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Muhuo Ji, Jiangyan Xia, Xiaohui Tang, Jianjun Yang
Memory enhancement and memory decline are two opposing cognitive performances commonly observed in clinical practice, yet the neural mechanisms underlying these two different phenomena remain poorly understood. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the default-mode network (DMN) is implicated in diverse cognitive, social, and affective processes. In the present study, we used the retrosplenial cortex as a seed region to study the functional connectivity within the DMN in two animal models with opposing episodic memories, of which memory enhancement was induced by footshocks to mimic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and memory decline was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge to mimic sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE)...
2018: PloS One
Shuhua Lai, Gangwei Wu, Zhixian Jiang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Impaired fear memory extinction is widely considered a key mechanism of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies have suggested that neuroinflammation after a single prolonged stress (SPS) exposure may play a critical role in the impaired fear memory extinction. Studies have shown that high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) is critically involved in neuroinflammation. However, the role of HMGB-1 underlying the development of impairment of fear memory extinction is still not known...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jessica Deslauriers, Myrthe van Wijngaarde, Mark A Geyer, Susan Powell, Victoria B Risbrough
The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high in the armed services, with a rate up to 20%. Multiple studies have associated markers of inflammatory signaling prior to trauma with increased risk of PTSD, suggesting a potential role of the immune system in the development of this psychiatric disorder. One question that arises is if "priming" the immune system before acute trauma alters the stress response and increases enduring effects of trauma. We investigated the time course of inflammatory response to predator stress, a robust stressor that induces enduring PTSD-like behaviors, and the modulation of these effects via prior immune activation with the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist...
April 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
María M Quiñones, Lizette Maldonado, Bethzaly Velazquez, James T Porter
Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) tend to show signs of a relatively increased inflammatory state suggesting that activation of the immune system may contribute to the development of PTSD. In the present study, we tested whether activation of the innate immune system can disrupt acquisition or recall of auditory fear extinction using an animal model of PTSD. Male adolescent rats received auditory fear conditioning in context A. The next day, an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) prior to auditory fear extinction in context B impaired acquisition and recall of extinction...
February 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Mirjam van Zuiden, Annemieke Kavelaars, Eric Vermetten, Miranda Olff, Elbert Geuze, Cobi Heijnen
Deployed soldiers are at risk of developing stress-related conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and severe fatigue. We previously observed condition- and cell-specific differences in sensitivity of immune cells for regulation by glucocorticoids (GCs) pre-deployment between male soldiers with and without subsequent development of high levels of these stress-related symptoms. Here we investigated whether these pre-deployment dysregulations in GC-sensitivity of immune cells persisted after return from military deployment...
January 2015: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Hannah Gola, Harald Engler, Annette Sommershof, Hannah Adenauer, Stephan Kolassa, Manfred Schedlowski, Marcus Groettrup, Thomas Elbert, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an enhanced risk for cardiovascular and other inflammatory diseases. Chronic low-level inflammation has been suggested as a potential mechanism linking these conditions. METHODS: We investigated plasma cytokine levels as well as spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a group of 35 severely traumatized PTSD patients compared to 25 healthy controls...
2013: BMC Psychiatry
Mirjam van Zuiden, Cobi J Heijnen, Mirjam Maas, Karima Amarouchi, Eric Vermetten, Elbert Geuze, Annemieke Kavelaars
AIM: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and severe fatigue may develop in response to severe stress and trauma. These conditions have all been shown to be associated with altered sensitivity of leukocytes for regulation by glucocorticoids (GCs). However, it remains unknown whether sensitivity of leukocytes for GCs is a pre-existing vulnerability factor, or whether GC-sensitivity of leukocytes alters as a consequence of stress and stress-related conditions...
November 2012: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Vincent J McNally
This paper explores the psychological impact of posttraumatic stress on a sample of the Iraqi Police Service (IPS). Four separate surveys of lPS members were administered utilizing a 17-item National Center for PTSD checklist. In total, 231 of the 520 IPS (44%) achieved scores indicating that they had met the criteria for the diagnosis of PTSD. As a result, a two-hour lecture dealing with critical incidents, stress, cumulative stress, vicarious traumatization, posttraumatic stress disorder reactions to terrorism, compassion fatigue, burnout, and acute traumatic stress management (ATSM--which helps manage individual responses during traumatic events) was developed...
2006: International Journal of Emergency Mental Health
Nicolas Rohleder, Ljiljana Joksimovic, Jutta M Wolf, Clemens Kirschbaum
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Alterations include various responses to HPA axis stimulation, different basal hormone levels, and changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) numbers on lymphocytes. The functional significance of these latter changes remains elusive. METHODS: Twelve Bosnian war refugees with PTSD and 13 control subjects were studied. On 2 consecutive days, they collected saliva samples after awakening and at 11, 15, and 20 hours...
April 1, 2004: Biological Psychiatry
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