesity Facts
Shu-Ting Chen, Shih-Ting Huang, Wen-Yi Shau, Chao-Lun Lai, Jim Z Li, Selwyn Fung, Vicki C Tse, Mei-Shu Lai
BACKGROUND: Despite the recommendations of statins treatment for secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), treatment adherence and persistence are still a concern. This study examined the real world practice of long-term adherence and persistence to statins treatment initiated after hospital discharge for ASCVD, and their associated factors in a nationwide cohort. METHODS: Post discharge statin prescriptions between 2006 and 2012 were extracted from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database...
March 15, 2019: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Fabio Nascimbeni, Elisa Pellegrini, Simonetta Lugari, Alberto Mondelli, Serena Bursi, Giovanna Onfiani, Francesca Carubbi, Amedeo Lonardo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes a spectrum of alcohol-like hepatic histological changes, which occur in the absence of any competing causes of chronic liver disease, notably including significant alcohol consumption. A close and bi-directional relationship links NAFLD with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and concurrent MetS will hasten the progression to more severe forms of NAFLD, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with NAFLD will typically exhibit atherogenic dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular risk (CVR)...
March 3, 2019: Atherosclerosis
Anup Shrestha, Alex Mulmi, Raiko Munankarmi
Statins are a group of essential medications used in ischemic heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. In patients with these medical conditions, they have been proven to decrease mortality and morbidity. However, statins can cause transient elevation of liver enzymes in some patients, which has led to the unnecessary cessation of these agents prematurely. Physicians also face a dilemma when determining if they should utilize statins in patients whose liver enzymes are elevated at baseline. This dilemma may prevent physicians from prescribing statins when clinically indicated, and safe...
January 2019: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
M Ruscica, M Banach, A Sahebkar, A Corsini, C R Sirtori
Tolerability problems in treating hypercholesterolemic patients undergoing statin treatment are of growing concern to physicians and patients, thus underlining the need for an agent with a similar mechanism but minimal side effects. A drug with a somewhat similar mechanism to statins but free of muscular side effects is ETC-1002 (bempedoic acid). It inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis at a step preceding HMG-CoA reductase, i.e. ATP citrate lyase (ACLY). A prodrug, ETC-1002 is converted to the active agent only in liver, not in skeletal muscle, and this may prevent any myotoxic activity...
February 27, 2019: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Anne Tournadre
Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMSs) vary considerably in frequency and severity, with a spectrum extending from myalgia with normal creatine kinase (CK) levels or asymptomatic hyperCKemia to potentially life-threatening rhabdomyolysis and necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. Myalgia with CK elevation is the most common presentation. Onset is usually within 1 month after statin initiation or dosage intensification, and the symptoms can be expected to resolve within a few weeks after treatment discontinuation...
February 5, 2019: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Abraham Tsur, Flora Kalish, Jordan Burgess, Nihar R Nayak, Hui Zhao, Kerriann M Casey, Maurice L Druzin, Ronald J Wong, David K Stevenson
INTRODUCTION: Statins induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in vitro and in vivo. Low HO-1 expression is associated with pregnancy complications, e.g. preeclampsia and recurrent miscarriages. Here, we investigated the effects of pravastatin on HO-1 expression, placental development, and fetal survival in mice with a partial HO-1 deficiency. METHODS: At E14.5, untreated pregnant wild-type (WT, n=13-18), untreated HO-1+/- (Het, n=6-9), and Het mice treated with pravastatin (Het+Pravastatin, n=12-14) were sacrificed...
January 2019: Placenta
Gavin P Andrews, Shu Li, Ammar Almajaan, Tao Yu, Luigi Martini, Anne Marie Healy, David S Jones
Hyperlipidaemia is considered as one of the main risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Among different lipid-lowering agents used to manage hyperlipidaemia, statins are highly prescribed for management of hyperlipidaemia with simvastatin being one of the most common. Simvastatin is susceptible to extensive metabolism by CYP450 3A4 and 3A5 which are expressed both in the liver and the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, the localization of these enzymes is site dependent with lower concentration at the distal/proximal regions of the small intestine/colon...
January 31, 2019: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Eleonora Leggiero, Giuseppe Labruna, Laura Iaffaldano, Barbara Lombardo, Adelaide Greco, Dario Fiorenza, Matteo Gramanzini, Donatella Montanaro, Alfonso Baldi, Vincenzo Cerullo, Lucia Sacchetti, Lucio Pastore
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic hyperlipidemia characterized by elevated concentrations of plasma LDL cholesterol. Statins are not always effective for the treatment of FH patients; unresponsive patients have poor prognosis and rely on LDL apheresis. In the past, we developed safe and effective gene therapy strategies for the expression of anti-atherogenic proteins using PEGylated helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vectors. We recently developed a HD-Ad vector for the expression of the soluble form of the extracellular portion of the human LDL receptor (LDLR) fused with a rabbit transferrin dimer (LDLR-TF)...
January 30, 2019: Gene Therapy
Antonio J Amor, Verónica Perea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings regarding the characterization of lipoprotein disturbances in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their relationship with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and make recommendations for the management of this situation. RECENT FINDINGS: Advanced lipoprotein profile (using NMR spectroscopy) has shown profound lipoprotein derangements which are overlooked with conventional analyses: increased number and size of very low-density lipoproteins particles, increased number of low-density lipoprotein particles (especially small sized), smaller high-density lipoprotein particles, and an increase in the triglyceride content of all these lipoproteins...
January 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
You Cheol Hwang, Ji Eun Jun, In Kyung Jeong, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Ho Yeon Chung
BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein B/A1 (apoB/A1) ratio is a stronger predictor of future cardiovascular disease than is the level of conventional lipids. Statin and ezetimibe combination therapy have shown additional cardioprotective effects over statin monotherapy. METHODS: This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, active-controlled study in Korea. A total of 36 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized to either rosuvastatin monotherapy (20 mg/day, n =20) or rosuvastatin/ezetimibe (5 mg/10 mg/day, n =16) combination therapy for 6 weeks...
January 16, 2019: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Mohammad Bilal Siddiqui, Tamoore Arshad, Samarth Patel, Emily Lee, Somaya Albhaisi, Arun J Sanyal, R Todd Stravitz, Carolyn Driscoll, Richard K Sterling, Trevor Reichman, Chandra Bhati, Mohammad Shadab Siddiqui
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation (LT). Although LT is associated with dyslipidemia, particularly atherogenic lipoprotein sub-particles, the impact of these sub-particles on cardiovascular disease (CVD) related events is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) on CVD events. METHODS: Prospectively enrolled patients (N=130) had detailed lipid profile consisting of traditional lipid parameters and sdLDL-C and were followed for CVD events...
January 23, 2019: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Ching-Hui Huang, Ya-Yun Lai, Yu-Jui Kuo, Su-Ching Yang, Yu-Jun Chang, Kuo-Kuan Chang, Wen-Kang Chen
Background: Liver cirrhosis is an uncommon but not rare side effect of amiodarone-induced hepatotoxicity. Patients with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are at a high risk for developing liver cirrhosis. However, the relationship between this treatment and risk of liver cirrhosis in high-risk chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C patients is unknown. Patients and methods: The present study identified amiodarone users (N=8,081) from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1997 through 2013...
2019: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Mark Barahman, Wei Zhang, Hillary Yaffe Harris, Anita Aiyer, Rafi Kabarriti, Milan Kinkhabwala, Namita Roy-Chowdhury, Amanda P Beck, Thomas S Scanlan, Jayanta Roy-Chowdhury, Patrik Asp, Chandan Guha
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Binding of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-containing lipoprotein complex to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is essential for cholesterol and lipid homeostasis. Inherited abnormalities in ApoE or LDLR function result in early onset cardiovascular disease and death, and lipid-lowering therapeutics, e.g statins or PCSK9 inhibitors are ineffective in the absence of LDLR or ApoE function. Liver transplantation corrects these metabolic disorders as hepatocytes are central to lipid homeostasis...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Hepatology
Michael Doumas, Konstantinos Imprialos, Aikaterini Dimakopoulou, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Athanasios Binas, Vasilios G Athyros
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its advanced form non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are the most common causes of elevated liver enzymes in the general population. NASH and to a lesser extent NAFLD have been associated with increased liver-related, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all-cause mortality. No effective treatment is widely acceptable. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is summarize available data on the impact of statins in NAFLD and NASH...
January 16, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Michael Kühl, Christian Binner, Joanna Jozwiak, Julia Fischer, Jochen Hahn, Alaeldin Addas, Boris Dinov, Jens Garbade, Gerhard Hindricks, Michael Borger
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolaemia is common in patients after cardiac transplantation. Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and subsequently the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with dyslipidaemia. There are no published data on the effect of this medication class on cholesterol levels in patients after cardiac transplantation. METHODS: In this retrospective study we investigated patients who were treated with PCSK9 inhibitors either because of intolerance of statins or residual hypercholesterolaemia with evidence of cardiac allograft vasculopathy...
2019: PloS One
Angelo Maria Patti, Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Nikolaos Papanas, Manfredi Rizzo, Ali A Rizvi
Diabetic dyslipidemia is frequent among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is characterized by an increase in triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and small-dense (atherogenic) particles, and by a decrease in low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 that are strongly related to insulin resistance. The increased flux of free fatty acids from adipose tissue to the liver aggravates hepatic insulin resistance and promotes all of aspects of the dyslipidemic state...
February 2019: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Elisabetta Bigagli, Simona Toti, Maura Lodovici, Lisa Giovannelli, Lorenzo Cinci, Mario D'Ambrosio, Cristina Luceri
BACKGROUND: Human studies have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds reduce inflammatory markers associated with chronic diseases. OBJECTIVES: To explore the anti-inflammatory effects of extra-virgin olive oil polyphenols in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: HLA-B27 transgenic rats were fed an AIN-76 diet containing 10% corn oil (CO) or extra-virgin olive oil with high (EVOO) or low phenolic content (ROO) for 3 months...
January 10, 2019: Lifestyle Genomics
Shyam Menon, Ray Mathew
BACKGROUND: The incidence of hepatobiliary cancer is steadily increasing. It is unclear if this rise is related to increasing trends in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and lifestyle changes. METHODS: A case-control study was performed using the Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Cases with a diagnosis of liver, bile duct, and gallbladder cancers were matched in a 1:2 fashion with controls and analyzed for potential associations between hepatobiliary cancer and obesity/metabolic syndrome...
January 10, 2019: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Vladimír Soška, Ondřej Kyselák
Statins are among the most important drugs in preventive cardiology because they greatly improve the prognosis of risk patients in both primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Adherence to long-term statin therapy is poor and decreases with the duration of statin use. A number of fake news about adverse effects of statins disseminated on the internet, such as damage of the brain, liver or kidney, contribute to worsening adherence. Statins therapy is sometimes unnecessary discontinued before planned surgery...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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