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Fast And Insulin And Analogue

Andrea J Arcari, Analía V Freire, María E Escobar, María G Ballerini, María G Ropelato, Ignacio Bergadá, Mirta G Gryngarten
Background Puberty is associated with a physiological decline in insulin sensitivity (IS). Overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) are common among girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). CPP is considered a risk factor for metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess surrogate measures of IS, body mass index (BMI) and other metabolic parameters in CPP girls at diagnosis and during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa). Methods We present a prospective longitudinal study of CPP girls...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Inge B Halberg, Karsten Lyby, Karsten Wassermann, Tim Heise, Eric Zijlstra, Leona Plum-Mörschel
BACKGROUND: Oral insulin 338 (I338) is a long-acting, basal insulin analogue formulated in a tablet with the absorption-enhancer sodium caprate. We investigated the efficacy and safety of I338 versus subcutaneous insulin glargine (IGlar) in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This was a phase 2, 8-week, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, parallel trial completed at two research institutes in Germany. Insulin-naive adult patients with type 2 diabetes, inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy or combined with other oral antidiabetic drugs (HbA1c 7·0-10·0%; BMI 25·0-40·0 kg/m2 ), were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily I338 plus subcutaneous placebo (I338 group) or once-daily IGlar plus oral placebo (IGlar group)...
January 21, 2019: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Andreas Thomas, Mario Thevis
While dried blood spot (DBS) analysis concerning low molecular mass molecules has become more and more established in various fields of analytical chemistry, the utility of DBS in determining peptides and proteins from DBS is yet comparably limited. In consideration of the fact that the apparent benefits of DBS sampling are similar for analytes of lower and higher molecular mass, dedicated (non-generic) sample preparation procedures are required that meet the needs for detecting peptidic drugs and hormones in DBS...
October 9, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Keisan Moazzeni, Kasra Amin Kazemi, Ramin Khanmohammad, Mohammad Eslamian, Mohsen Rostami, Morteza Faghih-Jouibari
Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing worldwide. Thereby, an increasing rate of patients with DM are subjecting to spine surgery. Reviewing the literature, a higher rate of surgery-related complications is reported in DM patients. There is no prospective study comparing the outcomes of lumbar fusion surgery in patients with and without DM. We aimed to investigate whether DM is associated with worse patient-reported outcomes, lower fusion rate, and higher complication rate in subjects undergoing spinal lumbar fusion surgery...
August 2018: International Journal of Spine Surgery
Shaan S Naughton, Erik D Hanson, Michael L Mathai, Andrew J McAinch
Despite the abundance of plant-derived fats in our diet, their effects on appetite, and metabolic markers, remain unclear. This single-blinded 3-way cross-over pilot study aimed to investigate the ability of the two most abundant dietary plant-derived fats, oleic (OA) and linoleic (LA) acids, to modulate postprandial appetite and levels of circulating appetite and metabolic regulators in overweight/obese individuals. Meals were a high-carbohydrate control, a high-OA or a high-LA meal, and provided 30% of participants' estimated energy requirements...
September 26, 2018: Nutrients
Enrique Javier Díaz-Convalía, Miguel Arrabal-Martín, Miguel Ángel Arrabal-Polo, José Luis Miján-Ortiz, José Manuel Cózar-Olmo
OBJECTIVES: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer is associated with the appearance of different adverse effects. Among these effects, notable ones that may affect metabolism are osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to analyse lithogenic risk markers three months after initiating treatment with LHRH analogue. METHODS: Pilot study encompassing 15 prostate cancer patients who were candidates for ADT, which they received in the form of quarterly doses of goserelin 10...
September 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Cassandra B Higgins, Yiming Zhang, Allyson L Mayer, Hideji Fujiwara, Alicyn I Stothard, Mark J Graham, Benjamin M Swarts, Brian J DeBosch
The hepatic glucose fasting response is gaining traction as a therapeutic pathway to enhance hepatic and whole-host metabolism. However, the mechanisms underlying these metabolic effects remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate the epidermal-type lipoxygenase, eLOX3 (encoded by its gene, Aloxe3), is a potentially novel effector of the therapeutic fasting response. We show that Aloxe3 is activated during fasting, glucose withdrawal, or trehalose/trehalose analogue treatment. Hepatocyte-specific Aloxe3 expression reduced weight gain and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced and genetically obese (db/db) mouse models...
August 23, 2018: JCI Insight
Morgane Masse, Mickael Maton, Stéphanie Genay, Nicolas Blanchemain, Christine Barthélémy, Bertrand Décaudin, Pascal Odou
Insulin is a frequently prescribed drug in hospitals and is usually administered by syringe pumps with an extension line which can be made of various materials. Two insulin solutions were studied: an insulin analogue, Novorapid® which contains insulin aspart and two phenolic preservatives (e.g. phenol and metacresol) and Umuline rapide® with human insulin and metacresol as preservative. Some studies have indicated interactions between insulin, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE). The aim of this work was to study such interactions between Novorapid® or Umuline rapide® and infusion extension line materials (PVC, PE and coextruded (PE/PVC))...
2018: PloS One
Thomas C Blevins, Abhijit Barve, Bin Sun, Yaron Raiter, Patrick Aubonnet, Rafael Muniz, Sandeep Athalye, Michael Ankersen
AIMS: To assess the non-inferiority of MYL-1501D, a proposed biosimilar or follow-on biological agent to marketed insulin glargine, to reference insulin glargine (Lantus®; Sanofi-Aventis US LLC, Bridgewater, New Jersey) based on change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). MATERIALS AND METHODS: INSTRIDE 2 was a multicentre, open-label, randomized, parallel-group, phase III non-inferiority study comparing the efficacy and safety of MYL-1501D with those of reference insulin glargine in insulin-naive and insulin-non-naive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs)...
August 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Niina Matikainen, Sanni Söderlund, Elias Björnson, Kirsi Pietiläinen, Antti Hakkarainen, Nina Lundbom, Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Jan Borén
AIMS: Patients with type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) exhibit considerable residual risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is, therefore, increasing interest in targeting postprandial lipid metabolism and remnant cholesterol. Treatment with the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue liraglutide reduces CVD risk by mechanisms that remain unexplained in part. Here we investigated the effects of liraglutide intervention on ectopic fat depots, hepatic lipogenesis and fat oxidation, postprandial lipid metabolism and glycaemia in humans with type 2 diabetes...
August 2, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Erzsébet Nagy, Gábor Kovács
INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of human and analogue insulins is similar but the latter have more advantageous pharmacokinetic features, leading to an improvement in hypoglycaemia and come closer to achieving the physiologic insulin profile. AIM: To demonstrate that switching from a human basal-bolus insulin treatment to an insulin glargine-based basal-bolus regimen can achieve a better glycaemic control. METHOD: This 3-month prospective, non-interventional study, including a 12-month retrospective data collection phase, enrolled patients who were switched to the insulin glargine- - 100 U/mL - based basal-bolus treatment at the time of enrolment if they were inadequately controlled and had at least one additional HbA1c result in the 12 months before the switch...
July 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Michele Schiavon, Chiara Dalla Man, Claudio Cobelli
OBJECTIVE: Subcutaneous (sc) administration of fast-acting insulin analogues is the key in conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes (T1D). A model of sc insulin absorption would be helpful for optimizing insulin therapy and test new open- and closed-loop treatment strategies in in silico platforms. Some models have been published in the literature, but none was assessed on a frequently-sampled large dataset of T1D subjects. The aim here is to propose a model of sc absorption of fast-acting insulin, which is able to describe the data and precisely estimate model parameters with a clear physiological interpretation...
September 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Lalantha Leelarathna, Donna Ashley, Carrie Fidler, Witesh Parekh
Background: Fast-acting insulin aspart is a new formulation of the rapid-acting insulin analogue insulin aspart and represents an advancement over current rapid-acting insulin analogues in terms of onset of action and postprandial glucose control. The objective of the current analysis was to demonstrate the cost impact of prescribing fast-acting insulin aspart instead of insulin aspart, to highlight the value of fast-acting insulin aspart for the treatment of people with diabetes requiring mealtime insulin...
July 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Francisco Tomás Pérez-Durillo, Ana Belén Segarra, Ana Belén Villarejo, Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez, Isabel Prieto
Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) is hydrolyzed by Dipeptidyl-Peptidase 4 (DPP4), and several studies suggest that both GLP-1 and DPP4 inhibitors have potentially beneficial effects on cardiovascular risks. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences between plasma GLP-1 and DPP4 activity in male and female patients with metabolic syndrome, and its relationship with physiological and metabolic parameters. The study included 25 apparently healthy Controls (C) and 21 Metabolic Syndrome patients (MS)...
June 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Wei Li, Fan Ping, Lingling Xu, Huabing Zhang, Yaxiu Dong, Hongmei Li, Qi Sun, Yuxiu Li
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the relative contribution rates of basal hyperglycemia (BHG) and postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) to overall hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with insulin lispro mix 25 and 50 (LM25 and LM50) as evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). METHODS: Eighty-one T2DM patients treated with premixed human insulin 70/30 (PHI70/30) were randomly divided into two groups and received a crossover protocol...
August 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Mehrnaz Imani, Mohammad Ebrahim Khamseh, Poopak Asadi, Mohammad Ghorbani, Hamideh Akbari, Fariba Alaei-Shahmiri, Maryam Honardoost, Mahmoud Reza Kaynama, Mojtaba Malek
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of add-on therapy of cabergoline versus raloxifene to long-acting somatostatin analogues (SAs) in patients with inadequately controlled acromegaly. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized open label clinical trial. Forty-four patients (22 per group) completed the study; where participants received either cabergoline (3 mg/week) or raloxifene (60 mg twice daily) add-on therapy for 12 weeks in a parallel manner...
June 2018: Endocrine Practice
Dayana Cabral da Silva, Luís Maurício T R Lima
Since the discovery of amylin its use has been discouraged by the inadequacy of the protocol involving multiple injections in addition to insulin. We aimed here to develop a combined fixed-dose formulation of pramlintide with fast-acting insulin. We have investigated the compatibility of regular and fast-acting insulin analogues (Aspart, AspB28 , and LisPro, LysB28 ProB29 ) with the amylin analogue pramlintide by using electrospray ionization - ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (ESI-IMS-MS), kinetic aggregation assays monitored by thioflavin T, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the evaluation of the aggregation product...
August 25, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Lewis R Mattin, Adora M W Yau, Victoria McIver, Lewis J James, Gethin H Evans
This study investigated the acute circulating gut hormone, appetite and gastric emptying rate responses to a semi-solid meal following exercise at different intensities. Twelve men completed three trials in a randomised-crossover design, consisting of continuous cycling at 70% V˙O2Peak (HIGH), 40% V˙O2Peak (LOW) or rest (CONTROL). Baseline samples were collected after an overnight fast before undertaking the 60 min exercise or rest period, followed by 30 min rest before consumption of a standardised semi-solid meal (~242 kcal)...
June 19, 2018: Nutrients
Shee Chee Ong, Alessia Belgi, Bianca van Lierop, Carlie Delaine, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Christopher A MacRaild, Raymond S Norton, Naomi L Haworth, Andrea J Robinson, Briony E Forbes
The development of fast-acting and highly stable insulin analogues is challenging. Insulin undergoes structural transitions essential for binding and activation of the insulin receptor (IR), but these conformational changes can also affect insulin stability. Previously, we substituted the insulin A6-A11 cystine with a rigid, non-reducible C=C linkage ("dicarba" linkage). A cis -alkene permitted the conformational flexibility of the A-chain N-terminal helix necessary for high-affinity IR binding, resulting in surprisingly rapid activity in vivo Here, we show that, unlike the rapidly acting LysB28 ProB29 insulin analogue (KP insulin), cis -dicarba insulin is not inherently monomeric...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Bing-Li Liu, Guo-Ping Yin, Feng-Fei Li, Yun Hu, Jin-Dan Wu, Mao-Yuan Chen, Lei Ye, Xiao-Fei Su, Jian-Hua Ma
Objective: To compare the effect of the rapid-acting insulin analogues (RAIAs) aspart (NovoRapid) and lispro (Prandilin) on glycemic variations by continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in patients within newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and metformin intensive therapy. Methods: This is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 110 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c%) above 9% was hospitalized and randomly divided into two groups: group Asp (NovoRapid group) and group Lis (Prandilin group)...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
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