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Gut permeability exercise

Evasio Pasini, Giovanni Corsetti, Deodato Assanelli, Cristian Testa, Claudia Romano, Francesco S Dioguardi, Roberto Aquilani
BACKGROUND: Intestinal dysbiosis has been proposed as a possible contributor of the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Indeed, commensal fungi and opportunistic bacteria stimulate the local immune system, altering intestinal permeability with consequent leaky gut, which in turn activates systemic inflammation responsible for insulin resistance. It is also well known that chronic exercise improves glucose control and diabetes-induced damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of chronic exercise on gut flora composition and leaky gut in T2D stable patients...
February 2019: Minerva Medica
Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser, Stephanie J Wilson, Annelise Madison
Couples influence each other's mental and physical health. This review focuses on how couples' relationships, the partners' individual and joint vulnerabilities, and their health behaviors influence health through changes in the gut microbiota, metabolism, and immune function. Couples' shared stressors and emotions and their intertwined lifestyles and routines serve to promote common disease risks in part through parallel changes in their gut microbiotas. Marital discord, stress, and depression have strong bidirectional links, fueling one another...
October 10, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Katherine J P Schwenger, Colin M Bolzon, Carrie Li, Johane P Allard
Non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) is now considered one of the leading causes of liver disease worldwide and is associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. There are several factors contributing to the disease state. Recent research suggests that the intestinal microbiota (IM) and bacterial products may play a role through several mechanisms which include increased energy uptake, intestinal permeability and chronic inflammation. In addition to diet and exercise, treatment options targeting the IM are being investigated and include the use of pre-, pro- and synbiotics as well as the possibility of fecal microbial transfers...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Takaomi Kessoku, Kento Imajo, Takashi Kobayashi, Yasushi Honda, Yuji Ogawa, Masato Yoneda, Satoru Saito, Atsushi Nakajima
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), especially nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is a disease that may lead to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The number of patients is increasing steadily and the pathology is diverse. Effective treatment is still mainly focused on diet and exercise therapy. With the advent of the next-generation sequencer, the intestinal flora in NAFLD/NASH is being elucidated. We believe that elevation of endotoxin in the blood caused by intestinal bacterial dysbiosis caused by intestinal permeability enhancement is important for NASH pathology and control of intestinal permeability enhancement has a new possibility for treatment of NAFLD/NASH...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Erick Bryan de Sousa Lima, Lúcia Castro Santos de Oliveira, Geovane da Silva Cardoso, Pedro Victor Nogueira Telles, Lara da Costa Lima, Jessica Fernanda Reis E Sousa, Ruan Pablo Nunes Araújo, Aldeidia Pereira de Oliveira, Rosimeire Ferreira Dos Santos, Armenio Aguiar Dos Santos, Moisés Tolentino Bento da Silva
Actually, arterial hypertension is a major public health concern, which involves the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAS), via activation of the angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 of the cardiovascular system. Although angiotensin is an important stimulant of the gut permeability to sodium and water, little is known about the effects of arterial hypertension on gut motor behavior. Thus, we evaluated in rats the effect of hypertension induced by two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model on the gastric motility, as well as the influence of exercise and RAS blockers treatment in such phenomenon...
October 1, 2018: Life Sciences
Rhiannon M J Snipe, Ricardo J S Costa
This study aimed to determine the influence of biological sex on intestinal injury, permeability, gastrointestinal symptoms, and systemic cytokine profile in response to exertional-heat stress. Male (n= 13) and eumenorrheic female (n= 11) endurance runners completed 2 h running at 60% V̇O2max in 35°C. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise and during recovery to determine plasma intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (I-FABP) and systemic cytokine profile. Urinary lactulose:L-rhamnose ratio was used to determine small intestine permeability...
December 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Daniel S March, Arwel W Jones, Rhys Thatcher, Glen Davison
PURPOSE: Exercise-induced changes in intestinal permeability are exacerbated in the heat. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 14 days of bovine colostrum (Col) supplementation on intestinal cell damage (plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, I-FABP) and bacterial translocation (plasma bacterial DNA) following exercise in the heat. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 males completed two experimental arms (14 days of 20 g/day supplementation with Col or placebo, Plac) consisting of 60 min treadmill running at 70% maximal aerobic capacity (30 °C, 60% relative humidity)...
March 24, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Antonio Gasbarrini
Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and function, affecting up to 70% of patients with advanced liver disease. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by an altered glucose metabolism, lipid oxidation, ketogenesis and protein catabolism, leading to the loss of adipose and muscle tissue. The gastrointestinal dysfunction of cirrhotic patients results in inadequate nutrients intake and is responsible for muscle weakness thus limiting physical exercise and perpetuating the reduction of muscle mass. Recently, alterations of hormonal pathways involved in muscle growth, increased intestinal permeability and changes in the gut microbiota composition have been reported in cirrhotic patients...
2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Daniel S March, Tania Marchbank, Raymond J Playford, Arwel W Jones, Rhys Thatcher, Glen Davison
PURPOSE: Intestinal cell damage due to physiological stressors (e.g. heat, oxidative, hypoperfusion/ischaemic) may contribute to increased intestinal permeability. The aim of this study was to assess changes in plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) in response to exercise (with bovine colostrum supplementation, Col, positive control) and compare this to intestinal barrier integrity/permeability (5 h urinary lactulose/rhamnose ratio, L/R). METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 18 males completed two experimental arms (14 days of 20 g/day supplementation with Col or placebo, Plac)...
May 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Glen Davison, Tania Marchbank, Daniel S March, Rhys Thatcher, Raymond J Playford
BACKGROUND: Heavy exercise causes gut symptoms and, in extreme cases, heat stroke that is due to the increased intestinal permeability of luminal toxins. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether zinc carnosine (ZnC), a health-food product taken alone or in combination with bovine colostrum (a natural source of growth factors), would moderate such effects. DESIGN: Eight volunteers completed a 4-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover protocol (14 d of placebo, ZnC, colostrum, or ZnC plus colostrum) before undertaking standardized exercise 2 and 14 d after the start of treatment...
August 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Brian E Lacy, William D Chey, Anthony J Lembo
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, or a mix of symptoms. The pathophysiology of IBS is not completely understood but appears to involve genetics, the gut microbiome, immune activation, altered intestinal permeability, and brain-gut interactions. There is no gold standard for diagnosis. Several sets of symptom-based guidelines exist. Treatment strategies for IBS may include both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches...
April 2015: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Jason M Van Houten, Robert J Wessells, Heidi L Lujan, Stephen E DiCarlo
Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and many of these conditions are linked to chronic inflammation. One potential cause of chronic inflammation is an increased intestinal epithelial permeability. Recent studies have demonstrated that parasympathetic stimulation via the efferent abdominal vagus nerve increases the expression and proper localization of tight junction proteins and decreases intestinal epithelial permeability. This finding may provide a novel approach for treating and preventing many chronic conditions...
December 2015: Medical Hypotheses
Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser, Heather M Derry, Christopher P Fagundes
Depression and inflammation fuel one another. Inflammation plays a key role in depression's pathogenesis for a subset of depressed individuals; depression also primes larger cytokine responses to stressors and pathogens that do not appear to habituate. Accordingly, treatment decisions may be informed by attention to questions of how (pathways) and for whom (predispositions) these links exist, which are the focus of this article. When combined with predisposing factors (moderators such as childhood adversity and obesity), stressors and pathogens can lead to exaggerated or prolonged inflammatory responses...
November 1, 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Matthew Kuennen, Lisa Jansen, Trevor Gillum, Jorge Granados, Weston Castillo, Ahmad Nabiyar, Kevin Christmas
PURPOSE: Dietary nitrate (NO3 (-)) supplementation reduces the O2 cost of fixed-workload tasks performed in temperate environments but has not been examined in the heat. If this effect were retained it could reduce heatstroke risk in military personnel that are deployed for desert combat. METHODS: Nine men completed three 45 min loaded battle marches at a standard cadence (4.83 km h(-1)/1.5 % grade) while wearing full combat gear [BDU, boots, body armor (8 kg), NBC suit] and carrying a loaded rucksack (16 kg)...
December 2015: European Journal of Applied Physiology
William D Chey, Jacob Kurlander, Shanti Eswaran
IMPORTANCE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 7% to 21% of the general population. It is a chronic condition that can substantially reduce quality of life and work productivity. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the existing evidence on epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of IBS and to provide practical treatment recommendations for generalists and specialists according to the best available evidence. EVIDENCE REVIEW: A search of Ovid (MEDLINE) and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed for literature from 2000 to December 2014 for the terms pathophysiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, irritable bowel syndrome, and IBS...
March 3, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Maria Emília Rabelo Andrade, Raquel Silva Araújo, Patrícia Aparecida Vieira de Barros, Anne Danieli Nascimento Soares, Fernanda Alves Abrantes, Simone de Vasconcelos Generoso, Simone Odília Antunes Fernandes, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso
The intestinal epithelium is composed of specialized epithelial cells that form a physical and biochemical barrier to commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. However, dysregulation of the epithelial barrier function can lead to increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation across the intestinal mucosa, which contributes to local and systemic immune activation. The increase in these parameters is associated with inflammatory bowel disease, physical exercise under heat stress, intestinal obstruction, ischemia, and mucositis, among other conditions...
December 2015: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
David C Nieman, Johannes Scherr, Beibei Luo, Mary Pat Meaney, Didier Dréau, Wei Sha, Dustin A Dew, Dru A Henson, Kirk L Pappan
OBJECTIVES: Pistachio nut ingestion (3 oz./d, two weeks) was tested for effects on exercise performance and 21-h post-exercise recovery from inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and metabolite shifts. METHODS: Using a randomized, crossover approach, cyclists (N = 19) engaged in two 75-km time trials after 2-weeks pistachio or no pistachio supplementation, with a 2-week washout period. Subjects came to the lab in an overnight fasted state, and ingested water only or 3 oz...
2014: PloS One
Erick Prado de Oliveira, Roberto Carlos Burini, Asker Jeukendrup
Gastrointestinal problems are common, especially in endurance athletes, and often impair performance or subsequent recovery. Generally, studies suggest that 30-50% of athletes experience such complaints. Most gastrointestinal symptoms during exercise are mild and of no risk to health, but hemorrhagic gastritis, hematochezia, and ischemic bowel can present serious medical challenges. Three main causes of gastrointestinal symptoms have been identified, and these are either physiological, mechanical, or nutritional in nature...
May 2014: Sports Medicine
Kim van Wijck, Karolina A P Wijnands, Dennis M Meesters, Bas Boonen, Luc J C van Loon, Wim A Buurman, Cornelis H C Dejong, Kaatje Lenaerts, Martijn Poeze
PURPOSE: Splanchnic hypoperfusion is a physiological phenomenon during strenuous exercise. It has been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and intestinal injury and may hamper athletic performance. We hypothesized that L-citrulline supplementation improves splanchnic perfusion and decreases intestinal injury by enhancing arginine availability. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L-citrulline intake on splanchnic perfusion, intestinal injury, and barrier function during exercise...
November 2014: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
R B Shartau, C J Brauner
The evolution of air breathing during the Devonian provided early fishes with bimodal respiration with a stable O2 supply from air. This was, however, probably associated with challenges and trade-offs in terms of acid-base balance and ionoregulation due to reduced gill:water interaction and changes in gill morphology associated with air breathing. While many aspects of acid-base and ionoregulation in air-breathing fishes are similar to water breathers, the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unstudied...
March 2014: Journal of Fish Biology
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