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Ketamine anesthesia

James Mack Fudge, Bernie Page, Amy Mackrell, Inhyung Lee
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine if bupivacaine targeted at specific, potentially painful sites could enhance postoperative analgesia in routine feline ovariohysterectomies. A secondary objective was to assess the utility of multiple acute pain scales for cats in a high-volume surgery setting. METHODS: Two hundred and twelve cats were included in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Anesthesia included buprenorphine, ketamine, dexmedetomidine and isoflurane...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Nadine Thiele, Christine Köppl
Auditory nerve single-unit recordings were obtained from two groups of young barn owls (age, between posthatching days 11 and 86) in terminal experiments under two different anesthetic regimes: ketamine (6-11 mg/kg) plus xylazine (∼2 mg/kg); or isoflurane (1-1.5%) in oxygen, delivered via artificial respiration. In a second series of minimally invasive experiments, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded in the same four adult barn owls ( Tyto alba ; age, between 5 and 32 months) under three different anesthetic protocols: ketamine (10 mg/kg) plus xylazine (3 mg/kg), isoflurane (1-1...
September 2018: ENeuro
H Z Ozsoy
Inhalational anesthetics such as isoflurane, desflurane and halothane are the mainstay medications for surgical procedures; upon inhalation, they produce anesthesia described as reversible unconsciousness with the features of amnesia, sleep, immobility and analgesia. To date, how they produce anesthesia is unknown. This study proposes that carbonic anhydrase enzymes are likely targets mediating the actions of inhalational anesthetics. Carbonic anhydrase enzymes, commonly expressed in living organisms, utilize carbon dioxide (CO2 ) as a substrate and can generate H+ and HCO3 - from CO2 with a great efficiency...
February 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Samantha A Gerb, Jemma E Cook, Alexandria E Gochenauer, Camille S Young, Linda K Fulton, Andrew W Grady, Kevin B Freeman
Ketamine is one of the most commonly used anesthetics in human and veterinary medicine, but its clinical effectiveness isoften compromised due to tolerance to its anesthetic effects. Although ketamine tolerance has been demonstrated in a numberof behavioral measures, no published work has investigated tolerance to ketamine's anesthetic effects other than durationof anesthesia. In addition, a reported practice in anesthesiology is to alter anesthetic doses for procedures when the patienthas a history of drug abuse...
January 29, 2019: Comparative Medicine
Renata P B Carneiro, Gustavo G Macedo, Rafael DeRossi, Eliane V Costa-E-Silva, Maria Inês L Souza
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of subarachnoid anesthesia with ketamine during transcervical artificial insemination (TCAI) on the welfare of ewes and on subsequent pregnancy rates. Ninety Suffolk adult ewes were randomized into three treatment groups: control group (CG), which underwent the TCAI procedure as established by cervical traction (CG; n = 30) and two groups that received subarachnoid anesthesia with ketamine at a dose of either 0.75 mg/kg (KE0.75; n = 30) or 1.5 mg/kg (KE1.5; n = 30) 5 min before the cervical traction procedure...
January 26, 2019: Tropical Animal Health and Production
S M Liu, Y Yue
Objective: To compare the analgesic efficacy between preoperative single-dose ketamine, a short-acting medicine and parecoxib, a long-acting medicine for reducing analgesic consumption in the first 24 h after-operation. Methods: Eighty-one patients from Beijing Chaoyang Hospital undergoing laparoscopic uterus surgery between April and December 2015 were randomly divided into three groups: control group (group C), ketamine group (group K) and parecoxib sodium group (group P). All patients were anesthetized with general anesthesia and received sufentanil-based patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA)...
December 25, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Sivakumar Segaran, Arish T Bacthavasalame, Ranjan R Venkatesh, Mamie Zachariah, Sagiev Koshy George, Ravichandran Kandasamy
Background: Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a known complication following general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation. Its incidence ranges from 21% to 65% and remains the eighth most undesirable postoperative event. Various measures have been tried to decrease the incidence of sore throat with various success rates. Aim: This study aimed at reducing the incidence of POST with ketamine and magnesium sulfate nebulization. Settings and Design: This study is a prospective randomized, double-blinded study...
October 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Ellis Nelissen, Nick P van Goethem, Vivian T Bonassoli, Pim R A Heckman, Britt T J van Hagen, Dila Suay, Caroline Wouters, Jos Prickaerts
The xylazine/ketamine anesthesia test is widely used as a predictor of the emetic potential of pharmacological compounds in rats. An emetic reflex is usually triggered by the emetic center, which is populated with many different chemoreceptors. Inhibition of the α2 adrenergic receptor (α2 receptor) is involved in the initiation of the emetic reflex, and this is the key mechanism behind the xylazine/ketamine anesthesia test. In this study, we attempt to validate this test as a predictor of the emetic potential of pharmacological compounds...
January 16, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Musa Shirmohammadie, Alireza Ebrahim Soltani, Shahriar Arbabi, Karim Nasseri
• Background: Caudal epidural is the most commonly used technique for the management of postoperative pain in children. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the efficacy of caudal bupivacaine as a postoperative analgesic alone or combined with midazolam, ketamine, and neostigmine in pediatric patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. METHODS: Eighty pediatric patients categorized under the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I and II Classification System, who have been scheduled to undergo lower abdominal surgery were randomly designated into four groups to receive caudal block with either 1 ml/kg of 0...
January 15, 2019: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Fan Zhang, Guihua Huang, Xianlin Zhu
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an efficient therapy for major depression and modern ECT requires anesthesia to enhance safety. However, the commonly used anesthetic, propofol, may weaken the treatment efficacy. A recent study confirmed that ketamine rapidly reduced the symptoms of depression in affected patients. A previous study found that electroconvulsive seizure (ECS), the animal model for ECT, under anesthesia of low-dose ketamine combined with propofol could enhance the antidepressant efficacy and improve the cognitive performance...
January 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Michele Angelo Colombo, Martino Napolitani, Melanie Boly, Olivia Gosseries, Silvia Casarotto, Mario Rosanova, Jean-Francois Brichant, Pierre Boveroux, Steffen Rex, Steven Laureys, Marcello Massimini, Arturo Chieregato, Simone Sarasso
Despite the absence of responsiveness during anesthesia, conscious experience may persist. However, reliable, easily acquirable and interpretable neurophysiological markers of the presence of consciousness in unresponsive states are still missing. A promising marker is based on the decay-rate of the power spectral density (PSD) of the resting EEG. We acquired resting electroencephalogram (EEG) in three groups of healthy participants (n = 5 each), before and during anesthesia induced by either xenon, propofol or ketamine...
January 10, 2019: NeuroImage
Lyon Y Lee, Dongbin Lee, Hakhyun Ryu, Janet H Han, Jungho Ko, John W Tyler
Rabbits provide a unique challenge for routine endotracheal intubation in clinical practice because of various distinctiveanatomic and physiologic features. Many previously proposed methods for endotracheal intubation in rabbits are limited byseveral factors, including the needs for expensive equipment and high levels of technical expertise. We evaluated capnographyfor its effectiveness in assisting endotracheal intubation in rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 3 groupsof 5 animals. In the first 2 groups, mainstream (nondiverting) or sidestream (diverting) capnography (MC and SC groups, respectively)was used; in the third group (LS group), a laryngoscope with a size 00 Miller blade was used to guide endotracheal tube placement...
January 9, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Chiara E Hampton, Thomas W Riebold, Nicole L LeBlanc, Katherine F Scollan, Ronald E Mandsager, David D Sisson
OBJECTIVE To compare effects of tiletamine-zolazepam, alfaxalone, ketamine-diazepam, and propofol for anesthetic induction on cardiorespiratory and acid-base variables before and during isoflurane-maintained anesthesia in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 6 dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane and instrumented. After dogs recovered from anesthesia, baseline values for cardiorespiratory variables and cardiac output were determined, and arterial and mixed-venous blood samples were obtained. Tiletamine-zolazepam (5 mg/kg), alfaxalone (4 mg/kg), propofol (6 mg/kg), or ketamine-diazepam (7 and 0...
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Kiira T Rodriguez, Rebecca E Gompf, Christopher K Smith, Joshua M Price, Andrew C Cushing
Eight adult tigers ( Panthera tigris) underwent a complete echocardiographic examination following sedation with medetomidine, midazolam, and induction of general anesthesia using ketamine and isoflurane (phase 1). Atipamezole was used to antagonize medetomidine (phase 2) and a second echocardiographic examination was performed. Physiologic tricuspid and pulmonic regurgitations were common findings in the sample population and one tiger was excluded from final analyses due to the finding of a ventricular septal defect...
December 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Sandra Wenger, Helene Pendl, Stamatios Tahas, Monika Bochmann, Jean-Michel Hatt
An adult, wild-caught electric eel ( Electrophorus electricus), weighing 18 kg and measuring 2 m in length, presented with bilateral swellings behind the pectoral fins, lethargy, and anorexia for 2 days. Anesthesia was performed with immersion in tricaine methanesulphonate and supplemented with 0.11 mg/kg medetomidine and 2.2 mg/kg ketamine intramuscularly. Endoscopy revealed blood in the oral and gastric cavity. The stomach was grossly enlarged, flaccid, and contained a lead wire which was removed manually...
December 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Ignacio Monge Mora, Jennifer N Langan, Ryan S Bailey, Copper Aitken-Palmer, Michael J Adkesson, Karisa N Tang, Christoph K Chinnadurai
This report describes weekly repeated anesthesia in a 7-yr-old, 1,030 kg, female Eastern black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis michaeli), that was immobilized six times using a combination of 2 mg etorphine (0.002 mg/kg), 5 mg medetomidine (0.005 mg/kg), 25 mg midazolam (0.024 mg/kg), and 300 mg ketamine (0.29 mg/kg) delivered intramuscularly (IM) via remote dart to facilitate long-term medical care of a bilateral, obstructive Actinomyces sp. rhinitis. The drug combination described in this study resulted in reliable, rapid recumbency of the animal within 2-8 min after initial administration via dart and produced deep anesthesia for 34-78 min without supplemental anesthetic administration...
December 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Carsten Grøndahl, Emilie U Andersen-Ranberg, Jesper B Mosbacher, Mikkel Stelvig, Lars H Hansen, Niels M Schmidt
Immobilizing and handling large, free-ranging animals without proper facilities in harsh environmental conditions poses significant challenges. During two field expeditions, a total of 29 female muskoxen ( Ovibos moschatus) were immobilized in Northeast Greenland (74°N, 20°E). Fixed doses of immobilizing drugs were used regardless of animal size: 2 mg etorphine, 30 mg xylazine, 0.3 mg medetomidine, and 40 mg ketamine. Physiologic and behavioral monitoring was performed during the second expedition on 15 female muskoxen...
December 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Jessica M Jiron, Jorge L Mendieta Calle, Evelyn J Castillo, Abel M Abraham, Jonathan G Messer, Wendi L Malphurs, Carolyn Malinowski, Kristina Grove, Leah R Reznikov, Jasenka Zubcevic, J Ignacio Aguirre
Rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) are an unconventional laboratory species that has been used to study photoperiodicity,periodontitis, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Interventional procedures that require anesthesia, including oral procedures, aresometimes necessary in preclinical settings. The use of anesthetics including isoflurane and ketamine combined with α2-adrenoreceptor agonists, such as dexmedetomidine and xylazine, is well-established for laboratory rodents. However, theireffects have been studied only modestly in rice rats...
December 20, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Adam M Sheppard, Deng-Ling Zhao, Richard Salvi
A commonly used anesthetic, isoflurane, can impair auditory function in a dose-dependent manner. However, in rats, isoflurane-induced auditory impairments have only been assessed with auditory brainstem responses; a measure which is unable to distinguish if changes originate from the central or peripheral auditory system. Studies performed in other species, such as mice and guinea-pigs, suggests auditory impairment stems from disrupted OHC amplification. Despite the wide use of the rat in auditory research, these observations have yet to be replicated in the rat animal model...
June 2018: Journal of Otology
Florence Bourdon, Nicolas Simon, Damien Lannoy, Christophe Berneron, Bertrand Décaudin, Laurence Reumaux, Alain Duhamel, Pierre Richart, Pascal Odou
BACKGROUND: Transforming a drug from its commercial form into a ready-to-use drug is common practice, especially in pediatrics. However, the risk of compounding error is real and data on drug stability in practise are not always available. AIMS: To assess, in real conditions, both the error rate and stability of 3 drugs: ketamine, remifentanil and sufentanil. METHODS: A new rapid and easy-to-use high-performance liquid chromatography method with a diode array detector has been developed and validated to quantify these drugs and detect their degradation products...
December 14, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
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