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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30786325/quantitative-ct-derived-vessel-metrics-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-structure-function-study
#1
Joseph Jacob, Michael Pienn, Christian Payer, Martin Urschler, Maria Kokosi, Anand Devaraj, Athol U Wells, Horst Olschewski
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether quantitative lung vessel morphology determined by a new fully automated algorithm is associated with functional indices in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: A total of 152 IPF patients had vessel volume, density, tortuosity and heterogeneity quantified from computed tomography (CT) images by a fully automated algorithm. Separate quantitation of vessel metrics in pulmonary arteries and veins was performed in 106 patients...
February 20, 2019: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785344/monocrotaline-pyrrole-induces-pulmonary-endothelial-damage-through-binding-to-and-release-from-erythrocytes-in-lung-during-venous-blood-reoxygenation
#2
Rui Xiao, Liping Zhu, Yuan Su, Jiwei Zhang, Yankai Lu, Jiansha Li, Tao Wang, Jing Fang, Zhi-Cheng Jing, Jocelyn Dupuis, Shengquan Luo, Qinghua Hu
Monocrotaline has been widely used to establish an animal model of pulmonary hypertension, most frequently in rats. An important feature of this model resides in the selectivity of monocrotaline injury towards the pulmonary vascular endothelium versus the systemic vasculature when administrated at standard dosage. The toxic metabolite of monocrotaline, monocrotaline pyrrole, is transported by erythrocytes. This study aimed to reveal whether partial pressure of oxygen of blood determined the binding and release of monocrotaline pyrrole from erythrocytes in rats with one subcutaneous injection of monocrotatline at the standard dosage of 60 mg/Kg...
February 20, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783351/the-repair-using-a-fibular-graft-of-cervical-vertebral-collapse-due-to-renal-cell-carcinoma-late-results-with-a-case-report
#3
Vaner Köksal, Hüseyin Eren, Hasan Güçer
The most common cause of spinal tumors is metastases, but the cervical vertebra is the least common region of spinal metastasis, and relatively, little is published about surgery in metastasis to the cervical vertebra. While spinal metastasis is most often caused by neoplasms originating from the lung, breast, and prostate, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis is very rare. A 47-year-old patient introduced here presented with severe pain spontaneously on his neck and in his arm. In the radiology of the patient without neurological deficit, a pathologic vertebral collapse was detected in the C6 vertebral corpus...
October 2018: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782028/a-new-approach-to-estimate-ultrafine-particle-respiratory-deposition
#4
Wei-Chung Su, Yi Chen, Jinxiang Xi
Ultrafine particles (UFPs) in workplaces have been and continue to be an important occupational health concern. The inhalation and the consequent deposition of UFPs in workers' lower airways can lead to many adverse health effects. Therefore, it is vital to study the deposition of UFPs in the human respiratory tract from the viewpoint of occupational health. In this study, a set of physiologically representative human tracheobronchial airway replicas were made using high-resolution 3D printers, and a new approach that was distinct from the traditional methods was developed to apply these airway replicas in estimating UFP respiratory deposition...
February 20, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781443/human-genetic-adaptation-to-high-altitude-evidence-from-the-andes
#5
REVIEW
Colleen G Julian, Lorna G Moore
Whether Andean populations are genetically adapted to high altitudes has long been of interest. Initial studies focused on physiological changes in the O₂ transport system that occur with acclimatization in newcomers and their comparison with those of long-resident Andeans. These as well as more recent studies indicate that Andeans have somewhat larger lung volumes, narrower alveolar to arterial O₂ gradients, slightly less hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictor response, greater uterine artery blood flow during pregnancy, and increased cardiac O2 utilization, which overall suggests greater efficiency of O₂ transfer and utilization...
February 15, 2019: Genes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776099/scuba-medicine-for-otolaryngologists-part-i-diving-into-scuba-physiology-and-injury-prevention
#6
Jonathan R Mallen, Daniel S Roberts
OBJECTIVES: Introduce pertinent self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) physiology and corresponding terminology. Appreciate the scope of diving and related otolaryngological injury. Illustrate pathophysiologic mechanisms for diving injuries. Summarize strategies for ear, paranasal sinus, and lung barotrauma prevention, including medical optimization and autoinsufflation techniques. METHODS: We conducted a review of the available medical and diving literature in English, German, Spanish, Italian Turkish, and French to determine the degree of evidence or lack thereof behind recommendations for treating SCUBA divers...
February 18, 2019: Laryngoscope
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775377/iqos-exposure-impairs-human-airway-cell-homeostasis-direct-comparison-with-traditional-cigarette-and-e-cigarette
#7
Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Mathew Suji Eapen, Vegi G M Naidu, Pawan Sharma
Heat-not-burn (HNB) devices can alter vital physiological functions in the lung. HNB devices may not be a safer option than cigarette smoking or eCig vaping; this does not support the recommendation of their use over other nicotine delivery products. http://ow.ly/wZ5P30ng8bU.
February 2019: ERJ Open Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774991/alveolar-type-2-progenitor-cells-for-lung-injury-repair
#8
REVIEW
Ayobami Matthew Olajuyin, Xiaoju Zhang, Hong-Long Ji
Alveolar type 2 progenitor cells (AT2) seem closest to clinical translation, specifying the evidence that AT2 may satisfactorily control the immune response to decrease lung injury by stabilizing host immune-competence and a classic and crucial resource for lung regeneration and repair. AT2 establish potential in benefiting injured lungs. However, significant discrepancies linger in our understanding vis-à-vis the mechanisms for AT2 as a regime for stem cell therapy as well as essential guiding information for clinical trials, including effectiveness in appropriate pre-clinical models, safety, mostly specifications for divergent lung injury patients...
2019: Cell Death Discovery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773861/-clinical-trials-of-acupuncture-of-jiaji-ex-b2-for-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-sepsis-patients
#9
Hai-Feng Li, Guo-Qiang Hu, Wen-Wen Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of acupuncture of Huatuo Jiaji (EX-B2) in the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction in sepsis patients, aiming at providing new clinical approach and evidence for improving septic gastrointestinal activity. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with septic gastrointestinal dysfunction who met our inclusive criteria were randomly divided into control group and treatment group ( n =20 cases in each). Patients in the control group received routine treatment of nasogastric mosapride citrate (5 mg/time, three times a day) and tifidobacterium triple viable capsules (420 mg, twice a day), intravenous infusion of omeprazole (40 mg, twice a day), rational dose of antibiotics, maintenance treatment of functions of the heart, lung, brain, kidney and other important organs and water electrolyte balance, as well as symptomatic treatment...
January 25, 2019: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772496/regulation-of-the-pleiotropic-effects-of-tissue-resident-mast-cells
#10
Michael Huber, Andrew C B Cato, George K Ainooson, Marc Freichel, Volodymyr Tsvilovskyy, Rolf Jessberger, Eva Riedlinger, Christian P Sommerhoff, Stephan C Bischoff
Mast cells, best known for their detrimental role in allergic diseases, act in a diverse array of physiological and pathological functions, made possible by the plurality of mast cell types. Their various developmental avenues and their distinct sensitivity to (micro-) environmental conditions convey extensive heterogeneity, resulting in diverse functions. We briefly summarize this heterogeneity, elaborate on molecular determinants that allow mast cells to communicate with their environment to fulfill their tasks, discuss their protease repertoire stored in secretory lysosomes, and consider different aspects of mast cell signaling...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770782/establishing-a-generalized-polyepigenetic-biomarker-for-tobacco-smoking
#11
Karen Sugden, Eilis J Hannon, Louise Arseneault, Daniel W Belsky, Jonathan M Broadbent, David L Corcoran, Robert J Hancox, Renate M Houts, Terrie E Moffitt, Richie Poulton, Joseph A Prinz, W Murray Thomson, Benjamin S Williams, Chloe C Y Wong, Jonathan Mill, Avshalom Caspi
Large-scale epigenome-wide association meta-analyses have identified multiple 'signatures'' of smoking. Drawing on these findings, we describe the construction of a polyepigenetic DNA methylation score that indexes smoking behavior and that can be utilized for multiple purposes in population health research. To validate the score, we use data from two birth cohort studies: The Dunedin Longitudinal Study, followed to age-38 years, and the Environmental Risk Study, followed to age-18 years. Longitudinal data show that changes in DNA methylation accumulate with increased exposure to tobacco smoking and attenuate with quitting...
February 15, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770573/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-adults-with-systemic-right-ventricles-referred-for-cardiac-transplantation
#12
Yuli Y Kim, Katherine Awh, Michael Acker, Pavan Atluri, Christian Bermudez, Maria Crespo, Joshua M Diamond, David Drajpuch, Rhondalyn Forde-Mclean, Stephanie Fuller, Lee Goldberg, Jeremy Mazurek, Christopher Mascio, Jonathan N Menachem, Eduardo Rame, Emily Ruckdeschel, Lynda Tobin, Joyce Wald
BACKGROUND: Systemic right ventricular [RV] failure may progress necessitating referral for orthotropic heart transplantation [OHT]. Pulmonary hypertension [PH] frequently coexists in adult congenital heart disease and can complicate the assessment for OHT. METHODS: Single-center case series of six patients [median age 34.9 years (IQR, 31.9-42.4)] with systemic RV physiology with PH referred for OHT evaluation from 2008-2017. RESULTS: One-third (n=6) of 18 patients with systemic RV physiology referred for OHT evaluation had pulmonary arterial hypertension [PAH] defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure [mPAP] > 25 mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance [PVR] > 3 Wood Units...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Transplantation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769918/alveolar-capillary-membrane-related-pulmonary-cells-as-a-target-in-endotoxin-induced-acute-lung-injury
#13
REVIEW
Zuzana Nova, Henrieta Skovierova, Andrea Calkovska
The main function of the lungs is oxygen transport from the atmosphere into the blood circulation, while it is necessary to keep the pulmonary tissue relatively free of pathogens. This is a difficult task because the respiratory system is constantly exposed to harmful substances entering the lungs by inhalation or via the blood stream. Individual types of lung cells are equipped with the mechanisms that maintain pulmonary homeostasis. Because of the clinical significance of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the article refers to the physiological role of alveolar epithelial cells type I and II, endothelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and fibroblasts...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768928/is-the-slow-vital-capacity-clinically-useful-to-uncover-airflow-limitation-in-subjects-with-preserved-fev-1-forced-vital-capacity-ratio
#14
Mathieu Saint-Pierre, Jamil Ladha, Danilo C Berton, Gabriel Reimao, Giovana Castelli, Mathieu Marillier, Anne-Catherine Bernard, Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder
BACKGROUND: Forced vital capacity (FVC) may underestimate the slow VC (SVC) due to early closure of the small airways at low lung volumes in the forced maneuver. It remains unclear whether using SVC instead of FVC in the FEV1 /VC ratio increases the yield of spirometry in detecting airflow limitation or, alternatively, leads to a false-positive for obstruction. METHODS: 13,893 adult outpatients with FEV1 /FVC and total lung capacity ≥ lower limit of normal. A cluster of clinical and physiological variables defined the probability of airway disease and dysfunction, respectively...
February 12, 2019: Chest
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767787/thoracic-skeletal-muscle-quantification-low-muscle-mass-is-related-with-worse-prognosis-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-patients
#15
Sung Woo Moon, Ji Soo Choi, Sang Hoon Lee, Kyung Soo Jung, Ji Ye Jung, Young Ae Kang, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Joon Chang, Song Yee Kim
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia can contribute to negative outcomes in patients with various lung diseases. However, whether sarcopenia affects prognosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has not been reported. Simple measures of muscle mass, derived from chest computed tomography (CT), are increasingly being used to identify patients with sarcopenia. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle mass could be a predictor of prognosis in IPF patients. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 180 patients diagnosed with IPF between January 2010 and December 2015 at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea...
February 15, 2019: Respiratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767199/a-physiological-study-to-determine-the-mechanism-of-carbon-dioxide-clearance-during-apnoea-when-using-transnasal-humidified-rapid-insufflation-ventilatory-exchange-thrive
#16
L A Hermez, C J Spence, M J Payton, S A R Nouraei, A Patel, T H Barnes
Clinical observations suggest that compared with standard apnoeic oxygenation, transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange using high-flow nasal oxygenation reduces the rate of carbon dioxide accumulation in patients who are anaesthetised and apnoeic. This suggests that active gas exchange takes place, but the mechanisms by which it may occur have not been described. We used three laboratory airway models to investigate mechanisms of carbon dioxide clearance in apnoeic patients. We determined flow patterns using particle image velocimetry in a two-dimensional model using particle-seeded fluorescent solution; visualised gas clearance in a three-dimensional printed trachea model in air; and measured intra-tracheal turbulence levels and carbon dioxide clearance rates using a three-dimensional printed model in air mounted on a lung simulator...
February 15, 2019: Anaesthesia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765824/distinct-metabolic-endotype-mirroring-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-ards-subphenotype-and-its-heterogeneous-biology
#17
Akhila Viswan, Pralay Ghosh, Devendra Gupta, Afzal Azim, Neeraj Sinha
Predisposing aetiologies in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), perpetuates to heterogeneous clinical course hampering therapeutic response. Therefore, physiological variables need to be identified by stratifying ARDS subphenotypes and endotype, to target ARDS heterogeneity. The present study is stimulated by the fact that the ARDS heterogeneity arises from diverse pathophysiological changes leading to distinct ARDS endotypes characterized by perturbed biological mechanism which can be exploited in terms of metabolic profile by metabolomics...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765254/lung-function-trajectories-in-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Alvar Agusti, Rosa Faner
The normal lung function trajectory from birth to death has three phases: a growth phase (from birth to early adulthood), a plateau phase (that lasts for a few years), and a decline phase resulting from physiological lung ageing. Numerous genetic and environmental factors can alter one or more of these phases. Evidence shows that several lung function trajectories exist throughout the life course and, importantly, that some of them are associated with substantial implications for health and disease. Here, we review the evidence, formulate a series of questions, and identify various challenges that need to be addressed to identify potential opportunities to promote respiratory health...
February 11, 2019: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763686/a-six-month-systems-toxicology-inhalation-cessation-study-in-apoe-mice-to-investigate-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-exposure-effects-of-modified-risk-tobacco-products-chtp-1-2-and-ths-2-2-compared-with-conventional-cigarettes
#19
Blaine Phillips, Justyna Szostak, Bjoern Titz, Walter K Schlage, Emmanuel Guedj, Patrice Leroy, Gregory Vuillaume, Florian Martin, Ansgar Buettner, Ashraf Elamin, Alain Sewer, Nicolas Sierro, Mohamed Amin Choukrallah, Thomas Schneider, Nikolai V Ivanov, Charles Teng, Ching Keong Tung, Wei Ting Lim, Ying Shan Yeo, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Smoking is one of the major modifiable risk factors in the development and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Modified-risk tobacco products (MRTP) are being developed to provide substitute products for smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit, to lessen the smoking-related health risks. In this study, the ApoE-/- mouse model was used to investigate the impact of cigarette smoke (CS) from the reference cigarette 3R4F, or aerosol from two potential MRTPs based on the heat-not-burn principle, carbon-heated tobacco product 1...
February 11, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763165/tidal-breathing-flow-volume-profiles-during-sleep-in-wheezing-infants-measured-by-impedance-pneumography
#20
Javier Gracia-Tabuenca, Ville-Pekka Seppä, Milla Jauhiainen, Anne Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Kristiina Malmström, Anna Pelkonen, Mika J Mäkelä, Jari Viik, Leo Pekka Malmberg
Overnight analysis of tidal breathing flow volume loops (TBFV), recorded by impedance pneumography (IP), has been successfully applied in the home monitoring of children with wheezing disorders. However, little is known on how sleep physiology modifies the relationship between TBFV profiles and wheeze. We studied such interactions in wheezing infants. 43 infants recruited due to recurrent lower airway symptoms were divided into 3 groups based on their risk of asthma, i.e. high (HR), intermediate (IR) or low (LR)...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
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