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Microbiome And Chronic Kidney Disease

Boris L Zybailov, Galina V Glazko, Yasir Rahmatallah, Dmitri S Andreyev, Taylor McElroy, Oleg Karaduta, Stephanie D Byrum, Lisa Orr, Alan J Tackett, Samuel G Mackintosh, Ricky D Edmondson, Dorothy A Kieffer, R J Martin, Sean H Adams, Nosratola D Vaziri, John M Arthur
BACKGROUND: Resistant starch is a prebiotic metabolized by the gut bacteria. It has been shown to attenuate chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in rats. Previous studies employed taxonomic analysis using 16S rRNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics profiling. Here we expand these studies by metaproteomics, gaining new insight into the host-microbiome interaction. METHODS: Differences between cecum contents in CKD rats fed a diet containing resistant starch with those fed a diet containing digestible starch were examined by comparative metaproteomics analysis...
2019: PloS One
Mark A Bryniarski, Fares Hamarneh, Rabi Yacoub
Negative alterations, or dysbiosis, in the intestinal microbial community balance in response to chronic kidney disease is emerging as a substantial and important factor in inducing and exacerbating multiple comorbid conditions. Patients with renal insufficiency experience a substantial increase in cardiovascular risk, and recent evidence is shedding light on the close interaction between microbiome dysbiosis and increased cardiovascular events in this population. Previous association and recent causality studies utilizing experimental animal models have enriched our understanding and confirmed the impact of microbial community imbalance on cardiac health in both the general population and in patients with renal impairment...
January 25, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Matthew Snelson, Nicole J Kellow, Melinda T Coughlan
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been associated with changes in gut microbial ecology, or "dysbiosis," which may contribute to disease progression. Recent studies have focused on dietary approaches to favorably alter the composition of the gut microbial communities as a treatment method in CKD. Resistant starch (RS), a prebiotic that promotes proliferation of gut bacteria such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, increases the production of metabolites including short-chain fatty acids, which confer a number of health-promoting benefits...
January 21, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Raphael José Ferreira Felizardo, Ingrid Kazue Mizuno Watanabe, Patrizia Dardi, Luciana Venturini Rossoni, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
The bacteria community living in the gut maintains a symbiotic relationship with the host and its unbalance has been associated with progression of a wide range of intestinal and extra intestinal conditions. Hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are closely associated diseases with high incidence rates all over the world. Increasing data have supported the involvement of gut microbiome in the blood pressure regulation and the impairment of CKD prognosis. In hypertension, the reduced number of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) producing bacteria is associated with modifications in gut environment, involving reduction of the hypoxic gut profile and worsening of the microbial balance, leading to a loss of epithelial barrier integrity, development of gut inflammation and the reduction of SCFAs plasma levels...
January 10, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Stacie C Summers, Jessica M Quimby, Anitha Isaiah, Jan S Suchodolski, Paul J Lunghofer, Daniel L Gustafson
BACKGROUND: Intestinal dysbiosis has been documented in humans with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is thought to contribute to production of the uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresol sulfate (pCS). Characteristics of the fecal microbiome in cats with CKD and correlation to serum concentrations of uremic toxins are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the fecal microbiome and measure serum IS and pCS concentrations of cats with CKD in comparison to healthy older cats...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Michael Weis
The gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating enzymes and bioactive metabolites, which affect host physiology. In addition metabolism-independent processes like impaired intestinal barrier function may result in bacterial translocation and an increased inflammation. Specific microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) have been detected that induce immune activation via cognate pattern-recognition receptors on host immune cells, with subsequent consequences on inflammatory-induced endothelial dysfunction...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
W H Wilson Tang, Daniel Y Li, Stanley L Hazen
Advances in our understanding of how the gut microbiota contributes to human health and diseases have expanded our insight into how microbial composition and function affect the human host. Heart failure is associated with splanchnic circulation congestion, leading to bowel wall oedema and impaired intestinal barrier function. This situation is thought to heighten the overall inflammatory state via increased bacterial translocation and the presence of bacterial products in the systemic blood circulation. Several metabolites produced by gut microorganisms from dietary metabolism have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Jasmin Divers, Carl D Langefeld, Douglas S Lyles, Lijun Ma, Barry I Freedman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The presence of viruses in urine (urine virome) typically reflects infection in the kidneys and urinary tract. The urinary virome is associated with HIV-associated nephropathy and chronic glomerulosclerosis. There are many associations of this microbiome with human diseases that remain to be described. This manuscript reviews emerging data on relationships between kidney disease and urinary tract infection/colonization with JC polyomavirus (JCPyV). RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately 30% of the adult population sheds JCPyV in the urine...
October 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Chih-Yu Yang, Der-Cherng Tarng
Emerging evidence suggests that intestinal dysbiosis plays an important role in host inflammation locally and systemically. Such pathological condition is even more prevailing in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Of note, indoxyl sulphate (IS), a gut-derived uremic toxin, is notorious for its pro-inflammatory feature in CKD patients. IS accumulates in the body as the urinary excretion of uremic toxins is impaired, and further worsens the kidney function in a vicious cycle to CKD. Dietary restriction in vegetables, fruits and yogurt leads to the predominance of indole-producing intestinal microbial flora and further exaggerates the accumulation of IS in CKD patients...
October 2018: Nephrology
Robert Davies
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing burden on people and on healthcare for which the diagnostics are niether disease-specific nor indicative of progression. Biomarkers are sought to enable clinicians to offer more appropriate patient-centred treatments, which could come to fruition by using a metabolomics approach. This mini-review highlights the current literature of metabolomics and CKD, and suggests additional factors that need to be considered in this quest for a biomarker, namely the diet and the gut microbiome, for more meaningful advances to be made...
October 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri, Ane C F Nunes, André M Comeau, Morgan G I Langille, Whitney England, Mahyar Khazaeli, Yasunori Suematsu, Joann Phan, Katrine Whiteson
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the gut microbiome is altered and bacterial-derived uremic toxins promote systemic inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Ferric citrate complex is a dietary phosphate binder prescribed for patients with end-stage kidney disease to treat hyperphosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Iron is an essential nutrient in both microbes and mammals. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the large iron load administered with ferric citrate in CKD may significantly change the gut microbiome...
December 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Gabriela Torres Santiago, José Iván Serrano Contreras, María Estela Meléndez Camargo, L Gerardo Zepeda Vallejo
An untargeted NMR-based metabonomics approach was used to evaluate the effects of pure resveratrol (RSV, 50 and 250 mg/kg per os) on the urinary and faecal metabolome of normal female Wistar rats. Multivariate data analysis on both the endogenous and xenobiotic metabotype of RSV provided an insight into its metabolic fate and influence on endogenous metabolites. The xenobiotic trajectory shows that RSV is highly metabolized within the first 12 h, the period of the most significant variation of endogenous metabolites...
January 5, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Sten E Deurvorst, Job J Alberga, Anne van Tellingen, Marcel J Flens
Enteric oxalate nephropathy is caused by hyperoxaluria. Factors which contribute to excessive oxalate absorption are an abundance of free fatty acids in the intestine due to malabsorption, changes in the microbiome, and bowel inflammation. We present two cases that illustrate different pathophysiological aspects of this disease. The first patient was a 70-year-old male who developed oxalate nephropathy through malabsorption caused by chronic pancreatitis. It is plausible that the oxalate nephropathy was set off by antibiotic treatment which influenced the microbiome...
August 23, 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Yang Li, Ying Peng, Ping Ma, Hanlin Yang, Haiyan Xiong, Mengyue Wang, Chongsheng Peng, Pengfei Tu, Xiaobo Li
Growing evidence shows that neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, are linked with gut microbiome through the gut-brain axis. Cistanches Herba is well known for the treatment of "kidney-yang" deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and has been used for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in recent years. In this study, chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depression model was established to explore the impact of Cistanche tubulosa extract (CTE) on behavioral tests, monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in hippocampus and colon, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Michael Pignanelli, Chrysi Bogiatzi, Gregory Gloor, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Gregor Reid, Bradley L Urquhart, Kelsey N Ruetz, Thomas J Velenosi, J David Spence
OBJECTIVE: Toxic metabolites produced by the intestinal microbiome from animal proteins, carnitine (mainly from red meat), or phosphatidylcholine (mainly from egg yolk), have important adverse effects on cardiovascular disease. These are renally eliminated and may be termed gut-derived uremic toxins (GDUT). We hypothesized that even moderate renal impairment and intake of nutrient precursors would raise plasma levels of GDUT. DESIGN: A cohort study. SETTING: Academic medical center...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Jihyun Yang, Sung Yoon Lim, Yoon Sook Ko, Hee Young Lee, Se Won Oh, Myung Gyu Kim, Won Yong Cho, Sang Kyung Jo
Background: Emerging evidence suggests that intestinal dysbiosis is associated with diverse pathological processes. In this study we demonstrated intestinal barrier disruption and aberrant mucosal immunity in 5/6 nephrectomized mice and the effect of probiotics on chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: CKD was induced in 6-week-old mice by 5/6 nephrectomy. They were fed a lactobacilli mixture for 8 weeks. Serum, urine and stool samples were collected for renal function assessments and gut microbiome analyses...
June 22, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Gregory J Weber, Jaleyea Foster, Sathnur B Pushpakumar, Utpal Sen
Hypertension affects nearly one third of the adult US population and is a significant risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). An expanding body of recent studies indicates that gut microbiome has crucial roles in regulating physiological processes through, among other mechanisms, one mode of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and their target receptors. In addition, these SCFA receptors are potential targets of regulation by host miRNAs, however, the mechanisms through which this occurs is not clearly defined...
August 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Sanjay K Nigam, Vibha Bhatnagar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Uric acid homeostasis in the body is mediated by a number of SLC and ABC transporters in the kidney and intestine, including several multispecific 'drug' transporters (e.g., OAT1, OAT3, and ABCG2). Optimization of uric acid levels can be viewed as a 'systems biology' problem. Here, we consider uric acid transporters from a systems physiology perspective using the framework of the 'Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis.' This hypothesis explains how SLC and ABC 'drug' and other transporters mediate interorgan and interorganismal communication (e...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Mehmet Kanbay, Emine M Onal, Baris Afsar, Tuncay Dagel, Aslihan Yerlikaya, Adrian Covic, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to result in profound changes in the composition and functions of the gut microbial flora which by disrupting intestinal epithelial barrier and generating toxic by-products contributes to systemic inflammation and the associated complications. On the other hand, emerging evidence points to the role of the gut microbiota in the development and progression of CKD by provoking inflammation, proteinuria, hypertension, and diabetes. These observations demonstrate the causal interconnection between the gut microbial dysbiosis and CKD...
August 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Tara K Sigdel, Neil Mercer, Sharvin Nandoe, Carrie D Nicora, Kristin Burnum-Johnson, Wei-Jun Qian, Minnie M Sarwal
The human microbiome is important for health and plays a role in essential metabolic functions and protection from certain pathogens. Conversely, dysbiosis of the microbiome is seen in the context of various diseases. Recent studies have highlighted that a complex microbial community containing hundreds of bacteria colonizes the healthy urinary tract, but little is known about the human urinary viruses in health and disease. To evaluate the human urinary virome in the context of kidney transplantation (tx), variations in the composition of the urinary virome were evaluated in urine samples from normal healthy volunteers as well as patients with kidney disease after they had undergone kidney tx...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
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