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Eye blocks

Nathaniel Parsons, Balasubramaniam Annamalai, Elisabeth Obert, Gloriane Schnabolk, Stephen Tomlinson, Bärbel Rohrer
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the US. Polymorphisms in complement components are associated with increased AMD risk, and it has been hypothesized that an overactive complement system is partially responsible for AMD pathology. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) has two phases, injury/angiogenesis and repair/fibrosis. Complement activation has been shown to be involved in the angiogenesis phase of murine CNV, but has not been investigated during repair. Anaphylatoxin (C3a and C5a) signaling in particular has been shown to be involved in both tissue injury and repair in other models...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Juan B Ortiz-Delgado, Victoria Funes, Carmen Sarasquete
BACKGROUND: Organophosphate pesticides-OP-, like malathion, can alter the normal functioning of neuro-endocrine systems (e.g., hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-HPT- axis), and to interfere on the thyroidal homeostasis. Through direct interactions with thyroid receptors, an/or indirectly via up-stream signalling pathways, from the HPT axis (i.e., negative feedback regulation), malathion possess the ability to affect integrity of thyroidal follicular tissue, and it can also block or delay its hormonal functioning...
February 11, 2019: BMC Veterinary Research
Max Loidl, Achim Schneider, Oliver Keis, Wolfgang Öchsner, Claudia Grab-Kroll, Gerhard K Lang, Jürgen Kampmeier
BACKGROUND: At the Medical Faculty of the University of Ulm, the learning objectives of ophthalmology are taught to students in a one-week block course in the fourth year of study. According to the National Competency-based Learning Objective Catalogue Medicine (NKLM), one of these learning objectives is the clinical examination of the eye, including the eye fundus examination. In order to best train this expertise as defined in the NKLM, a novel, augmented reality-based training simulator (Eyesi Indirect, VRmagic Holding AG, Mannheim, Germany) was integrated into the teaching at the University Eye Hospital Ulm...
February 8, 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
R Richardson, N Owen, M Toms, Rodrigo M Young, D Tracey-White, M Moosajee
Incomplete fusion of the optic fissure leads to ocular coloboma, a congenital eye defect that affects up to 7.5 per 10,000 births and accounts for up to 10 percent of childhood blindness. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that facilitate optic fissure fusion remain elusive. We have profiled global gene expression during optic fissure morphogenesis by transcriptome analysis of tissue dissected from the margins of the zebrafish optic fissure and the opposing dorsal retina before (32 hours post fertilisation, hpf), during (48 hpf) and after (56 hpf) optic fissure fusion...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Carsten Balser, Anne Wolf, Marc Herb, Thomas Langmann
BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment in the elderly. The neovascular (wet) form of AMD can be treated with intravitreal injections of different anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. Placental growth factor (PGF) is another member of the VEGF family of cytokines with pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory effects. Here, we aimed to compare single and combined inhibition of VEGF-A and PGF in the laser-induced mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with a focus on the effects on retinal mononuclear phagocytes...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Hao Jia, Xin Fu, Ting Zhou, Lei Zhang, Shanglin Yang, Lin Yang
Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) for on-chip interconnect, as a degree of freedom to enable further scaling the communication capacity, has attracted wide attention. However, selective loading information to the multimode light carriers of MDM systems is not as simple as the situation in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM). In this paper, we demonstrate a scalable mode-selective modulation device for on-chip optical interconnect. It consists of two functional blocks. In one block, we use carrier-depletion add-drop silicon microring resonators to implement the simultaneous mode de-multiplexing from the multimode bus waveguide and high-speed modulation function...
February 4, 2019: Optics Express
Vasanthy Vigneswara, Zubair Ahmed
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) undergo rapid cell death by apoptosis after injury but can be rescued by suppression of caspase-2 (CASP2) using an siRNA to CASP2 (siCASP2). Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), has neuroprotective and anti-angiogenic functions and protects RGC from death. The purpose of this study was to investigate if suppression of CASP2 is a possible mechanism of neuroprotection by PEDF in RGC. Adult rat retinal cells were treated in vitro with sub-optimal and optimal concentrations of siCASP2 and PEDF and levels of CASP2 mRNA and RGC survival were then quantified...
February 4, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Jaime Viscasillas, Richard Everson, Emma Kate Mapletoft, Charlotte Dawson
OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel ultrasound-guided posterior extraconal block in the dog. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental cadaveric study. ANIMALS: A total of 13 Beagle Cross cadaver heads. METHODS: After describing the ultrasound bony landmarks and posterior extraconal local regional technique in one head, 12 heads were used to evaluate the spreading of contrast and evaluate potential complications. A 5-8 MHz microconvex ultrasound probe was positioned caudal to the orbital ligament, with the beam orientated transversely, and then tilted caudally until the orbital fissure was visualized...
October 11, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Midhat H Abdulreda, Dora M Berman, Alexander Shishido, Christopher Martin, Maged Hossameldin, Ashley Tschiggfrie, Luis F Hernandez, Ana Hernandez, Camillo Ricordi, Jean-Marie Parel, Ewa Jankowska-Gan, William J Burlingham, Esdras A Arrieta-Quintero, Victor L Perez, Norma S Kenyon, Per-Olof Berggren
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Patients with autoimmune type 1 diabetes transplanted with pancreatic islets to their liver experience significant improvement in quality of life through better control of blood sugar and enhanced awareness of hypoglycaemia. However, long-term survival and efficacy of the intrahepatic islet transplant are limited owing to liver-specific complications, such as immediate blood-mediated immune reaction, hypoxia, a highly enzymatic and inflammatory environment and locally elevated levels of drugs including immunosuppressive agents, all of which are injurious to islets...
January 31, 2019: Diabetologia
Brittany J Carr, Cynthia T Nguyen, William K Stell
BACKGROUND: The putative myopia-controlling receptor is thought to be muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype M4 , because mamba toxin-3 can inhibit form-deprivation myopia in chicks at a far lower concentration than atropine. However, mamba toxin-3 is equally potent at the human α1A -, α1D -, and α2A -adrenoceptors. To test the hypothesis that α-adrenoceptors might be involved in regulation of eye growth, the treatment effects of α2 -adrenoceptor agonists brimonidine, clonidine, and guanfacine, and antagonist yohimbine, on form-deprivation myopia in the chick were measured...
January 30, 2019: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Selina Khan, Mohamed Elashry
A 43-year-old lady presented with painful, loss of vision in the right eye 2 weeks after cataract surgery. This is on a background of previous central retinal vein occlusion in the right eye and bilateral diabetic retinopathy. Her past medical history included mixed connective tissue disease for which she is on systemic immunosuppressants. Ocular examination revealed significant corneal oedema, a shallow anterior chamber with an intraocular pressure of 45 mmHg. Intraocular pressure lowering medications were administered and repeat examination identified a fine fibrinous membrane attached to the pupillary margin with a substantial third space that had formed between the posterior edge of the membrane and the anterior lens surface...
January 2019: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Mathias V Melega, Monica Alves, Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti Lira, Iuri Cardoso da Silva, Bruna Gil Ferreira, Hermano Lg Assis Filho, Fernando Rodrigo Pedreira Chaves, Alexandre A F Martini, Livia Maria Dias Freire, Roberto Dos Reis, Carlos Eduardo Leite Arieta
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intracameral (IC) 0.5% moxifloxacin in the prevention of post-cataract endophthalmitis. SETTING: University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN: Prospective randomized partially masked single-site clinical trial. METHODS: Patients who had phacoemulsification were randomized into two groups in block sizes of 4. Group A (moxifloxacin group) consisted of patients who received an IC injection of 0...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Natalia V Dolgova, Susan Nehzati, Tracy C MacDonald, Kelly L Summers, Andrew M Crawford, Patrick H Krone, Graham N George, Ingrid J Pickering
Mercury is one of the most toxic elements threatening the biosphere, with levels steadily rising due to both natural and human activities. Selenium is an essential micronutrient, required for normal development and functioning of many organisms. While selenium is known to counteract mercury's toxicity under some conditions, to date information about the mercury-selenium relationship is fragmented and often controversial. As part of a systematic study of mercury and selenium interactions, zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae (a model verterbrate) were exposed to methylmercury chloride or mercuric chloride...
January 28, 2019: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Nicola Michielli, U Rajendra Acharya, Filippo Molinari
Automated evaluation of a subject's neurocognitive performance (NCP) is a relevant topic in neurological and clinical studies. NCP represents the mental/cognitive human capacity in performing a specific task. It is difficult to develop the study protocols as the subject's NCP changes in a known predictable way. Sleep is time-varying NCP and can be used to develop novel NCP techniques. Accurate analysis and interpretation of human sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) signals is needed for proper NCP assessment...
January 19, 2019: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Yuel-Kai Jean, David Kam, Steven Gayer, Howard D Palte, Alecia L S Stein
Ophthalmic pediatric regional anesthesia has been widely described, but infrequently used. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting the use of conduction anesthesia in pediatric ophthalmic surgery. Key anatomic differences in axial length, intraocular pressure, and available orbital space between young children and adults impact conduct of ophthalmic regional anesthesia. The eye is near adult size at birth and completes its growth rapidly while the orbit does not. This results in significantly diminished extraocular orbital volumes for local anesthetic deposition...
January 21, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Jiaxin Hu, Xiulong Shen, Frank Rigo, Thahza P Prakash, V Vinod Mootha, David R Corey
Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) leads to vision loss and is one of the most common inherited eye diseases. Corneal transplants are the only curative treatment available, and there is a major unmet need for treatments that are less invasive and independent of donor tissue. Most cases of FECD are associated with an expanded CUG repeat within the intronic region of TCF4 and the mutant RNA has been implicated as the cause of the disease. We previously presented preliminary data suggesting that single-stranded antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) can inhibit CUG RNA foci in patient-derived cells and tissue...
January 24, 2019: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
M W Rodrigues, D B Cavallini, C Dalloul, C L Shields, R Jorge
Background: The congenital simple hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium is a benign lesion and previous observations with noninvasive imaging have detected potential photoreceptor abnormalities and retinal function interplay. Case presentation: A 35-year-old woman was found to have an asymptomatic, solitary, circumscribed, pigmented lesion in her left eye. The patient underwent ophthalmic examination including multimodal evaluation with fluorescein angiography, near-infrared reflectance scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, blue autofluorescence, enhanced-depth imaging spectralis B-scan optical coherence tomography (EDI-SBOCT), en face OCT angiography (OCT-A) and microperimetry plus adaptive optics imaging...
2019: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
Fan-Li Lin, Yu-Wen Cheng, Min Yu, Jau-Der Ho, Yu-Cheng Kuo, George C Y Chiou, Hung-Ming Chang, Tzong-Huei Lee, George Hsiao
BACKGROUND: Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for glaucoma that has been found to induce matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and result in eventual retinal dysfunction. Proinflammatory cytokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were also found to be involved in disease progression by mediating MMP-9 production. We previously reported that fungal derivative theissenolactone C (LC53) could exert ocular protective effects by suppressing neuroinflammation in experimental uveitis...
November 7, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Gitansha Sachdev, Dandapani Ramamurthy
Purpose: To review the safety of the implantable phakic contact lens (IPCL V1, Caregroup Sight Solutions, India) for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. Methods: Retrospective interventional case series including 134 eyes which underwent IPCL implantation for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism at a tertiary eye care hospital in South India. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were analyzed. The following parameters were analyzed at preoperative and 1, 6 and 12 month postoperative visits: visual acuity (in logMAR) and manifest refraction, slit lamp bio microscopy, dilated fundus examination, IOP and endothelial cell density measurement...
2019: Clinical Ophthalmology
Kevin Johnston, Liya Ma, Lauren Schaeffer, Stefan Everling
Cognitive control often requires suppression of prepotent stimulus-driven responses in favour of less potent alternatives. Suppression of prepotent saccades has been shown to require proactive inhibition in the frontoparietal saccade network. Electrophysiological evidence in macaque monkeys has revealed neural correlates of such inhibition in this network, however the interlaminar instantiation of inhibitory processes remains poorly understood as these areas lie deep within sulci in macaques, rendering them inaccessible to laminar recordings...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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