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Richard J Chacon, Yamilette Chacon
This special issue of Human Nature presents selected works from the 2015 and 2017 "Warfare, Environment, Social Inequality, and Pro-Sociability" (WESIPS) conferences held at the Center for Cross-Cultural Study in Seville, Spain. These investigations explore the manifestations of indigenous warfare and violence from a host of theoretical perspectives. Topics range from the origins of warfare to the psychological repercussions of combat, the relationship between warfare and status, as well as the documentation of peace processes among warring groups...
March 19, 2019: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Nami Hirota, Herman Edskes, Damien Hall
Solution conditions chosen for the production of amyloid can also promote formation of significant extents of amorphous protein aggregate. In one interpretation, the amyloid and amorphous aggregation pathways are considered to be in competition with each other. An alternative conceptualization involves considering amorphous aggregation as an obligatory intermediate process of the amyloid formation pathway. Here, we review recently developed macroscopic-level theories of protein aggregation that unify these two competing models into a single paradigm...
March 19, 2019: Biophysical Reviews
Seokjin Moon, Yuh Hijikata, Stephan Irle
Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) has been intensively studied for tailoring the electronic property of the graphene, because different nitrogen configurations influence the electronic properties of N-graphene in different ways. However, atomically precise control of the nitrogen configurations during the doping process remains a challenge in the synthesis of N-graphene. Moreover, additional structural transformations of the graphene carbon network structure as a side-effect of plasma doping are little understood and are as of yet uncontrollable...
March 19, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Liangbin Liu, Lei Ge, Yuyang Sun, Binbin Jiang, Yafei Cheng, Lai Xu, Fan Liao, Zhenhui Kang, Mingwang Shao
The search for efficient, stable and low-cost electrocatalysts for water splitting is a big challenge faced by energy conversion systems. In this work, Cu3P-Co2P nanocomposites with numerous interfaces are employed as catalysts for water splitting in alkaline solution. The quasi-layer structure of Co2P and the polarized plane of Cu3P endow the nanocomposites with large surface areas and active sites, which substantially favors the intrinsic charge transfer and boosts the catalytic activity. In addition, Cu3P reduces the lattice mismatch between Co2P and nickel foam and then enhances the catalytic stability...
March 19, 2019: Nanoscale
Guangzhao Qin, Kuan-Rong Hao, Qing-Bo Yan, Ming Hu, Gang Su
Seeking for next-generation energy sources that are economic, sustainable (renewable), clean (environment-friendly), and earth-abundant, is crucial when facing the challenges of the energy crisis. There have been numerous studies exploring the possibility of carbon-based materials to be utilized in future energy applications. In this paper, we introduce T-carbon, which is a theoretically predicted but also a recently experimentally synthesized carbon allotrope, as a promising material for next-generation energy applications...
March 19, 2019: Nanoscale
Xiaoming Chen, Yukun Ren, Likai Hou, Xiangsong Feng, Tianyi Jiang, Hongyuan Jiang
Vortex-based separation is a promising method in particle-particle separation and has only been demonstrated theoretically some years ago. To date, a continuous-flow separation device based on vortices has not been conceived because many known vortices were either unstable or controlling them lacked precision. Electro-convection from induced charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) has advantages, such as adjustable flow profiles, long-range actuation, and long-lived vortices, and offers an alternative means of particle separation...
March 19, 2019: Nanoscale
Margie E Burns
Assuming the role of caregiver for a life partner after critical illness can be both a rewarding and challenging experience for spouses. Using a grounded theory approach, Ågård, Egerod, Tønnesen, and Lomborg developed a theoretical model describing the experience from spouse to caregiver and back. To further develop this theoretical model, a literature review was completed and nursing interventions were identified and included in the model. Testing of this theoretical model is recommended to determine its empirical adequacy...
April 2019: Nursing Science Quarterly
Karen Carroll
Stewardship equates to the care and management of resources. The outcome of focusing on goal-centered care planning from a nursing theoretical basis includes medication management and goes beyond tasks and guidelines.
April 2019: Nursing Science Quarterly
Ying Zhao, Hongze An, Jing Feng, Yueming Ren, Jun Ma
A simple co-precipitation method was developed to synthesize AgFeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with hexagonal 2H and 3R polytypes coexistence. The ratio of 2H and 3R types in AgFeO2 NPs were regulated by controlling the calcination temperature (300 oC, 400 oC, 500 oC). Such AgFeO2 NPs were used as heterogeneous catalysts to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for removal of Orange I (OI) in the water. External water conditions effects and the stability of AgFeO2 NPs were investigated. The catalytic performance of AgFeO2 NPs was found to be significantly enhanced with the increasing content of 2H-AgFeO2...
March 19, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Subhabrata Mukhopadhyay, Joyashish Debgupta, Chandani Singh, Rudraditya Sarkar, Olivia Basu, Samar Kumar Das
MOF based proton conductors have received immense importance recently. The present study endeavors to design two post-synthetically modified UiO-66 based MOFs and study the effects of their structural differences on their proton conductivity. UiO-66-NH2 is modified by reaction with sultones to prepare two homologous compounds i.e., PSM 1 and PSM 2, which have SO3H groups in comparable extent (Zr:S ≈ 2: 1) in both. But the pendant alkyl chain holding the -SO3H group is of different length. PSM 2 has longer alkyl chain attachment than that of PSM 1...
March 19, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Davina Allen, Mary Ellen Purkis, Anne Marie Rafferty, Aud Obstfelder
Nurses make an important contribution to the organisation and coordination of patient care but receive little formal educational preparation for this work. This paper builds on Allen's care trajectory management framework to specify evidence-based and theoretically informed competencies for this component of the nursing role and proposes how these might be incorporated into nursing curricula. This is necessary so that at the point of registration nurses have the expertise to realise their potential as both providers and organisers of patient care and are better able to articulate and develop this aspect of nursing practice...
March 19, 2019: Nursing Inquiry
Navdeep Kaur, Isabelle Vedel, Reem El Sherif, Pierre Pluye
BACKGROUND: Mixed methods (MM) are common in community-based primary health care (CBPHC) research studies. Several strategies have been proposed to integrate qualitative and quantitative components in MM, but they are seldom well conceptualized and described. The purpose of the present review was to identify and describe practical MM strategies and combinations of strategies used to integrate qualitative and quantitative methods in CBPHC research. METHODS: A methodological review with qualitative synthesis (grouping) was performed...
March 19, 2019: Family Practice
Bo-Sun Yun, Jin-Hyoung Kim, So-Yoen Kim, Ho-Jin Son, Dae Won Cho, Sang Ook Kang
The phosphorescence properties of fac-Ir(pmp)3, mer-Ir(pmp)3, fac-Ir(dmpmp)3 and mer-Ir(dmpmp)3 (where pmp = 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and dmpmp = 1-(2',6'-dimethylbiphenyl-2-yl)-3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) in CH2Cl2 were investigated. At 77 K, the fac-isomers showed blue emission with a vibronic structure, while the mer-isomers showed less structured emissions. At 300 K, all complexes showed broad and markedly red-shifted emission spectra compared to those at 77 K...
March 19, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Felicity Moon, Lucinda Fraser, Fiona McDermott
The recent controversy around the hospital end of life care has highlighted the vulnerability of dying patients and their families. However, little is known about how social workers provide support and intervention around the end of life in the hospital. Eight hospital social workers provided qualitative descriptions of their clinical practice for adult patients and their families. Highlighting a theoretical orientation towards a person-in-environment approach, social workers develop unique interventions to contribute to multidisciplinary care...
March 19, 2019: Social Work in Health Care
Tara Chand Yadav, Naresh Kumar, Utkarsh Raj, Nidhi Goel, Pritish Kumar Vardawaj, Ramasare Prasad, Vikas Pruthi
Drug discovery for a vigorous and feasible lead candidate is a challenging scientific mission as it requires expertise, experience, and huge investment. Natural products and their derivatives having structural diversity are renowned source of therapeutic agents since many years. Tyrosol (a natural phenylethanoid) has been extracted from olive oil, and its structure was confirmed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, FT-NMR, and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The conformational analysis for tyrosol geometry was performed by Gaussian 09 in terms of density functional theory...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Tingting Yu, Yuan Tian, Hongjian Guo, Xinyu Song
In this paper, a pest management predator-prey model with weak Allee effect on predator and state feedback impulsive control on prey is introduced and analysed, where the yield of predator released and intensity of pesticide sprayed are assumed to be linearly dependent on the selected pest control level. For the proposed model, the existence and stability of the order-1 periodic orbit of the control system are discussed. Meanwhile, with the aim of minimizing the input cost in practice, an optimization model is constructed to determine the optimal quantity of the predator released and the intensity of pesticide sprayed...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Kangbao Zhong, Chunhui Shan, Lei Zhu, Song Liu, Tao Zhang, Fenru Liu, Boming Shen, Yu Lan, Ruopeng Bai
Terminal alkynes have become one of the most versatile building blocks for C-C bond construction in the past few decades, and they are usually considered to convert to acetylides before further transformations. In this study, a novel direct nucleo-philic addition mode for Cu(I)-catalyzed cross-coupling of terminal alkynes and N-tosylhydrazones to synthesize chiral allenes is proposed, and it was investigated by density functional theory with the M11-L density functional. Three different reaction pathways were considered and investigated...
March 19, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Sili He, Wentao Jiang, Ruiqi Dong, Fei Yan, Zhi Xu, Yubo Fan
This study analyzed the inherent relation between arterial blood mass flow and muscle atrophy of residual limb to provide some necessary information and theoretical support for the clinical rehabilitation of lower limb amputees. Three-dimensional arterial model reconstruction was performed on both intact side and residual limb of a unilateral transfemoral amputee who is the subject. Then hemodynamic calculation was carried out to comparatively analyze the mass flow state at each arterial outlet of both lower extremities...
February 25, 2019: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
ShinYoung Kang, Tae Wook Heo, Mark D Allendorf, Brandon Wood
Complex light metal hydrides are promising candidates for efficient, compact solid-state hydrogen storage. (De)hydrogenation of these materials often proceeds via multiple reaction intermediates, the energetics of which determine reversibility and kinetics. At the solid-state reaction front, molecular-level chemistry eventually drives the formation of bulk product phases. Therefore, a better understanding of realistic (de)hydrogenation behavior requires considering possible reaction products along all stages of morphological evolution, from molecular to bulk crystalline...
March 18, 2019: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Sujong Chae, Seong-Hyeon Choi, Namhyung Kim, Jaekyung Sung, Jaephil Cho
Silicon (Si) has been considered as the most promising anode material for overcoming the theoretical capacity limit of a carbonaceous anode. Since the implementation of nanotechnology on Si anode, the significant progress has been made as addressing severe volume change during (de)lithiation. However, the practical application of Si anodes in commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been still stagnant. Nowadays, with the drastic increase in energy demands of diverse industries, co-utilization of Si and graphite has resurfaced as the commercially viable method for realizing high energy...
March 19, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
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