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Computer AND Tomography

C Michael Honey, Zurab Ivanishvili, Christopher R Honey, Manraj K S Heran
OBJECTIVEThe location of the human spinothalamic tract (STT) in the anterolateral spinal cord has been known for more than a century. The exact nature of the neuronal fiber lamination within the STT, however, remains controversial. After correlating in vivo macrostimulation-induced pain/temperature sensation during percutaneous cervical cordotomy with simultaneous CT imaging of the electrode tip location, the authors present a modern description of the somatotopy of the human cervical STT.METHODSTwenty patients underwent CT-guided percutaneous cervical cordotomy to alleviate contralateral medication-refractory cancer pain...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Tomohiro Muronoi, Akihiko Kidani, Eiji Hira, Kayo Takeda, Shunsuke Kuramoto, Kazuyuki Oka, Yoshihide Shimojo, Hiroaki Watanabe
INTRODUCTION: Mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema usually result from spontaneous rupture of the alveolar wall. We present an extremely rare case of massive mediastinal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous emphysema due to the penetration of the colon into the mesentery. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 57-year-old man presented to our institution with a history of chest pain. The patient's medical history included malignant rheumatoid arthritis during the use of steroids and an immunosuppressive agent...
February 10, 2019: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Goji Fushihara, Tomoya Kamide, Tatsuki Kimura, Ririko Takeda, Toshiki Ikeda, Yuichiro Kikkawa, Ryuichiro Araki, Hiroki Kurita
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to better define the incidence of and risk factors for early seizures after repair of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in modern microsurgical techniques. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records of 414 consecutive patients who underwent neck clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in our institution over a 5-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and neuroimaging variables were analyzed to investigate putative predictors of perioperative seizures using multivariate logistic regression analysis...
February 8, 2019: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Richard Voldřich, Martin Májovský, Martin Chovanec, David Netuka
BACKGROUND: Pneumocephalus is commonly associated with cranial trauma including surgical interventions. Spontaneous pneumocephalus on the other hand is a rare diagnosis. Reported cases were predominantly unilateral. We report unique case of a bilateral spontaneous pneumocephalus probably related to bilateral tegmen defect related to repeated Politzer maneuvers. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 78-year-old man suffered from vertigo, tinnitus, instability and mild expressive aphasia...
February 13, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Frank L Brodie, Khashayar Nattagh, Vinil Shah, Vivek Swarnakar, Shezhang Lin, Tatiana Kelil, Derrick Gillan, Dylan Romero, Alejandra G de Alba Campomanes
Children with craniofacial malformations frequently require spectacles but have difficulty finding an acceptable fit with current offerings of pediatric spectacle frames. We describe a novel method for creating custom 3D-printed spectacle frames based on a 3D reconstruction of a prior computed tomography scan. This method offers the ability to create better-fitting spectacles to children who are not served by "off the rack" frames.
February 13, 2019: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Sang Jin Lee, Ju Hye Jeong, Chang-Hee Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn, Jung Su Eun, Na Ri Kim, Jong Whan Kang, Eon Jeong Nam, Young Mo Kang
OBJECTIVES: Clinical joint count assessment is important for detecting synovitis but its reliability is controversial. This study assessed the correlation of positron emission tomography (PET)-derived parameters in 68 joints with disease activity and compared the reliability of joint counts between PET/computed tomography (CT) and clinical assessment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We enrolled 91 patients with active RA who underwent fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and disease activity evaluation at the same time...
February 16, 2019: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Massimo Salvatori, Alessio Rizzo, Guido Rovera, Luca Indovina, Orazio Schillaci
Hybrid imaging procedures such as single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) showed a rapid diffusion in recent years because of their high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, due to a more accurate localization and definition of scintigraphic findings. However, hybrid systems inevitably lead to an increase in patient radiation exposure because of the added CT component. Effective doses due to the radiopharmaceuticals can be estimated by multiplying the administered activities by the effective dose coefficients, while for the CT component the dose-length product can be multiplied by a conversion coefficient k...
February 15, 2019: La Radiologia Medica
Amer Harky, Ewa Zywicka, Giovanni Santoro, Lucas Jullian, Mihika Joshi, Sameh Dimitri
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) compared to computed tomography angiography (CTA) for the detection of endoleaks within endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) surveillance at time of follow up. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was undertaken among the four major databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Ovid) to identify all articles assessing diagnostic specificity and accuracy with comparative modality (CEUS vs CTA) for endoleaks in adult patients at time of follow-up following EVAR...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Ultrasound
Volkan Tuncay, Peter M A van Ooijen
BACKGROUND: Current developments showed a fast-increasing implementation and use of three-dimensional (3D) printing in medical applications. Our aim was to review the literature regarding the application of 3D printing to cardiac valve disease. METHODS: A PubMed search for publications in English with the terms "3D printing" AND "cardiac valve", performed in January 2018, resulted in 64 items. After the analysis of the abstract and text, 27 remained related to the topic...
February 15, 2019: European radiology experimental
Giovanni Marchegiani, Marco Ramera, Elena Viviani, Fabio Lombardo, Adam Cybulski, Marco Chincarini, Giuseppe Malleo, Claudio Bassi, Giulia A Zamboni, Roberto Salvia
PURPOSE: The use of intra-abdominal drains after major surgical procedures represents a well-established but controversial practice. No data are available regarding both the occurrence and the potential impact of their postoperative accidental dislocation. The aim of this study is to assess the actual rate of dislocation of intra-abdominal drains postoperatively and to evaluate its clinical impact. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study using major pancreatic surgery as a model...
February 15, 2019: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Noboru Oyachi, Takaki Emura, Fuminori Numano, Tomoko Tando, Tomohiro Saito, Yusuke Goto
BACKGROUND: Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is a rare and severe pathological condition that can cause intestinal necrosis without mechanical obstruction of the mesenteric artery. NOMI often develops during the treatment of severe disease in elderly patients and mostly occurs in the intestine supplied by the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). We experienced a 12-year-old patient with NOMI that was segmentally localized in the ascending colon and rectum during encephalitis treatment...
February 15, 2019: Surgical Case Reports
Antonio Klasan, Thomas Neri, Sven Edward Putnis, Philipp Dworschak, Karl Friedrich Schüttler, Susanne Fuchs-Winkelmann, Markus D Schofer, Thomas J Heyse
INTRODUCTION: Impingement of the prominent anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) against the femoral neck has recently been described as another type of impingement. The purpose of this study is to provide a distribution of AIIS types using the classification proposed by Hetsroni and thus report on the prevalence of prominent types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 400 patients were included in the study with an average age 27.3 ± 6.9 years (range 18-40). All patients received a whole-body polytrauma computer tomography (CT) scan in the emergency room (ER) upon arrival...
February 15, 2019: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Ke Li, Mo Saffarini, Jeremy Valluy, Marie-Charlotte Desseroit, Yannick Morvan, Norbert Telmon, Etienne Cavaignac
PURPOSE: Unexplained pain and stiffness after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) often result from mismatch between implant geometry and knee morphology, which depends on patient size, sex, and ethnicity. This study aimed to determine whether size, sex, or ethnicity are independently associated with distal femoral morphology in healthy Caucasian and Asian knees, and to compare anatomic ratios to those of commercially available TKA implants. METHODS: Two series of computed tomography (CT) angiograms from France (264 knees) and China (259 knees) were used to digitize osteometric landmarks at the level of the femoral epicondyles, to measure anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) dimensions at the anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral zones...
February 15, 2019: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Haonan Lu, Mubarik Arshad, Andrew Thornton, Giacomo Avesani, Paula Cunnea, Ed Curry, Fahdi Kanavati, Jack Liang, Katherine Nixon, Sophie T Williams, Mona Ali Hassan, David D L Bowtell, Hani Gabra, Christina Fotopoulou, Andrea Rockall, Eric O Aboagye
The five-year survival rate of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is approximately 35-40% despite maximal treatment efforts, highlighting a need for stratification biomarkers for personalized treatment. Here we extract 657 quantitative mathematical descriptors from the preoperative CT images of 364 EOC patients at their initial presentation. Using machine learning, we derive a non-invasive summary-statistic of the primary ovarian tumor based on 4 descriptors, which we name "Radiomic Prognostic Vector" (RPV)...
February 15, 2019: Nature Communications
Tomohiro Takehara, Tetsuo Tani, Ken Yajima, Mako Watanabe, Yoshihito Otsuka, Hidefumi Koh
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter cinaedi is a microaerobic Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that causes enteritis, cellulitis, and bacteremia in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. While there have been increasing numbers of reported H. cinaedi infections recently, there has been no thyroid abscess case caused by H. cinaedi presenting with thyroid storm. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old Japanese man presented with a 9-day history of high fever associated with palpitations, dry cough, and chronic diarrhea...
February 15, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Essam M Alkhybari, Mark F McEntee, Patrick C Brennan, Kathy P Willowson, Peter L Kench
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this work is to report diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for hybrid positron emission tomography and x-ray computed tomography (PET/CT) exams in Australia (AU) for Queensland (QLD) and Western Australia (WA) (AU QLD/WA) and New Zealand (NZ). METHODS: Two-structured booklets were designed to collect dose information, patient demographics, equipment details and acquisition protocols for fluoride-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) PET/CT procedures, and any additional diagnostic CT routinely performed as part of 18 F-FDG whole-body examination...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
X Baraliakos, F Hoffmann, X Deng, Y Wang, F Huang, J Braun
OBJECTIVE: The volume-interpolated breathhold examination (VIBE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique can visualize erosive cartilage defects in peripheral joints. We evaluated the ability of VIBE to detect erosions in sacroiliac joints (SIJ) of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) as compared to the established T1-weighted (T1w)-MRI sequence and computed tomography (CT). METHODS: MRIs (T1w- and VIBE-) and CTs of SIJs of 109 axSpA patients were evaluated by two blinded readers based on SIJ-quadrants (SQ)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Rheumatology
Tomohiro Shimizu, Ana Cruz, Matthew Tanaka, Kenji Mamoto, Valentina Pedoia, Andrew J Burghardt, Ursula Heilmeier, Thomas M Link, Jonathan Graf, John B Imboden, Xiaojuan Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between changes in radiological quantitative assessment with changes in clinical and functional assessment from baseline to 3 months in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with RA [methotrexate (MTX) and anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) group with high disease activity (n = 18); and MTX group with low disease activity (n = 10)] underwent assessments at baseline and 3 months: clinical [28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28)], functional [Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ)], and imaging-based [3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT)]...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Rheumatology
Geoffrey M Currie
Pharmacology principles provide key understanding that underpins the clinical and research roles of nuclear medicine practitioners. The scope of practice of the nuclear medicine technologist demands knowledge and understanding of indications, contraindications, warnings, precautions, proper use, drug interactions, and adverse reactions for each medication to be used. This article is the sixth in a series of articles that aims to enhance the understanding of pharmacological principles relevant to nuclear medicine...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
Geoffrey M Currie
Pharmacology principles provide key understanding that underpins the clinical and research roles of nuclear medicine practitioners in nuclear cardiology. The scope of practice of the nuclear medicine technologist demands knowledge and understanding of indications, contraindications, warnings, precautions, proper use, drug interactions, and adverse reactions for each medication to be used. This article is the fifth in a series of articles that aims to enhance the understanding of pharmacological principles relevant to nuclear medicine...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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