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Lei Ma, Bingzi Zhao, Zhibin Guo, Daozhong Wang, Dandan Li, Jisheng Xu, Zengqiang Li, Jiabao Zhang
Unbalanced fertilization lacking nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or potassium (K) is a worldwide phenomenon; however, whether they affect bacterial community composition and intraspecific interactions in a similar pattern and how they affect bacterial activity are not systematically compared. Soils under different kinds of unbalanced fertilization in a 21-year field experiment were collected to investigate the variation in dehydrogenase activity (DHA), bacterial community diversity, structure, composition, and possible interactions...
March 16, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mansour Rezazadeh Azari, Yousef Mohammadian, Jalal Pourahmad, Fariba Khodagholi, Habibollah Peirovi, Yadollah Mehrabi, Meisam Omidi, Athena Rafieepour
Co-exposure to carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo a pyrene (BaP) in ambient air have been reported. Adsorption of BaP to F-MWCNTs can influence combined toxicity. Studying individual toxicity of F-MWCNTs and BaP might give unrealistic data. Limited information is available on the combined toxicity of F-MWCNTs and BaP in human cells. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the toxicity of F-MWCNTs and BaP individually and combined in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells)...
March 16, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yanying Wang, Yan Yang, Wei Liu, Fang Ding, Ping Zou, Xianxiang Wang, Qingbiao Zhao, Hanbing Rao
A dual-mode method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and of ascorbic acid oxidase (AA-Ox) activity. It combines the advantages of ratiometric fluorometry and colorimetry. The assay is based on the oxidation of o-phenylenediamine (OPDA) by permanganate (KMnO4 ). A yellow substance (referred to as oxOPDA) with an absorption peak at 425 nm is rapidly produced in the presence of the oxidant. oxOPDA reduces the blue fluorescence of carbon dots (C-dots) peaking at 450 nm (upon 380-nm excitation), and a new emission peak is found at 565 nm...
March 16, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
MacLean G Kohlmeier, Catherine E White, Jane E Fowler, Turlough M Finan, Ivan J Oresnik
The legume endosymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti can utilize a broad range of carbon compounds to support its growth. The linear, six-carbon polyol galactitol is abundant in vascular plants and is metabolized in S. meliloti by the contribution of two loci SMb21372-SMb21377 and SMc01495-SMc01503 which are found on pSymB and the chromosome, respectively. The data suggest that several transport systems, including the chromosomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter smoEFGK, contribute to the uptake of galactitol, while the adjacent gene smoS encodes a protein for oxidation of galactitol into tagatose...
March 16, 2019: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
P Saranya, P K Selvi, G Sekaran
Bacillus pumilus, the thermophilic microorganism, was used to biosynthesise lipase of specific activity 5173 U. The purified lipase was highly stable in the pH range from 1 to 7 and temperature at 50 °C. The functionalized nanoporous activated carbon matrix was used for the immobilization of lipase at the optimum conditions and was used for the hydrolysis of palm oil-containing wastewater at optimum time, 3 h, pH 7, and at temperature 50 °C. The hydrolyzed palm oil wastewater was treated in an upflow anaerobic reactor for the removal of soluble COD at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days...
March 16, 2019: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Sumit Kumar Dey, B Chakrabarti, T J Purakayastha, Radha Prasanna, R Mittal, S D Singh, H Pathak
Phosphorus (P) demand is likely to increase especially in legumes to harness greater benefits of nitrogen fixation under elevated CO2 condition. In the following study, seed yield and seed P uptake in cowpea increased by 26.8% and 20.9%, respectively, under elevated CO2 level. With an increase in phosphorus dose up to 12 mg kg-1 , seed yield enhanced from 2.6 to 5.4 g plant-1 . P application and cyanobacterial inoculation increased the microbial activity of soil, leading to increased availability of P. Under elevated CO2 condition, microbial activity, measured as dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase activities showed stimulation...
March 16, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Christina Awad, Karin Gilkison, Erwin Shaw
Lanthanum carbonate is a phosphate binder that is used to reduce serum phosphate levels in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Lanthanum forms insoluble lanthanum phosphate complexes that are supposed to pass through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract unabsorbed. Phosphate binders have been reported to deposit in the GI tract and can cause mucosal injury. There are few case reports of GI bleeding associated with phosphate binder deposits. This case report presents a patient with iron deficiency anaemia secondary to biopsy-proven lanthanum deposits in the upper GI tract...
March 15, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
J W Bloodworth, M C Baptie, K F Preedy, J Best
Emamectin benzoate is used as an in-feed treatment for the control of sea lice parasites in all of the main farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) facilities worldwide (Norway, Chile, Scotland and Canada). Investigations into its effect on non-target benthic fauna resulting from its excretion from farmed fish and uneaten feed have been limited. This paper presents the findings from a study that intended to assess the impact of emamectin benzoate on benthic fauna using a new low detection method for emamectin benzoate...
February 28, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Yongping Kou, Chaonan Li, Jiabao Li, Bo Tu, Yansu Wang, Xiangzhen Li
Denitrification is an important process that influences nitrogen (N) loss and the production of greenhouse gas in grassland soils. However, the relative contributions of abiotic and biotic factors to soil denitrification potential at the regional and sub-regional scales in grassland ecosystems remain elusive. In this study, soil samples were collected from 21 sites at three steppes of China, including the Inner Mongolia Plateau (IMP), the Xinjiang Autonomous Region (XAR) and the Tibetan Plateau (TP) grasslands...
March 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Mariela A Yevenes, Nelson A Lagos, Laura Farías, Cristian A Vargas
This study investigates the immediate and mid-term effects of the biogeochemical variables input into the Reloncaví fjord (41°40'S; 72°23'O) as a result of the eruption of Calbuco volcano. Reloncaví is an estuarine system supporting one of the largest mussels farming production within Northern Chilean-Patagonia. Field-surveys were conducted immediately after the volcanic eruption (23-30 April 2015), one month (May 2015), and five months posterior to the event (September 2015). Water samples were collected from three stations along the fjord to determine greenhouse gases [GHG: methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxide (N2 O)], nutrients [NO3 - , NO2 - , PO4 3- , Si(OH)4 , sulphate (SO4 2- )], and carbonate systems parameters [total pH (pHT), temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (O2 ), and total alkalinity (AT)]...
March 7, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Xian-Bin Ying, Hua-Jun Feng, Dong-Sheng Shen, Mei-Zhen Wang, Ying-Feng Xu, Ting Chen, Yin Zhu
Herein, an effective method was developed to integrate carbon microwires on Ti mesh (denoted as CM/TiM) to fabricate high-performance anodes with long-time stability in microbial fuel cell. CM/TiM was synthesized by colonizing filamentous fungi on the bread modified Ti mesh followed by carbonization, which could convert the attached mycelium into carbon microwires (denoted as CM). Benefiting from the biocompatibility and 3D interlaced structure of carbon microwires, the biomass accumulation (1027 ± 83 μg cm-2 ) of CM/TiM have been significantly improved nearly 3 folds, thus the fabricated CM/TiM demonstrated 2-fold higher current density (12...
March 9, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Ananya Ashok, Michael Cusack, Vincent Saderne, Periyadan K Krishnakumar, Lotfi Rabaoui, Mohammed A Qurban, Carlos M Duarte, Susana Agustí
Massive consumption of petroleum since the past century has led to considerable emissions into marine ecosystems. Marine sediments may accumulate substantial quantities of petroleum and associated contaminants in oil-producing areas. Here, we report accelerated accumulation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in 'blue carbon' vegetated ecosystems of the Arabian Gulf - the world's most important region for oil production. In addition to increased accumulation with the onset of oil exploitation, sediment records reflect a large depositional event associated with the 1991 Gulf War, with the magnitude of these maxima varying across habitats, depending on their elevation along the shoreline...
March 6, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Ya-Nan Bai, Xiu-Ning Wang, Yong-Ze Lu, Ling Fu, Fang Zhang, Tai-Chu Lau, Raymond J Zeng
Denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) is the process of coupling the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with denitrification, which plays an important part in controlling the flow of methane in anoxic niches. In this study, we explored the feasibility of microbial selenite reduction using methane by DAMO culture. Isotopic 13 CH4 and long-term experiments showed that selenite reduction was coupled to methane oxidation, and selenite was ultimately reduced to Se (0) by the analyses of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
March 9, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Rui Du, Shenbin Cao, Yongzhen Peng, Hanyu Zhang, Shuying Wang
Elimination of nitrogen pollution from wastewater containing high-strength nitrate (NO3 - -N) is a significant issue to prevent deterioration of water quality and eutrophication of receiving water body. Traditional denitrification process faces several challenges including the huge organic carbon demand, intermediate products accumulation, and long acclimatization period. In this study, an efficient solution was given by a novel two-stage Partial Denitrification (PD)-Anammox process. High NO3 - -N (1000 mg N/L) wastewater and municipal sewage (COD: 182...
March 14, 2019: Environment International
Hongwei Hu, Xinmeng Tian, Yixuan Gong, Guolan Ren, Jiangong Liang
Despite extensive research on carbon dots (CDs), rare studies have been performed on the photostability of CDs. Here, the photostability of CDs synthesized with 3-aminobenzoic acid were systematically investigated under different pH conditions (5.0, 7.4 and 9.0). The results showed that under Xenon lamp irradiation, the fluorescence (FL) intensity of the CDs exhibited an increase first and then a decrease, with a gradual shift of the maximum emission wavelength to longer wavelength. Further investigation indicated that the irradiation induced the change of the CD surface functional groups and gave rise to aggregation, resulting in the formation of larger particles...
March 10, 2019: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Adel S El-Azab, Alaa A-M Abdel-Aziz, Sivia Bua, Alessio Nocentini, Manal A El-Gendy, Menshawy A Mohamed, Taghreed Z Shawer, Nawaf A AlSaif, Claudiu T Supuran
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitory activities of newly synthesized quinazoline-linked benzensulfonamides 10-29, 31, 32, 35, 36, and 45-51 against human CA (hCA) isoforms I, II, IX, and XII were measured and compared to that of acetazolamide (AAZ) as a standard inhibitor. Potent selective inhibitory activity against hCA I was exerted by compounds 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 28, 29, 31, 35, 45, 47, 49, and 51 with inhibition constant (KI s) values of 39.4-354.7 nM that were nearly equivalent or even greater than that of AAZ (KI , 250...
March 6, 2019: Bioorganic Chemistry
Hae Won Ryu, Min Young Song, Jin Seo Park, Ji Man Kim, Sang-Chul Jung, JiHyeon Song, Byung-Joo Kim, Young-Kwon Park
The catalytic oxidation of toluene with ozone at room temperature was carried out over hierarchically ordered mesoporous catalysts (CeO2 (meso), Mn2 O3 (meso), ZrO2 (meso), and γ-Al2 O3 (meso)) and Al2 O3 with various textural properties and phases (γ-Al2 O3 (meso), γ-Al2 O3 (13 nm), and α-Al2 O3 ) to examine the effects of the nature of the catalyst on the catalytic activity. The catalysts were characterized by N2 -physisorption measurements, powder X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy...
March 7, 2019: Environmental Research
Yu G Sokolovskaya, N B Podymova, A A Karabutov
The aim of this work is to verify applicability of the Kramers-Kronig relations between the attenuation coefficient and phase velocity of longitudinal acoustic waves in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites in a finite megahertz frequency range. To measure these characteristics, the method of broadband acoustic spectroscopy with a laser source of ultrasound is used. We have experimentally shown that absolute attenuation in CFRPs is determined by both absorption in a polymer matrix and scattering on carbon fibers and gas pores of several tenths of microns in size...
March 5, 2019: Ultrasonics
Vladimir Karasev
Based on the analysis of Ni H….Oi-4 =C bond region of the proteins pentafragments using the quantum chemistry representations, a group of 20 vectors of action has been isolated. These vectors of action are reconstructed by a group of 20 side chains of amino acids being the irreducible representations of vectors. As a result, a model of molecular vector machine of proteins (MVM) has been proposed. This machine includes proteins pentafragments, a system of 20 vectors inside dodecahedron coming out of the Oi-4 atom as from the center and tetrahedral 〈i -carbon atom with the side chains of amino acids that change as the polypeptide chain grows...
March 13, 2019: Bio Systems
Roseline Menezes, Sharareh Hashemi, Richard Vincent, George Collins, James Meyer, Marcus Foston, Treena L Arinzeh
Spinal cord injury can lead to severe dysfunction as a result of limited nerve regeneration that is due to an inhibitory environment created at the site of injury. Neural tissue engineering using materials that closely mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) during neural development could enhance neural regeneration. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are sulfated polysaccharides, have been shown to modulate axonal outgrowth in neural tissue depending upon the position and degree of sulfation. Cellulose sulfate (CelS), which is a GAG mimetic, was evaluated for its use in promoting neurite extension...
March 13, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
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