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Movement disorders parkinson's tremor Chorea

Wolfgang Hamel, Johannes A Köppen, Dieter Müller, Marwan Hariz, Christian K E Moll, Paul Krack
Before the advent of levodopa, pallidotomy was initially the most effective treatment for Parkinson disease, but it was soon superseded by thalamotomy. It is widely unknown that, similar to Leksell, 2 neurologists from Göttingen, Orthner and Roeder, perpetuated pallidotomy against the mainstream of their time. Postmortem studies demonstrated that true posterior and ventral pallidoansotomy sparing the overwhelming mass of the pallidum was accomplished. This was due to a unique and individually tailored stereotactic technique even allowing bilateral staged pallidotomies...
January 16, 2019: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Stephan Klebe, Dagmar Timmann
Rare genetic movement disorders are a heterogeneous group of diseases. The causes of many of these rare movement disorders could be resolved due to the progress in molecular genetic diagnostics. This led to a better pathophysiological characterization of rare movement disorders and also to the fact that many phenotypical overlaps could be found between different diseases. The classification of genetic results requires a close cooperation between neurologists and geneticists. Therefore, modern diagnostic procedures cannot replace the clinical classification of genetic movement disorders and the exact patient history...
January 15, 2019: Der Nervenarzt
Carlo Dallocchio, Angela Matinella, Carla Arbasino, Natale Arno', Margaret Glorioso, Massimo Sciarretta, Massimiliano Braga, Michele Tinazzi
INTRODUCTION: Acute movement disorders (MD) are etiologically heterogeneous entities. Since studies on the relative frequency of different MD and their underlying diseases are limited, we performed a prospective study to investigate the spectrum of various MD and their causes in patients presenting with acute MD in an emergency room (ER) setting. OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum and outcomes of acute MD in a prospective cohort and to guide its management. METHODS: We investigated acute MD in 96 consecutive patients admitted to ERs between 2013 and 2017...
January 2019: Neurological Sciences
Carmen Rodríguez-Blázquez, Maria João Forjaz, Monica M Kurtis, Roberta Balestrino, Pablo Martinez-Martin
Introduction: In recent years, a wide variety of rating scales and questionnaires for movement disorders have been developed and published, making reviews on their contents, and attributes convenient for the potential users. Sleep disorders are frequently present in movement disorders, and some movement disorders are accompanied by specific sleep difficulties. Aim: The aim of this study is to perform a narrative review of the most frequently used rating scales for movement disorders with sleep problems, with special attention to those recommended by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Clara Hildebrandt, Peter E Davis, Lance H Rodan, Irina Anselm, Olaf Bodamer
Background: Movement disorders are a significant clinical problem in lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) and account for substantial morbidity. The spectrum of movement disorders in childhood-onset LSD, however, remains poorly defined. Objectives: To define the spectrum of movement disorders in a well-characterized cohort of children with LSD. Methods: A retrospective chart review at a single tertiary care center (Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA)...
March 2018: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
Ritika Suri, Federico Rodriguez-Porcel, Kelly Donohue, Erin Jesse, Lilia Lovera, Alok Kumar Dwivedi, Alberto J Espay
PURPOSE: Abnormal movements are a relatively uncommon complication of strokes. Besides the known correlation between stroke location and certain movement disorders, there remain uncertainties about the collective effects of age and stroke mechanism on phenomenology, onset latency, and outcome of abnormal movements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically reviewed all published cases and case series with adequate clinical-imaging correlations. A total of 284 cases were analyzed to evaluate the distribution of different movement disorders and their association with important cofactors...
September 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Celanie K Christensen, Laurence Walsh
Many inherited metabolic diseases or inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) cause movement disorders in children. This review focuses on chorea, dystonia, myoclonus, tremor, and parkinsonism. Broad neurometabolic categories commonly responsible for pediatric movement disorders include mitochondrial cytopathies, organic acidemias, mineral metabolism and transport disorders, neurotransmitter diseases, purine metabolism abnormalities, lipid storage conditions, and creatine metabolism dysfunction. Each movement disorder can be caused by many IEM and several of them can cause multiple movement abnormalities...
April 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Daniel Savitt, Joseph Jankovic
Tardive syndromes are a group of hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders that occur after some delay following exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents such as antipsychotic and anti-emetic drugs. The severity of these disorders ranges from mild to disabling or even life-threatening. There is a wide range of recognized tardive phenomenologies that may occur in isolation or in combination with each other. These phenomenologies include stereotypy, dystonia, chorea, akathisia, myoclonus, tremor, tics, gait disorders, parkinsonism, ocular deviations, respiratory dyskinesia, and a variety of sensory symptoms...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Marina Picillo, Renato P Munhoz
Pharmacological treatment is the cornerstone in the management of movement disorders. Although most available treatment options have no impact on the underlying process of each movement disorder, symptomatic therapies can significantly improve patient's quality of life and level of disability. Here, we review the current knowledge on clinical symptomatic management of Parkinson's disease (both early and advanced stages), essential tremor, dystonia, and chorea. Ideally, treatment should be carried out by specialists with reasonable experience in movement disorders, as it needs to be tailored for each patient depending on several appraisals, including but not limited to patients' needs, compliance issues, potential side effects, caregiver support, and presence of comorbidities...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive, Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo, Renato Puppi Munhoz
Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the ATM gene with progressive neurological dysfunction, multisystem abnormalities and cancer predisposition. Classically, AT is associated with cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia and oculomotor apraxia. The aim of this review is to describe the movement disorders observed in patients with AT. Movement disorders in AT patients described in the literature are reviewed. The selected articles were analyzed with a focus on clinical presentation, presence of movement disorders, and atypical cases or variants of the syndrome...
January 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Fernando Alarcón, Yuri Cedeño, Justo García de Yébenes
INTRODUCTION: Parkinsonism and other movement disorders have been occasionally described in neurocysticercosis (NCC) but their clinical features and pathogenesis are not well understood. METHODS: This is a descriptive study conducted over 20 years. We studied 590 consecutive patients from the NCC Registry at Eugenio Espejo Hospital, Quito, Ecuador, and found 23 subjects who developed movement disorders. We investigated the clinical features, localization of brain lesions, severity of infection and neurological deficit as well as the outcome of the patients...
September 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Niraj Kumar, Philippe Rizek, Bekim Sadikovic, Paul C Adams, Mandar Jog
BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a genetic disorder causing pathological iron deposition and functional impairment of various organs, predominantly the liver. We assessed patients with HH for the presence of movement disorders. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 616 patients with HH who attended hemochromatosis clinic at London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON, Canada, from 1988 to 2015. RESULTS: We found three HH patients with movement disorders, without any other major systemic manifestation...
November 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Antonella Macerollo, Davide Martino
Movement disorders comprise hyperkinetic involuntary movements (eg tremor, myoclonus, tics, dystonia and chorea) and hypokinetic (parkinsonism) disorders. Tics are cardinal features of primary tic disorders encompassing Tourette syndrome (TS), but are also found in some neurodegenerative conditions and may be induced by psychoactive substances. The first line treatment for tics is pharmacological (mainly dopamine receptor blockers or alpha-2 adrenergic agonists) and behavioural. Dystonia and chorea syndromes are considerably heterogeneous in aetiology, and age at onset, body distribution of the movement disorder, accompanying neurological motor and non-motor features, and systemic manifestations are all important to reach a correct aetiological diagnosis...
August 2016: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
C Tranchant, M Anheim
Mitochondrial diseases (MIDs) are a large group of heterogeneous disorders due to mutations in either mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes, the latter encoding proteins involved in mitochondrial function. A multisystem clinical picture that involves several organs, including both the peripheral and central nervous systems, is a common presentation of MID. Movement disorders, even isolated ones, are not rare. Cerebellar ataxia is common in myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERFF) due to mutations in the mitochondrial transfer RNA (tRNA) lysine gene, in Kearns-Sayre syndrome due to mtDNA deletions, in sensory ataxic neuropathy with dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) due to nuclear POLG1 gene mutations, and also in ARCA2, Friedreich's ataxia, SPG7, SCA28 and autosomal-recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) due to mutations in nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial morphology or function...
August 2016: Revue Neurologique
José Luiz Pedroso, Thiago Cardoso Vale, Marcos Knobel, Rodrigo Meirelles Massaud, Elias Knobel
Poststroke movement disorders may manifest as parkinsonism, dystonia, chorea, ballism, athetosis, tremor, myoclonus, stereotypies, and akathisia. In this article, we describe a patient with clonic perseveration 2 days after an acute ischemic stroke. We discuss the phenomenology and provide insights on possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved.
August 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Mika H Martikainen, Yi Shiau Ng, Gráinne S Gorman, Charlotte L Alston, Emma L Blakely, Andrew M Schaefer, Patrick F Chinnery, David J Burn, Robert W Taylor, Robert McFarland, Doug M Turnbull
IMPORTANCE: Extrapyramidal movement disorders associated with mitochondrial disease are difficult to treat and can lead to considerable disability. Moreover, potential new treatment trials on the horizon highlight the importance of genotype-phenotype associations and deep phenotyping of the movement disorders related to mitochondrial disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenotype, genetic etiology, and investigation of extrapyramidal movement disorders in a large and well-defined mitochondrial disease cohort...
June 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
A-S Seigneurie, F Sauvanaud, F Limosin
INTRODUCTION: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder of tongue, jawbone, trunk and/or limbs that may appear after a prolonged use of dopamine receptor blocking agents (after 3 months of treatment or after 1 month for patients over 60), and that are present during at least four consecutive weeks. TD is a frequent side effect of both classical neuroleptics and new generation antipsychotic drugs. The prevalence of iatrogenic TD is between 24 and 32 % after treatment with classical neuroleptics and about 13 % after treatment with a new generation antipsychotic...
June 2016: L'Encéphale
A Barbey, J Bloch, F J G Vingerhoets
The diagnosis and appropriate treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorders require a work up of potentially reversible metabolic, infectious and structural disorders as well as side effects of current medication. In pharmacoresistant movement disorders with a disabling impact on quality of life, deep brain stimulation (DBS) should be considered. At different targets, DBS has become an established therapy for Parkinson's disease (GPi-STN), tremor (VIM) and primary dystonia (GPi) with reasonable perioperative risks and side effects, established guidelines and some clinical and radiological predictive factors...
September 2015: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Philipp Mahlknecht, Patricia Limousin, Thomas Foltynie
Modern deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a routine therapy for patients with movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, generalized or segmental dystonia and for multiple forms of tremor. Growing numbers of publications also report beneficial effects in other movement disorders such as Tourette's syndrome, various forms of chorea and DBS is even being studied for Parkinson's-related dementia. While exerting remarkable effects on many motor symptoms, DBS does not restore normal neurophysiology and therefore may also have undesirable side effects including speech and gait deterioration...
November 2015: Journal of Neurology
José Fidel Baizabal-Carvallo, Robert Fekete
BACKGROUND: Psychogenic or functional movement disorders (PMDs) pose a challenge in clinical diagnosis. There are several clues, including sudden onset, incongruous symptoms, distractibility, suggestibility, entrainment of symptoms, and lack of response to otherwise effective pharmacological therapies, that help identify the most common psychogenic movements such as tremor, dystonia, and myoclonus. METHODS: In this manuscript, we review the frequency, distinct clinical features, functional imaging, and neurophysiological tests that can help in the diagnosis of uncommon presentations of PMDs, such as psychogenic parkinsonism, tics, and chorea; facial, palatal, and ocular movements are also reviewed...
2015: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
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