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perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances

Huiting Chen, Martin Reinhard, Tingru Yin, Tung Viet Nguyen, Ngoc Han Tran, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
Ecotoxicological risks of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface waters are difficult to model because data on PFASs distribution in multiple compartments (sediments, suspended particles and aqueous phase) are difficult to predict. This study quantified the distribution of 21 PFASs including PFCAs: C6-C13 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, C4, C6, C8 and C10 perfluoroalkane sulfonates, 5 perfluorooctane sulfonamide substances (FOSAMs, including EtFOSA, FOSA, MeFOSAA, EtFOSAA, FOSAA), 2 N-alkyl perfluoroalkane sulfonamidoethanols (MeFOSE and EtFOSE), bis (perfluorooctyl) phosphinic acid (C8/C8 PFPIA), and 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid) between bulk water and suspended particles in water column, and pore water and benthic sediments from a tropical urban water body...
February 15, 2019: Water Research
Emily Hepburn, Casey Madden, Drew Szabo, Timothy L Coggan, Bradley Clarke, Matthew Currell
The extent of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in groundwater surrounding legacy landfills is currently poorly constrained. Seventeen PFAS were analysed in groundwater surrounding legacy landfills in a major Australian urban re-development precinct. Sampling locations (n = 13) included sites installed directly in waste material and down-gradient from landfills, some of which exhibited evidence of leachate contamination including elevated concentrations of ammonia-N (≤106 mg/L), bicarbonate (≤1,740 mg/L) and dissolved methane (≤10...
February 8, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Hao Chen, Lu Zhang, Mengqi Li, Yiming Yao, Zhen Zhao, Gabriel Munoz, Hongwen Sun
A nationwide survey was conducted on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in precipitation across mainland China. Twenty-two PFASs, including precursors to perfluoroalkyl acids (pre-PFAAs), were investigated in thirty-nine precipitation samples collected from twenty-eight cities. Trifluoroacetate (TFA), perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were ubiquitous in precipitation. TFA displayed the highest concentrations (8.8-1.8 × 103  ng/L), which were particularly elevated in coastal cities...
January 24, 2019: Water Research
Shan Yi, Katie C Harding-Marjanovic, Erika F Houtz, Ying Gao, Jennifer E Lawrence, Rita V Nichiporuk, Anthony T Iavarone, Wei-Qin Zhuang, Martin Hansen, Jennifer A Field, David L Sedlak, Lisa Alvarez-Cohen
The fate of per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aqueous filmforming foams (AFFFs) under anaerobic conditions has not been well characterized, leaving major gaps in our understanding of PFAS fate and transformation at contaminated sites. In this study, the biotransformation of 6:2 fluorotelomer thioether amido sulfonate (6:2 FtTAoS), a component of several AFFF formulations, was investigated under sulfate-reducing conditions in microcosms inoculated with either pristine or AFFF-impacted solids. To identify the transformation products, we used high-resolution mass spectrometry and employed suspect-screening and nontargeted compound identification methods...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology Letters
Aina Jansen, Mette H B Müller, Randi Grønnestad, Ole Klungsøyr, Anuschka Polder, Eystein Skjerve, Jan Aaseth, Jan L Lyche
Per- and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and known to be protein bound. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of 17 different PFASs before and one year after bariatric surgery, and to assess whether weight loss and changed serum protein concentrations could be influencing factors. Plasma samples from 63 patients were analyzed for nine perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), three perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), and five perfluoroalkyl sulfonamide based substances (PASF) before and after surgery...
March 20, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Sahar S Dalahmeh, Nancy Alziq, Lutz Ahrens
This study investigated the potential of biochar filters as a replacement for, or complement to, sand filters for removal of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater in on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs). Concentrations and removal of nine perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs; C3-11 ) and three perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs; C4 , 6 , 8 ) and one perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA; C8 ) were investigated over 22 weeks in four treatments with column filters: biochar (BC) without biofilm (BC-no-biofilm), biochar with active biofilm (BC-active-biofilm), biochar with inactive biofilm (BC-inactive-biofilm) and sand with active biofilm (Sand-active-biofilm)...
January 14, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Mark L Brusseau
Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are emerging contaminants of critical concern for human health risk. Assessing exposure risk requires a thorough understanding of the transport and fate behavior of PFAS in the environment. Adsorption to fluid-fluid interfaces, which include air-water, OIL-water, and air-OIL interfaces (where OIL represents organic immiscible liquid), is a potentially significant retention process for PFAS transport. Fluid-fluid interfacial adsorption coefficients (Ki ) are required for use in transport modeling and risk characterization, yet these data are currently not available for the vast majority of PFAS...
January 11, 2019: Water Research
Somrutai Poothong, Juan Antonio Padilla-Sánchez, Eleni Papadopoulou, Georgios Giovanoulis, Cathrine Thomsen, Line Småstuen Haug
The indoor environment contribute considerably to human exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). This study estimated the human exposure to PFASs from the indoor environment through hand-to-mouth and dermal contacts using hand wipes. An analytical method was developed to determine 25 PFASs in hand wipe samples collected as a composite sample from both hands of 60 adults. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) were the predominant PFASs in the hand wipe samples (medians between 0.21 and 0.54 ng per sample)...
January 21, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Andres Cardenas, Russ Hauser, Diane R Gold, Ken P Kleinman, Marie-France Hivert, Abby F Fleisch, Pi-I D Lin, Antonia M Calafat, Thomas F Webster, Edward S Horton, Emily Oken
Importance: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous synthetic chemicals that are suspected endocrine disruptors. Objectives: To determine the extent to which PFASs are associated with increases in weight and body size and evaluate whether a lifestyle intervention modifies this association. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 957 individuals who participated in the Diabetes Prevention Program trial, conducted from July 1996 to May 2001, and the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study, conducted from September 2002 to January 2014...
August 3, 2018: JAMA Network Open
Yan-Peng Tian, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Michael S Bloom, Shao Lin, Si-Quan Wang, Steve Hung Lam Yim, Mo Yang, Chu Chu, Namratha Gurram, Li-Wen Hu, Kang-Kang Liu, Bo-Yi Yang, Dan Feng, Ru-Qing Liu, Min Nian, Guang-Hui Dong
Previous investigations on the associations of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with overweight/obesity are mixed. Moreover, little information has been reported about the association between isomers of PFASs with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or overweight. To address this shortcoming in the literature, we conducted a study involving 1612 Chinese adults (1204 men and 408 women), ages 22-96 years old, from Shenyang, China, to analyze serum isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other PFASs...
March 2019: Environment International
Qi-Lu Li, Xiang-Hui Cheng, Zhen Zhao, Meng-Ran Guo, Meng Yuan, Xia Hua, Xiang-Guang Fang, Hong-Wen Sun
Surface water samples were collected in the middle reaches of the Yellow River (Weinan-Zhengzhou section) and all 28 perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results show that the levels of PFASs in the water and particle phase are 18.4-56.9 ng·L-1 and 26.8-164 ng·g-1 , respectively. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) in the water and particle phases is the main pollutant, accounting for 27% and 16% of the total concentrations, respectively, and 3H-perfluoro-3-[(3-methoxy-propoxy)-propanoate] acid (ADONA) and chlorinated polyfluorinated ethersulfonic acids (6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFESA) were detected in the particle phase, indicating that the use of PFAS alternatives gradually increases...
January 8, 2019: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Rong Huang, Qian Chen, Lin Zhang, Kai Luo, Lin Chen, Shasha Zhao, Liping Feng, Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been reported to disrupt endocrine system and reproduction. However, epidemiological evidence on the association between PFAS and preeclampsia is inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between prenatal PFAS exposure and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) in humans. METHODS: PFAS were measured by liquid chromatography system coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in 687 umbilical cord plasma samples collected between 2011 and 2012 in Shanghai, China...
January 9, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Déborah Martin, Gabriel Munoz, Sandra Mejia-Avendaño, Sung Vo Duy, Yuan Yao, Konstantin Volchek, Carl E Brown, Jinxia Liu, Sébastien Sauvé
The total oxidizable precursor (TOP) assay can be useful for integrating precursors to perfluoroalkyl acids (pre-PFAAs) into the assessment of sites contaminated by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Current research gaps include risks of instrumental matrix effects due to the complexity of post-oxidation extracts, potential reproducibility issues during TOP itself, and limited information for zwitterionic and cationic pre-PFAAs. We first investigated a suitable method for the analysis of groundwater samples, using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS)...
April 1, 2019: Talanta
Alissa Cordner, Vanessa Y De La Rosa, Laurel A Schaider, Ruthann A Rudel, Lauren Richter, Phil Brown
Communities across the U.S. are discovering drinking water contaminated by perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and determining appropriate actions. There are currently no federal PFAS drinking water standards despite widespread drinking water contamination, ubiquitous population-level exposure, and toxicological and epidemiological evidence of adverse health effects. Absent federal PFAS standards, multiple U.S. states have developed their own health-based water guideline levels to guide decisions about contaminated site cleanup and drinking water surveillance and treatment...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Xavier Dauchy, Virginie Boiteux, Adeline Colin, Cristina Bach, Christophe Rosin, Jean-François Munoz
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are key ingredients of firefighting foams designed to suppress fires involving flammable and combustible liquids. Such foams are used by firefighters during fire training at dedicated sites. Because PFASs are very persistent chemicals, substantial soil and groundwater contamination has been observed in the vicinity of firefighter training areas. However, very few data are available on PFAS contamination of wastewater and runoff water on such sites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of more than 50 PFASs in 43 water samples (effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), lagoon, runoff water, and wastewater drained from firefighter training areas) collected from a large firefighter training site, using target and suspect screening...
December 4, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Rossella Ghisi, Teofilo Vamerali, Sergio Manzetti
PFASs are a class of compounds that include perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances, some of the most persistent pollutants still allowed - or only partially restricted - in several product fabrications and industrial applications worldwide. PFASs have been shown to interact with blood proteins and are suspected of causing a number of pathological responses, including cancer. Given this threat to living organisms, we carried out a broad review of possible sources of PFASs and their potential accumulation in agricultural plants, from where they can transfer to humans through the food chain...
October 30, 2018: Environmental Research
Yiwen Wang, Wenchao Han, Caifeng Wang, Yijun Zhou, Rong Shi, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Qian Yao, Tao Yuan, Yu Gao, Jun Zhang, Ying Tian
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can be transferred from a mother to her fetus during pregnancy and adversely affect fetal development. However, the efficiency and influencing factors of PFASs maternal-fetal transfer remain unclear. We measured the levels of six perfluoroalkylcarboxylates, three perfluoroalkylsulfonates, and one sulfonamide in 369 pairs of maternal and umbilical cord serum and examined the transplacental transfer efficiency (TTE) of PFASs by the functional group and carbon chain length in a prospective birth cohort in Shandong, China...
November 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sook-Jin Kim, Eun-Jeong Choi, Go-Wun Choi, Yong-Bok Lee, Hea-Young Cho
Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), which are classified as perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), have been widely used in industrial applications as a surface protectant. PFASs have been detected in wildlife and in humans around the globe. The purposes of this study are to develop and validate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for detecting PFNA and PFDA in male and female rats, and to apply the model to a human health risk assessment regarding the sex difference...
November 27, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
David Costantini, Pierre Blévin, Dorte Herzke, Børge Moe, Geir Wing Gabrielsen, Jan Ove Bustnes, Olivier Chastel
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may cause detrimental effects on physiological function and reproduction of Arctic animals. However, there is a paucity of information on the link between PFASs and oxidative stress, which can have potential detrimental effects on key fitness traits, such as cellular homeostasis or reproduction. We have examined the correlations between multiple blood-based markers of oxidative status and several perfluoroalkyl acids (i.e., with 8 or more carbons) in male Arctic black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) during the pre-laying period...
October 12, 2018: Environmental Research
Jinghua Wang, Yitao Pan, Qianqian Cui, Bing Yao, Jianshe Wang, Jiayin Dai
Laboratory studies indicate that exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can induce neurobehavioral effects in animals. However, the penetration of PFASs across the brain barrier and its determining factors are yet to be clarified in humans. We studied PFAS levels in 223 matched-pair serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from hospital in-patients using UPLC/MS/MS. Among the 21 target analytes, PFOA, PFOS, and 6:2 Cl-PFESA were dominant in serum, with mean concentrations of 7...
November 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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