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Vancomycin AND outcome AND Mortality

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776365/rapid-detection-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Joseph R Paonessa, Raj D Shah, Chiagozie I Pickens, Bryan D Lizza, Helen K Donnelly, Michael Malczynski, Chao Qi, Richard G Wunderink
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend empirical vancomycin or linezolid for suspected pneumonia patients at-risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Unneeded vancomycin or linezolid use may unnecessarily alter host flora and expose patients to toxicity. We therefore sought to determine if rapid testing for MRSA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can safely decrease use of vancomycin or linezolid for suspected MRSA pneumonia. METHODS: Operating characteristics of the assay were initially validated against culture on residual BAL...
February 15, 2019: Chest
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761472/evidence-of-significant-ceftriaxone-and-quinolone-resistance-in-cirrhotics-with-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#2
Eric Ardolino, Susan S Wang, Vilas R Patwardhan
OBJECTIVES: There are few studies addressing the impact of cephalosporin and quinolone resistance on hospital length of stay and mortality in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). We aim to describe the shifting epidemiology of SBP at our institution and its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of all cases of SBP from 2005 to 2015 at a transplant center. Cases were identified using hospital billing data...
February 14, 2019: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741619/the-incidence-risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes-of-acute-kidney-injury-staged-using-the-rifle-classification-associated-with-intravenous-acyclovir-administration
#3
Eun Ju Lee, Ha Nee Jang, Hyun Seop Cho, Eunjin Bae, Tae Won Lee, Se-Ho Chang, Dong Jun Park
Intravenous (IV) acyclovir is commonly administered medication for viral infection but is well known for its nephrotoxicity. However, there was no study for incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with IV acyclovir administration. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 287 patients who were medicated IV acyclovir from January 2008 to May 2013 in Gyeongsang National University Hospital. All had documented medical histories and underwent medical review...
November 2018: Renal Failure
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710648/bacteriologic-profile-and-susceptibility-pattern-of-mechanically-ventilated-pediatric-patients-with-pneumonia
#4
Ahmed El-Nawawy, Magdy A-F Ramadan, Manal A-M Antonios, Shams A-F Arafa, Eman Hamza
PURPOSE: Therapy of severe pneumonia is very challenging in view of the current widespread bacterial resistance to many antibiotics especially extended spectrum ß-lactams, carbapenems, and anti-pseudomonal drugs. The current study aimed at assessing antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and optimization of the antibiotic stewardship program applied in a university affiliated pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study included all patients aged 1 month to 12 years, admitted to the PICU with severe pneumonia episodes indicated for mechanical ventilation, and were followed up and investigated...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689291/bacteremias-following-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-for-multiple-myeloma-risk-factors-and-outcomes
#5
Meera Mohan, Sandra Susanibar-Adaniya, Amy Buros, Juan Carlos Crescencio Rico, Mary J Burgess, Katherine Lusardi, Faith Davies, Gareth Morgan, Frits Vanrhee, Maurizio Zangari, Carolina Schinke, Sharmilan Thanendrarajan, Atul Kothari
BACKGROUND: Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a commonly used treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). This retrospective cohort study characterizes the risk factors and outcomes associated with bacteremia following ASCT at a single center. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis in subjects who underwent ASCT for multiple myeloma and other malignancies from May 2014 to March 2015 at a single center. The control cohort included all subjects undergoing ASCT in the same time period who did not develop bacteremia...
January 28, 2019: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30675323/evaluation-of-a-modified-protocol-that-decreases-the-turnaround-time-of-positive-blood-cultures
#6
Renuka Anegundi, Raghavendra Dheerendra Kulkarni, Satish S Patil, Vidyavathi B Chitharagi, Ganavalli Subramanya Ajantha
Background and Objectives: Neonatal septicemia can be rapidly fatal if not treated promptly. A speedy laboratory diagnosis would improve the outcome. The BacT/ALERT 3D system (bioMerieux, Durham, North Carolina) is currently being used for laboratory diagnosis of blood stream infections. In the present study, a modified protocol was employed in which the broth was subcultured into two nutrient broth tubes and these tubes were used for biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to decrease the turnaround time...
October 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649224/bloodstream-infection-bsi-due-to-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-vre-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-for-acute-leukemia-and-myelodysplastic-syndrome-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Genovefa A Papanicolaou, Celalettin Ustun, Jo-Anne H Young, Min Chen, Soyoung Kim, Kwang Woo Ahn, Krishna Komanduri, Caroline Lindemans, Jeffery J Auletta, Marcie L Riches
Background: We examined the impact of Enterococcus (VRE) bloodstream infection (BSI) on outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) utilizing the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database. Methods: Adult and pediatric patients (n=7,128), who underwent first HCT for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome from 2008 through 2012, were analyzed as 3 groups-VRE-BSI, non-VRE-BSI, without BSI-according to BSI status at 100 days (D100) after allogeneic HCT...
January 14, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30611444/elevated-vancomycin-trough-levels-in-a-tertiary-health-system-frequency-risk-factors-and-prognosis
#8
Reza Zonozi, Aozhou Wu, Jung-Im Shin, Alex Secora, Josef Coresh, Lesley A Inker, Alex R Chang, Morgan E Grams
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of, risk factors for, and outcomes after elevated levels of vancomycin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified hospitalizations among 21,285 individuals in which intravenous vancomycin was given between August 29, 2007, and October 10, 2014. We investigated frequency and risk factors for elevated vancomycin levels (trough levels >30 mg/L) as well as associations with subsequent acute kidney injury (AKI), length of stay, and in-hospital mortality...
January 2019: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30583055/fidaxomicin-versus-oral-vancomycin-for-severe-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
C A Gentry, P K Nguyen, S Thind, G Kurdgelashvili, G H Skrepnek, R J Williams
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to compare clinical outcomes of fidaxomicin versus oral vancomycin in the management of severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). METHODS: The investigation was a retrospective, multicentre, propensity score-matched analysis using a national clinical administrative database. Veterans treated for severe CDI from any Veterans Affairs Medical Center between 1 June 2011 and 30 June 2017 were included if they received fidaxomicin or an oral vancomycin regimen for treatment...
December 22, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30577266/acquisition-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-solid-organ-transplantation-recipients
#10
K H Lee, S H Han, D Yong, H C Paik, J G Lee, M S Kim, D J Joo, J S Choi, S I Kim, Y S Kim, M S Park, S Y Kim, Y N Yoon, S Kang, S J Jeong, J Y Choi, Y G Song, J M Kim
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) can lead to life-threatening outcomes with rapid spread of the carbapenemase gene in solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipients because of limitations of available antibiotics. We examined the characteristics and importance of CPE acquisition in SOT recipients with large numbers of CPE isolates. METHODS: Between November 2015 and October 2016, 584 CPE isolates were found in 37 recipients and verified by carbapenemase gene multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
December 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30565009/enterococcal-bacteremia-in-febrile-neutropenic-children-and-adolescents-with-underlying-malignancies-and-clinical-impact-of-vancomycin-resistance
#11
Kil-Seong Bae, Ju Ae Shin, Seong Koo Kim, Seung Beom Han, Jae Wook Lee, Dong-Gun Lee, Nack-Gyun Chung, Bin Cho, Dae Chul Jeong, Jin Han Kang
PURPOSE: Enterococci are a common cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. Although the increase of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) makes appropriate antibiotic therapy difficult, clinical characteristics of enterococcal bacteremia and the impact of VRE infection on outcomes have rarely been reported in immunocompromised children. METHODS: We enrolled children and adolescents (< 19 years of age) with underlying malignancies who were diagnosed with enterococcal bacteremia during febrile neutropenia between 2010 and 2017...
December 19, 2018: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30561531/what-is-the-role-for-metronidazole-in-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-results-from-a-national-cohort-study-of-veterans-with-initial-mild-disease
#12
Haley J Appaneal, Aisling R Caffrey, Kerry L LaPlante
Background: Metronidazole may still be an appropriate therapeutic option for mild Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in select patients, but data is limited to guide clinicians in identifying these patients. Methods: Our two-stage study included a national cohort of Veterans with a first episode of mild CDI (2010-2014). First, among those treated with metronidazole, we identified predictors of success, defined as absence of all-cause mortality or recurrence 30-days post-treatment, using multivariable unconditional logistic regression...
December 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30555132/burkholderia-cepacia-complex-outbreaks-among-non-cystic-fibrosis-patients-in-the-intensive-care-units-a-review-of-adult-and-pediatric-literature
#13
Mohammad Abdallah, Hassan A Abdallah, Ziad A Memish
Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a Gram-negative bacterium commonly found in moist environments and soil. Bcc species are associated with many outbreaks in intensive care units (ICUs). In this review, we describe the sources of Bcc outbreaks among non-cystic fibrosis (CF) patients in various ICUs that include neonatal intensive care units, pediatric intensive care units and adult ICUs. Also we summarize the risk factors and outcome predictors of Bcc infection or colonization in non-CF critically ill patients...
December 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30459945/the-importance-of-adjusting-for-enterococcus-species-when-assessing-the-burden-of-vancomycin-resistance-a-cohort-study-including-over-1000-cases-of-enterococcal-bloodstream-infections
#14
Tobias Siegfried Kramer, Cornelius Remschmidt, Sven Werner, Michael Behnke, Frank Schwab, Guido Werner, Petra Gastmeier, Rasmus Leistner
Background: Infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are on the rise worldwide. Few studies have tried to estimate the mortality burden as well as the financial burden of those infections and found that VRE are associated with increased mortality and higher hospital costs. However, it is unclear whether these worse outcomes are attributable to vancomycin resistance only or whether the enterococcal species ( Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis ) play an important role...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30448456/impact-of-empiric-treatment-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-vre-in-colonized-patients-early-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#15
Mini Kamboj, Nina Cohen, Yao-Ting Huang, Marina Kerpelev, Ann Jakubowski, Kent A Sepkowitz, Genovefa A Papanicolaou, Susan K Seo
In recent years, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonization is increasingly being encountered among transplant populations, and VRE has become one of the leading causes of bacteremia early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). There are sparse data regarding the effect of empiric VRE therapy for febrile, neutropenic allo-HSCT recipients colonized with VRE. All allo-HSCT patients aged 18 years and older who developed VRE bacteremia (VREB) between 2005-2014 were identified and categorized as to whether they received empiric versus (vs) directed VRE therapy...
November 15, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30446934/current-practices-of-intraventricular-antibiotic-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-meningitis-and-ventriculitis-results-from-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
John J Lewin, Aaron M Cook, Cynthia Gonzales, David Merola, Ron Neyens, William J Peppard, Gretchen M Brophy, Lisa Kurczewski, Melissa Giarratano, Jason Makii, A Shaun Rowe, Eljim P Tesoro, Amber Zaniewski, Sarah Clark, Wendy C Ziai
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections are particularly prevalent in the adult neurocritical care patient population and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Factors relevant to the nature of CNS infections pose significant challenges to clinicians treating afflicted patients. Intraventricular (IVT) administration of antibiotics may offer several benefits over systemic therapy; however, the outcomes and current practices of such treatments are poorly described in the literature...
November 16, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30372879/tsh-fraction-from-petromica-citrina-a-potential-marine-natural-product-for-the-treatment-of-sepsis-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#17
Larissa de Souza Constantino, Tatiana da Rosa Guimarães, Simone Quintana de Oliveira, Éverson Miguel Bianco, Luiza Gabriela de Souza Pessoa, Monique Michels, Eloir Paulo Schenkel, Felipe Dal Pizzol, Flávio Henrique Reginatto
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Antibiotic resistance is now a worldwide public health problem. A potential alternative source in the search for new antibiotics is the bioactive molecules obtained from marine products, as the halistanol trisulfate, obtained from Petromica citrina, and herein investigated from its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The antimicrobial activity of the fractionation products (TSH fraction, halistanol sulfate (HS) and halistanol sulfate C (HS-C)) of the marine sponge Petromica citrina was evaluated against twenty bacteria and two fungi strains by the disk diffusion and microdilution methods...
December 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30345197/device-associated-central-nervous-system-infection-caused-by-candida-parapsilosis
#18
Gurpreet S Bhalla, Muqtadir Malik, Manbeer S Sarao, Kuntal Bandyopadhyay, Pratiksha Singh, Satish Tadepalli, Lavan Singh
Meningitis is a common and life-threatening infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in infants with long-term and disabling sequelae like hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus is treated by diverting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) either to another body cavity (via CSF shunt) or externally (via CSF drain) which are prone to infection. Though rare, Candida parapsilosis ( C. parapsilosis ) is a known pathogen in device-associated CNS infections and has been reported in both, infants and adults. A six-month-old male infant was brought to the hospital with disproportionate head enlargement of three months duration...
August 14, 2018: Curēus
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30328179/kha-cari-guideline-recommendations-for-infection-control-for-haemodialysis-units
#19
Meg Jardine, Robert Commons, Janak de Zoysa, Muh Geot Wong, Nicole Gilroy, Julianne Green, Belinda Henderson, Rhonda Stuart, David Tunnicliffe, Carolyn van Eps, Eugene Athan
AIM: There is no national consensus on infection control in haemodialysis units in Australia and New Zealand. The primary aim of this guideline was to provide recommendations on screening for blood-borne viruses and multi-resistant organisms for dialysis units based on the available evidence. METHODS: The KHA-CARI overall approach to guideline development follows the GRADE framework. A facilitated workshop was conducted to ensure that patient and caregiver concerns were considered...
October 16, 2018: Nephrology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30325688/overview-of-prevalence-characteristics-risk-factors-resistance-and-virulence-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-saudi-arabia
#20
Mohammad Abdallah, Mohammad Al-Saafin
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to vancomycin. Infections caused by VRE are associated with adverse outcomes such as extended length of hospital stay, increased cost, and high mortality rate. Clinical and surveillance VRE isolates have been reported from Saudi Arabia. In this review, prevalence, characteristics, risk factors, resistance, and virulence of VRE isolates associated with infection and colonization in Saudi Arabia are described.
October 16, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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