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Zuzana Gajdosechova, Zoltan Mester
The need to assess the human and environmental risks of nanoparticles (NPs) has prompted an adaptation of existing techniques and the development of new ones. Nanoparticle analysis poses a great challenge as the analytical information has to consider both physical (e.g. size and shape) and chemical (e.g. elemental composition) state of the analyte. Furthermore, one has to contemplate the transformation of NPs during the sample preparation and provide sufficient information about the new species derived from such alteration...
February 14, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Jiyang Li, Bolun Wang, Hongyue Zhang, Jihong Yu
As a new class of luminescent nanomaterials, carbon dots (CDs) have aroused significant interest because of their fascinating photoluminescence properties and potential applications in biological, optoelectronic, and energy-related fields. Strikingly, embedding CDs in host matrices endow them with intriguing luminescent properties, in particular, room temperature phosphorescence and thermally activated delayed fluorescence, due to the confinement effect of the host matrix and the H-bonding interactions between CDs and the matrix...
February 13, 2019: Small
Johannes W R Martini, Francisco Rosales, Ngoc-Thuy Ha, Johannes Heise, Valentin Wimmer, Thomas Kneib
Mixed models can be considered as a type of penalized regression and are everyday tools in statistical genetics. The standard mixed model for whole genome regression (WGR) is ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction (RRBLUP) which is based on an additive marker effect model. Many publications have extended the additive WGR approach by incorporating interactions between loci or between genes and environment. In this context of penalized regressions with interactions, it has been reported that translating the coding of single nucleotide polymorphisms -for instance from -1,0,1 to 0,1,2- has an impact on the prediction of genetic values and interaction effects...
February 13, 2019: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Igor B Rogozin, Abiel Roche-Lima, Artem G Lada, Frida Belinky, Ivan A Sidorenko, Galina V Glazko, Vladimir N Babenko, David N Cooper, Youri I Pavlov
Cancer genomes accumulate nucleotide sequence variations that number in the tens of thousands per genome. A prominent fraction of these mutations is thought to arise as a consequence of the off-target activity of DNA/RNA editing cytosine deaminases. These enzymes, collectively called activation induced deaminase (AID)/APOBECs, deaminate cytosines located within defined DNA sequence contexts. The resulting changes of the original C:G pair in these contexts (mutational signatures) provide indirect evidence for the participation of specific cytosine deaminases in a given cancer type...
February 12, 2019: Cancers
Jawad Karamat, Tong Shurong, Naveed Ahmad, Sana Afridi, Shahbaz Khan, Kashif Mahmood
Investing in a sustainable future has no alternative; the healthcare sector in developing countries has failed to achieve sustainability objectives. Knowledge management (KM) is a concrete application of sustainability in healthcare, as organizations (hospitals) that manage their knowledge assets will gain sustainable competitive advantage. Several organizations in developed countries are moving towards the adoption of knowledge management so that they can manage their knowledge well and improve their performance...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
G H Old, P S Naden, M Harman, M J Bowes, C Roberts, P M Scarlett, D J E Nicholls, L K Armstrong, H D Wickham, D S Read
Catchment based solutions are being sought to mitigate water quality pressures and achieve multiple benefits but their success depends on a sound understanding of catchment functioning. Novel approaches to monitoring and data analysis are urgently needed. In this paper we explore the potential of river water fluorescence at the catchment scale in understanding nutrient concentrations, sources and pathways. Data were collected from across the River Thames basin from January 2012 to March 2015. Analysing emission excitation matrices (EEMs) using both PARAFAC and optimal area averaging produced consistent results for humic-like component 1 and tryptophan-like component 4 in the absence of a subset of samples that exhibited an unusual peak; illustrating the importance of inspecting the entire EEM before using peak averaging methods...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Zhuang Wu, Changyun Chen, Jie Liu, Yan Lu, Jian Xu, Xiangyang Liu, Ganglong Cui, Tarek Trabelsi, Joseph S Francisco, Artur Mardyukov, Andre K Eckhardt, Peter R Schreiner, Xiaoqing Zeng
S-Nitrosothiols (RSNO) are exogenous and endogenous sources of nitric oxide in biological systems due to facile homolytic cleavage of the S-N bonds. By following the photolytic decomposition of prototypical RSNO (R = Me and Et) in Ne, Ar, and N2 matrices (< 10 K), elusive caged radical pairs (RPs) con-sisting of nitric oxide (NO•) and thiyl radicals (RS•), bridged by O···S and H···N connections, have been identified with IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Upon red-light irradiation, both caged radical pairs (RS•···•ON) vanish and reform RSNO...
February 13, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ho-Joon Lee, Kang Min Park
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate structural and functional connectivity of patients with newly diagnosed juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) compared to healthy subjects. METHODS: We enrolled 36 patients with a diagnosis of JME, who were newly diagnosed and drug-naïve. They underwent T1-weighted imaging, and structural volumes were calculated using FreeSurfer software. In addition, EEG data were obtained from all of them. Structural and functional connectivity matrices were estimated by calculating the structural volumes and EEG amplitude correlation, respectively...
February 13, 2019: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Jiao Li, Jie Xu, Wenying Jin, Zhongsheng Yi, Chenbo Cai, Xuefen Huang, Jinfang Nie, Yun Zhang
A method that combines five-way fluorescence kinetics with fourth-order calibration for interference-free quantification of diclofenac sodium in river water was proposed and tested. Traditional fluorescence methods may not be suitable for such measurements since the fluorescence properties of the analyte are highly dependent on both pH and irradiation time in situ. In the method considered here, a five-way emission-excitation-time-pH data array was obtained from the samples by introducing the pH level and irradiation time as two extra modes...
February 13, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Alexis Léon, Ronan Cariou, Sébastien Hutinet, Julie Hurel, Yann Guitton, Celine Tixier, Catherine Munschy, Jean-Phillippe Antignac, Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Bruno Le Bizec
In the present work, we address the issue of non-targeted screening of organohalogenated chemicals in complex matrices. A global strategy aiming to seek halogenated signatures in full scan high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) fingerprints was developed. The resulting all-in-one user-friendly application, HaloSeeker 1.0, was developed to promote the accessibility of associated in-house bioinformatics tools to a large audience. The ergonomic web user interface avoids any interactions with the coding component while allowing interactions with the data, including peak detection (features), deconvolution and comprehensive accompanying manual review for chemical formula assignment...
February 13, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
Yu Ma, Aijie Li, Xiaonan Gao, Fang Huang, Xuan Kuang, Peng Yang, Jieyu Yue, Bo Tang
Metal-organic gel (MOG) matrices with tunable pore sizes ranging from micropore to macropore, derived from microporous metal-organic coordination polymers (PCPs), has attracted great attention for their enhanced pore accessibility compared with the multifunctional PCP materials themselves. The enhanced pore accessibility of chiral MOGs is especially imperative for mass transfer applications, including enantioseparations and purifications. Here, for the first time, a novel hierarchical porous MOG-coated SiO2 , derived from a chiral metal-organic coordination polymer, is employed as chiral stationary phase for effective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of enantiomers...
February 13, 2019: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Dominik Weber, Sven Knaack, Kay Hettrich, Mindaugas Andrulis, Frank Momburg, Mandy Quade, Michael Gelinsky, Reinhard Schwartz-Albiez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: Biomacromolecules
Oleksandr Anatolievich Volodchenko, Leonid Vladimirovich Podrigalo, Sergii Sidorovich Iermakov, Małgorzata Teresa Żychowska, Władysław Jagiełło
The study aimed to determine the suitability of testing the saliva of kickboxing athletes to show changes in biochemical parameters in dynamic of training. 8 elite male athletes (mean age 17.29± 0.31 years, body mass 66.82± 3.46kg, with 5.62±0.96 years of training experience) participated in the study. Indicators of lipid peroxidation and glycolysis (the concentration of lactic acid and pyruvic acid) were defined before and after a training session. Significant increases in indicators of lipid peroxidation activity indicators and the concentration of lactic acid (4-fold) were observed; analysis of correlation matrices confirms the absence of expressed changes...
2019: BioMed Research International
Matthew G Ondeck, Aditya Kumar, Jesse K Placone, Christopher M Plunkett, Bibiana F Matte, Kirsten C Wong, Laurent Fattet, Jing Yang, Adam J Engler
Breast cancer development is associated with increasing tissue stiffness over years. To more accurately mimic the onset of gradual matrix stiffening, which is not feasible with conventional static hydrogels, mammary epithelial cells (MECs) were cultured on methacrylated hyaluronic acid hydrogels whose stiffness can be dynamically modulated from "normal" (<150 Pascals) to "malignant" (>3,000 Pascals) via two-stage polymerization. MECs form and remain as spheroids, but begin to lose epithelial characteristics and gain mesenchymal morphology upon matrix stiffening...
February 12, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Guoqiang Shan, Liping Yang, Jinyu Zhao, Ning Liu, Haochen Cui, Wenjue Zhong, Lingyan Zhu
Characterization of the isomers perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), a key intermediate of the perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) precursors, is a prerequisite to understand the contribution of precursors to PFOS in the environmental and biological matrices. However, the lack of commercial standards makes quantification of the PFOSA isomers in complex matrices a big challenge. For the first time, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established to identify and quantify PFOSA isomers...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. A
Atefeh Pesaraklou, Nasser Mahdavi-Shahri, Halimeh Hassanzadeh, Masoud Ghasemi, Mahboubeh Kazemi, Nasser Sanjar Mousavi, Maryam M Matin
Today advancements in nanotechnology have made extensive progress in tissue engineering. Application of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2) has improved regenerative medicine due to their antioxidant properties. In this study, nanoparticles were used to increase the efficacy of skin substitutes. Human skin samples were decellularized using four methods and studied via histological stainings and DNA content analyses. Then CeO2 dispersing and its stability were investigated. The prepared acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) were immersed in CeO2 suspension and their effects were evaluated on growth of cultured human adipose derived-mesenchymal stem cells (hAd-MSCs) using MTT assay and histological methods...
February 12, 2019: Biomedical Materials
L Popov
Method for determination of plutonium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The separation and purification of plutonium is attained by extraction chromatography with triisooctylamine - polyethylene resin in nitric and hydrochloric acid media. Plutonium is measured by alpha-particle spectrometry after electrodeposition on a stainless steel disk. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials with different matrices from IAEA (Soil-6, IAEA-375, IAEA-384, IAEA-414) and NPL (AL-2009, AL-2010, AL-2011, AL-2013, AB-2014)...
January 28, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Joby Jacob, Gregary Peter, Sabu Thomas, Józef T Haponiuk, Sreeraj Gopi
The agro-industrial waste obtained after the isolation of bio-constituents from ginger is available in abundance. In the present study, the effective isolation of ginger nanofibers (GNF) through acid hydrolysis was carried out to get cellulose nanofibers with 100 to 200 nm width by high pressure homogenization. Bionanocomposites were also prepared by reinforcing different ratios of (1% to 7%) GNF with chitosan (CS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrices by solvent cast method and the 5% GNF with CS and PVA resulted a high mechanical strength composites than others...
February 9, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
David T Bowman, Karl J Jobst, Paul A Helm, Sonya Kleywegt, Miriam L Diamond
Coal tar-based sealcoat (CTSC) products are an urban source of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to the environment. However, efforts to assess the environmental fate and impacts of CTSC-derived PACs are hindered by the ubiquity of (routinely monitored) PACs released from other environmental sources. To advance source identification of CTSC-derived PACs, we use comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC×GC/HRMS) to characterize the major and minor components of CTSC products in comparison to those in other sources of PACs, viz...
February 12, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Mohammed A Meetani, Rashed H Alremeithi, Muath K Mousa
A sensitive and selective method for detection and quantitation of the enantiomers of 18 synthetic cathinones with tertiary amine structure using HPLC-UV-VIS has been developed. Two chiral columns, Astec Cellulose DMP and Amylose-based Chiralpak AS-H, have been examined separately. Mobile phase composed of hexane, isopropanol and triethylamine (99.0:1.0:0.1) was used under an isocratic elution mode. Three of these compounds were separated simultaneously after being spiked into urine and plasma samples. 2,3-Methylenedioxy pyrovalerone was used as an internal standard for the purpose of quantitation...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Chromatographic Science
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