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acoustic analysis

S P Wallen, M R Haberman
Acoustic nonreciprocity has been shown to enable a plethora of effects analogous to phenomena seen in quantum physics and electromagnetics, such as immunity from backscattering and unidirectional band gaps, which could lead to the design of direction-dependent acoustic devices. One way to break reciprocity is by spatiotemporally modulating material properties, which breaks parity and time-reversal symmetries. In this paper, we present a model for a medium in which a slow nonlinear deformation modulates the effective material properties for small overlaid disturbances (often referred to as "small-on-large" propagation)...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Stephen Jannetts, Felix Schaeffler, Janet Beck, Steve Cowen
BACKGROUND: Occupational voice problems constitute a serious public health issue with substantial financial and human consequences for society. Modern mobile technologies such as smartphones have the potential to enhance approaches to prevention and management of voice problems. This paper addresses an important aspect of smartphone-assisted voice care: the reliability of smartphone-based acoustic analysis for voice health state monitoring. AIM: To assess the reliability of acoustic parameter extraction for a range of commonly used smartphones by comparison with studio recording equipment...
February 19, 2019: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Jesús Carrete, Vu Ngoc Tuoc, Georg K H Madsen
We propose a convenient method to characterize the acoustic phonon branches of 2D monolayer materials using measurements of the infrared- and Raman-active vibrational modes of nanotubes. The relations we employ are derived from a symmetry analysis based directly on the line groups of nanotubes. We perform extensive ab initio calculations for the MoS2 monolayer and nanotubes to evaluate the method and illustrate all our results. Specifically, we show how the low-energy phonon transmission, a determining factor in thermal transport, can be easily and successfully reconstructed by this procedure...
February 18, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Gauravpal S Gill, Gaby Weissman, Yael F Meirovich, Diego Medvedofsky, Selma F Mohammed, Ron Waksman, Hector M Garcia-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Multi-detector gated cardiac computed tomography (CCT) allows three-dimensional (3D) quantification of cardiac chambers and is clinically indicated to assess left ventricular assist device (LVAD) malfunction and complications. Automated volumetric analysis is, however, disrupted by inflow cannula artifact in patients with LVAD. With this study, we evaluated intra-observer variability in semi-automated 3D cardiac volumetric analysis using CCT in patients with LVADs. METHODS: Ten clinically indicated CCTs were studied retrospectively from 9 patients with LVADs...
January 23, 2019: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Colin J Przybylowski, Jacob F Baranoski, Gabriella M Paisan, Kristina M Chapple, Andrew J Meeusen, Stephen Sorensen, Kaith K Almefty, Randall W Porter
Fractionated CyberKnife radiosurgery (CKRS) treatment for acoustic neuromas may reduce the risk of long-term radiation toxicity to nearby critical structures compared to that of single-fraction radiosurgery. However, tumor control rates and clinical outcomes after CKRS for acoustic neuromas are not well described. We retrospectively reviewed all acoustic neuroma patients treated with CKRS (2004-2011) in a prospectively maintained clinical and radiographic database. Treatment failure, the need for additional surgical intervention, was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Naghmeh Mahmoodian, Anna Schaufler, Ali Pashazadeh, Axel Boese, Michael Friebe, Alfredo Illanes
Artery perforation during a vascular catheterization procedure is a potentially life threatening event. It is of particular importance for the surgeons to be aware of hidden or non-obvious events. To minimize the impact it is crucial for the surgeon to detect such a perforation very early. We propose a novel approach to identify perforations based on the acquisition and analysis of audio signals on the outside proximal end of a guide wire. The signals were acquired using a stethoscope equipped with a microphone and attached to the proximal end of the guide wire via a 3D printed adapter...
February 7, 2019: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Batoul Jaber, Reina Remman, Nayla Matar
INTRODUCTION: A patient's voice can vary from one moment to another, and these variations cannot be captured by a one-time assessment. Multiple assessments may give a more holistic idea of the severity of the patient's dysphonia and by asking the patient to do the recordings he becomes involved in his therapeutic plan from the beginning. AIM: This study aims to evaluate the added value of a repetitive assessment outside the speech therapist's (SLP) clinic, to have a broader vision of the voice disorder and identify parameters that change after working hours to be able to explain this disorder and find solutions for it...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Jacob T Cohen, Alma Cohen, Limor Benyamini, Yossi Adi, Joseph Keshet
BACKGROUND: Voice analysis has a limited role in a day-to-day voice clinic. We developed objective measurements of vocal folds (VF) glottal closure insufficiency (GCI) during phonation. METHODS: We examined 18 subjects with no history of voice impairment and 20 patients with unilateral VF paralysis before and after injection medialization laryngoplasty. Voice analysis was extracted. We measured settling time, slope, and area under the fundamental frequency curve from the phonation onset to its settling-time...
February 14, 2019: Head & Neck
Riccardo Scott, Anatol V Prudnikau, Artsiom Antanovich, Sotirios Christodoulou, Thomas Riedl, Guillaume H V Bertrand, Nina Owschimikow, Jörg K N Lindner, Zeger Hens, Iwan Moreels, Mikhail Artemyev, Ulrike Woggon, Alexander W Achtstein
In a comparative study we investigate the carrier-phonon coupling in CdSe based core-only and hetero 2D as well as 0D nanoparticles. We demonstrate that the coupling can be strongly tuned by the lateral size of nanoplatelets, while, due to the weak lateral confinement, the transition energies are only altered by tens of meV. Our analysis shows that an increase in the lateral platelet area results in a strong decrease in the phonon coupling to acoustic modes due to deformation potential interaction, yielding an exciton deformation potential of 3...
February 14, 2019: Nanoscale
Elana K Schwartz, Nancy M Docherty, Gina M Najolia, Alex S Cohen
There is evidence that African Americans are 2.4 times more likely to be diagnosed with a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis compared with White individuals, who are more likely to receive an affective diagnosis. The reason for these diagnostic discrepancies is unclear, however, 2 explanations have garnered attention: epigenetic differences and systematic error or bias in the diagnostic process. The latter is the focus of the present study and it is hypothesized that the bias involves cultural insensitivity on the part of the clinician...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Joanna Jackowska, Waldemar Wojnowski, Anna Hashimoto, Bogna Małaczyńska, Krzysztof Piersiala, Piotr Świdziński, Bożena Wiskirska-Woźnica, Małgorzata Wierzbicka
Mechanical debulking of laryngeal papillomas is associated with voice disorders due to impairment of the vocal fold's mucosa. Intraepithelial injection of cidofovir reduces damage to the laryngeal structures and thus improves vocal parameters. The aim of our study was to compare vocal quality before and after cidofovir and CO2 laser treatment by means of objective phoniatric parameters and to obtain evidence concerning voice outcomes. The vocal parameters of 42 patients with RRP were assessed before and after intralesional cidofovir and CO2 laser debulking treatment (Lumenis AcuPulse 40 CO2 laser, wavelength 10...
February 14, 2019: Lasers in Medical Science
Dina Lipkind, Andreea Geambasu, Clara C Levelt
Humans and songbirds face a common challenge: acquiring the complex vocal repertoire of their social group. Although humans are thought to be unique in their ability to convey symbolic meaning through speech, speech and birdsong are comparable in their acoustic complexity and the mastery with which the vocalizations of adults are acquired by young individuals. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the study of vocal development in humans and songbirds that shed new light on the emergence of distinct structural levels of vocal behavior and point to new possible parallels between both groups...
February 13, 2019: Topics in Cognitive Science
Tuan-Jen Fang, Hsiu-Feng Chuang, Hui-Chen Chiang, Yu-Cheng Pei
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Wide variation in postinjury functional recovery is a hallmark of unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP), ranging from zero to full recovery. The present study examined the impact of cricothyroid (CT) muscle involvement on recovery using quantitative laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) of the thyroarytenoid-lateral cricoarytenoid (TA-LCA) muscle complex at multiple times postinjury. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in a medical center...
February 13, 2019: Laryngoscope
Alexander Sutin, Alexander Yakubovskiy, Hady R Salloum, Timothy J Flynn, Nikolay Sedunov, Hannah Nadel
The development of acoustic systems for detection of wood-boring larvae requires knowledge of the features of signals produced both by insects and background noise. This paper presents analysis of acoustic/vibrational signals recorded in tests using tree bolts infested with Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) (Asian longhorn beetle) and Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (emerald ash borer) larvae. Based on features found, an algorithm for automated insect signal detection was developed...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Marina Englert, Livia Lima, Ana Carolina Constantini, Ben Barsties V Latoszek, Youri Maryn, Mara Behlau
PURPOSE: This study aimed to verify the best speech material for the AVQI for Brazilian Portuguese language and identify the best validity results between the auditory perceptual judgment (APJ) and the AVQI score on different speech materials. METHODS: We recorded voice samples of 50 individuals (dysphonic and vocally healthy) of several continuous speech (cs) variants (i.e., months of the year, numbers 1 to 20, and CAPE-V sentences) and attached the vowel /a/ in each case...
February 11, 2019: CoDAS
A Nacci, S O Romeo, M D Cavaliere, A Macerata, L Bastiani, G Paludetti, J Galli, M R Marchese, M R Barillari, U Barillari, S Berrettini, C Laschi, M Cianchetti, M Manti, F Ursino, B Fattori
In a recent study we introduced a new approach for analysis of the electroglottographic (ECG) signal. This method is based on the evaluation of variation of the EGG signal and its first derivative, through new software developed by the Pisan phoniatric school. This software is designed to extract quantitative indices related to the contacting and decontacting phases of the vocal folds during phonation. The software allows us to study the combined variability of vibration amplitude and velocity (i.e. the first derivative of the EGG signal)...
January 31, 2019: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Marc Vander Ghinst, Mathieu Bourguignon, Maxime Niesen, Vincent Wens, Sergio Hassid, Georges Choufani, Veikko Jousmäki, Riitta Hari, Serge Goldman, Xavier De Tiège
In multitalker backgrounds, the auditory cortex of adult humans tracks the attended speech stream rather than the global auditory scene. Still, it is unknown whether such preferential tracking also occurs in children whose speech-in-noise (SiN) abilities are typically lower compared with adults.We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the frequency-specific cortical tracking of different elements of a cocktail-party auditory scene in twenty children (6-9 years; 8 females) and twenty adults (21-40 years; 10 females)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Aaron C Weidman, Jessie Sun, Simine Vazire, Jordi Quoidbach, Lyle H Ungar, Elizabeth W Dunn
Recent popular claims surrounding virtual assistants suggest that computers will soon be able to hear our emotions. Supporting this possibility, promising work has harnessed big data and emergent technologies to automatically predict stable levels of one specific emotion, happiness, at the community (e.g., counties) and trait (i.e., people) levels. Furthermore, research in affective science has shown that nonverbal vocal bursts (e.g., sighs, gasps) and specific acoustic features (e.g., pitch, energy) can differentiate between distinct emotions (e...
February 11, 2019: Emotion
James Cowley, Sean McGinty
In recent years there has been a great deal of interest in using thin shelled microbubbles as a transportation mechanism for localised drug delivery, particularly for the treatment of various types of cancer. The technique used for such site-specific drug delivery is sonoporation. Despite there being numerous experimental studies on sonoporation, the mathematical modelling of this technique has still not been extensively researched. Presently there exists a very small body of work that models both hemispherical and spherical shelled microbubbles sonoporating due to acoustic microstreaming...
January 22, 2019: Ultrasonics
Marc Garellek
Phonation types, or contrastive voice qualities, are minimally produced using complex movements of the vocal folds, but may additionally involve constriction in the supraglottal and pharyngeal cavities. These complex articulations in turn produce a multidimensional acoustic output that can be modeled in various ways. In this study, I investigate whether the psychoacoustic model of voice by Kreiman et al. (2014) succeeds at distinguishing six phonation types of !Xóõ. Linear discriminant analysis is performed using parameters from the model averaged over the entire vowel as well as for the first and final halves of the vowel...
February 8, 2019: Phonetica
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