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Viral Fever

Yong Yean Kim, Judy F Lew, Bahareh Keith, Taina Telisma, Eric J Nelson, Alexis C Brantly, Sonese Chavannes, Gina Anilis, Yang Yang, Mingjin Liu, Meer Taifur Alam, Mohammed H Rashid, J Glenn Morris, Valery E Madsen Beau De Rochars
OBJECTIVES: Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) is the most common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries, including Haiti. Our objective was to detect pathogens found in children with ARI in rural Haiti to help develop evidence-based guidelines for treatment and prevention. METHODS: Retrospective study of students with ARI at four schools in rural Haiti. Viral and/or bacterial pathogens were identified by qPCR in 177 nasal swabs collected from April 2013 through November 2015...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Jinxia Wang, Xinglou Yang, Haizhou Liu, Li Wang, Jihua Zhou, Xi Han, Yan Zhu, Weihong Yang, Hong Pan, Yunzhi Zhang, Zhengli Shi
BACKGROUND: Mammarenaviruses are associated with human hemorrhagic fever diseases in Africa and America. Recently, a rodent mammarenavirus, Wēnzhōu virus (WENV) and related viruses, have been reported in China, Cambodia, and Thailand. Moreover, in Cambodia, these viruses were suspected to be associated with human disease. In China, Yunnan Province is famous for its abundant animal and plant diversity and is adjacent to several South-eastern Asia countries. Therefore, it is necessary to know whether WENV-related viruses, or other mammarenaviruses, are prevalent in this province...
February 15, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Eleni Karakike, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis
Hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH) is characterized by fulminant cytokine storm leading to multiple organ dysfunction and high mortality. HLH is classified into familial (fHLH) and into secondary (sHLH). fHLH is rare and it is due to mutations of genes encoding for perforin or excretory granules of natural killer (NK) cells of CD8-lymphocytes. sHLH is also known as macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) in adults is poorly studied. Main features are fever, hepatosplenomegaly, hepatobiliary dysfunction (HBD), coagulopathy, cytopenia of two to three cell lineages, increased triglycerides and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Kanti Pabbaraju, Kara Gill, Anita A Wong, Graham A Tipples, Joanne Heibert, Alberto Severini, Kevin Fonseca, Raymond Tellier
Measles is one of the most contagious viral respiratory infection that was declared eliminated from Canada in 1998, however measles cases and outbreaks still occur every year through re-introduction from other parts of the world. Laboratory confirmation of measles virus (MV) RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction provides a definitive diagnosis, and molecular analysis to determine the genotype is the only way to distinguish between the wild-type and vaccine strains. This distinction is important since live attenuated vaccine strains are able to replicate in the patient and can be associated with rash and fever but are poorly transmissible if at all...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Harshada Ketkar, Daniella Herman, Penghua Wang
Mosquito-borne diseases constitute a large portion of infectious diseases, causing more than 700,000 deaths annually. Mosquito-transmitted viruses, such as yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, chikungunya, and Zika viruses, have re-emerged recently and remain a public health threat worldwide. Global climate change, rapid urbanization, burgeoning international travel, expansion of mosquito populations, vector competence, and host and viral genetics may all together contribute to the re-emergence of arboviruses. In this brief review, we summarize the host and viral genetic determinants that may enhance infectivity in the host, viral fitness in mosquitoes and viral transmission by mosquitoes...
February 12, 2019: Viruses
Rıfkiye Küçükoğlu, Sıla Kılıç, Gizem Pınar Sun
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease that, may require multiagent immunosuppressive drug therapies in severe cases. In addition to the well established corticosteroid sparing agents azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and methotrexate, rituximab is being increasingly used alone or in combination in the management of PV. Due to the chronic course of the disease, the cumulative effects of these therapy agents over long follow-up periods may result in various adverse reactions, including bacterial and viral infections...
February 13, 2019: Dermatologic Therapy
Ashley Lane McCormack, Nader Rabie, Brianna Whittemore, Trevor Murphy, Collin Sitler, Everett Magann
Importance: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is a rare condition with a high mortality rate. Immunocompromised individuals, including pregnant women, are the most susceptible. When primary infection occurs during pregnancy, risk for disseminated HSV is greatly increased. Disseminated HSV can manifest in the form of HSV hepatitis. Objective: We aim to review the literature and summarize what is known about HSV hepatitis in pregnancy to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition...
February 2019: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
João Melo Alves, Inês Brás Marques, Raquel Gil-Gouveia
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a rare inflammatory demyelinating multifocal disease of the central nervous system that typically occurs in children following vaccination or exanthematous viral infections and conveys an elevated risk of neurological sequelae unless promptly recognized and treated. We describe an adult case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following vaccination against Mumps, Measles and Rubella, presenting with fever and progressive neurological deficits which improved under systemic corticosteroid therapy...
February 1, 2019: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Jiří Sagan, Petr Širůček, Pavel Folwarczny, Marie Sporková, Pavel Hurník
Influenza is an acute viral disease that causes influenza A, B, C. Clinically, flu is typically characterized by fever and respiratory symptoms, sometimes with the need for mechanical ventilation, less frequently by gastrointestinal symptoms and muscle problems; severe are cases with central nervous system involvement. The most common complication of influenza is secondary bacterial infection, typically pneumonia, which is most frequently caused by pneumococci and staphylococci. Every year, thousands of patients die of influenza or its complications...
December 2018: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
Claudio Oliviero, Lena Lindh, Olli Peltoniemi
The feral pig populations of many countries continue to increase. Scientific studies on population size are scarce, while the numbers of reported observations on presence of and damage caused by feral pigs are increasing. Feral pigs can carry and spread several diseases (including zoonotic), but African Swine Fever (ASF) is of most concern. It is a highly transmissible viral disease associated with an extremely high mortality rate. Since 2009 ASF has appeared in several European countries, with cases being identified first among local feral pigs and consequently in domestic pig production units, indicating a clear linkage with the movement of the feral pig population and the spread of the disease across national boundaries...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Jingyao Chen, Haitao Wang, Jianhui Bai, Wenjie Liu, Xiaojuan Liu, Dawei Yu, Tao Feng, Zhaolin Sun, Linlin Zhang, Linyuan Ma, Yiqing Hu, Yunlong Zou, Tan Tan, Jie Zhong, Man Hu, Xiaofei Bai, Dengke Pan, Yiming Xing, Yaofeng Zhao, Kegong Tian, Xiaoxiang Hu, Ning Li
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious disease and the most economically important disease of the swine industry worldwide. Highly pathogenic-PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) is a variant of PRRSV, which caused high morbidity and mortality. Scavenger receptor CD163, which contains nine scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains, is a key entry mediator for PRRSV. A previous study demonstrated that SRCR domain 5 (SRCR5), encoded by exon 7, was essential for PRRSV infection in vitro ...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Ling'En Yang, Zihan Zhao, Guobin Hou, Chang Zhang, Jun Liu, Lin Xu, Wei Li, Zhizhou Tan, Changchun Tu, Biao He
Ticks are medically-important arthropods that maintain and transmit numerous emerging viruses. China suffers severely from tick-borne viral diseases such as tick-borne encephalitis and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), but the background of tick-borne viruses is very limited. Here we report the virome profiling of ticks and goat sera from SFTS-epidemic areas, and serological investigation of SFTS virus (SFTSV) and Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV). Results revealed divergent viruses in ticks and goat sera, including SFTSV and NSDV...
January 30, 2019: Virology
Mohamed Fawzy, Yosra A Helmy
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging transboundary, mosquito-borne, zoonotic viral disease caused high morbidity and mortality in both human and ruminant populations. It is considered an important threat to both agriculture and public health in African and the Middle Eastern countries including Egypt. Five major RVF epidemics have been reported in Egypt (1977, 1993, 1994, 1997, and 2003). The virus is transmitted in Egypt by different mosquito's genera such as Aedes , Culex , Anopheles , and Mansonia , leading to abortions in susceptible animal hosts especially sheep, goat, cattle, and buffaloes...
February 6, 2019: Viruses
Katherine Schultheis, Hubert Schaefer, Holly M Pugh, Bryan S Yung, Janet Oh, Jacklyn Nguyen, Laurent Humeau, Kate E Broderick, Trevor R F Smith
The guinea pig has played a pivotal role as a relevant small animal model in the development of vaccines for infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, influenza, diphtheria, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. We have demonstrated that plasmid-DNA (pDNA) vaccine delivery into the skin elicits robust humoral responses in the guinea pig. However, the use of this animal to model immune responses was somewhat limited in the past due to the lack of available reagents and protocols to study T cell responses. T cells play a pivotal role in both immunoprophylactic and immunotherapeutic mechanisms...
January 20, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Gerald Theillet, Gilda Grard, Mathilde Galla, Carine Maisse, Margot Enguehard, Marie Cresson, Pascal Dalbon, Isabelle Leparc Leparc-Goffart, Frederic Bedin
The incidence of arbovirus infections has increased dramatically in recent decades, affecting hundreds of millions of people each year. The Togaviridae family includes the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which is typically transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and causes a wide range of symptoms from flu-like fever to severe arthralgia. Although conventional diagnostic tests can provide early diagnosis of CHIKV infections, access to these tests is often limited in developing countries. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop efficient, affordable, simple, rapid, and robust diagnostic tools that can be used in point-of-care settings...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Romane A Awad, Wagdy K B Khalil, Ashraf G Attallah
Forty diseased cats and seven healthy control cats from different sex, ages and breeds had examined clinically to confirm presence or absence of clinical symptoms of Feline panleukopenia disease (FP). Several tools including ELISA, gene expression analysis (qRT-PCR), DNA fragmentation test and apoptosis assay were conducted to determine the Feline panleukopenia disease in cat tissues. Clinical symptoms in the form of depression, fever, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, anaemia and leucopenia were recorded in the diseased cats while no clinical sings were observed in control healthy cats...
December 2018: Journal, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology
Natasha Amiraraghi, Lorna C Ewan, Shayan Ansari, Kevin Robertson
Tonsillitis is an extremely common condition, usually it is self-limiting, of viral origin, and managed conservatively in general practice. Rarely patients require inpatient management, usually when bacterial infection is present or when the cause is virulent organisms such as Epstein Barr virus. Complications can be divided into non-suppurative; sepsis, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis and Lemierres disease, and suppurative; quinsy, parapharyngeal abscess and retropharyngeal abscess, respectively...
February 6, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Subbiah Jeeva, Sheema Mir, Adrain Velasquez, Jacquelyn Ragan, Aljona Leka, Sharon Wu, Ariga Tahmasian Sevarany, Austin D Royster, Nicholas A Almeida, Fion Chan, Lea O'Brien, Mohammad Ayoub Mir
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne Nairovirus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with a mortality rate of up to 30% in certain outbreaks worldwide. The virus has wide endemic distribution. There is no effective antiviral therapeutic or FDA approved vaccine for this zoonotic viral illness. The multifunctional CCHFV nucleocapsid protein (N protein) plays a crucial role in the establishment of viral infection and is an important structural component of the virion. Here we show that CCHFV N protein has a distant RNA binding site in the stalk domain that specifically recognizes the vRNA panhandle, formed by the base pairing of complementary nucleotides at the 5' and 3' termini of the vRNA genome...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Eric Lee, Elizabeth H Barnes, Sam Mehr, Dianne E Campbell
BACKGROUND: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is frequently misdiagnosed and subject to diagnostic delay. Profuse vomiting, the cardinal feature of acute FPIES, may occur in more common pediatric disorders such as gastroenteritis and sepsis. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine differentiating features at acute presentation between FPIES, gastroenteritis, and sepsis in young children presenting to an emergency department (ED) with profuse vomiting...
February 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Barbara Bartolini, Cesare Em Gruber, Marion Koopmans, Tatjana Avšič, Sylvia Bino, Iva Christova, Roland Grunow, Roger Hewson, Gulay Korukluoglu, Cinthia Menel Lemos, Ali Mirazimi, Anna Papa, Maria Paz Sanchez-Seco, Aisha V Sauer, Hervè Zeller, Carla Nisii, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Giuseppe Ippolito, Chantal B Reusken, Antonino Di Caro
BackgroundCrimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is considered an emerging infectious disease threat in the European Union. Since 2000, the incidence and geographic range of confirmed CCHF cases have markedly increased, following changes in the distribution of its main vector, Hyalomma ticks.AimsTo review scientific literature and collect experts' opinion to analyse relevant aspects of the laboratory management of human CCHF cases and any exposed contacts, as well as identify areas for advancement of international collaborative preparedness and laboratory response plans...
January 2019: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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