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Antony R Parker, Miguel A Park, Stephen Harding, Roshini S Abraham
BACKGROUND: Interpretation of the responses to the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumovax®23, PPV) has proven challenging. In addition, there are few studies documenting the longevity of these responses. METHODS: The age-specific PPV IgM, IgA, IgG and IgG2 concentrations were determined pre, 4-6 weeks and 6 years post-vaccination in the serum of Prevnar®-naïve adults using VaccZyme™ pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide ELISAs. RESULTS: The median pre-vaccination concentrations were; PPV IgM 53 U/mL (5-95% CI: 16-169 U/mL), IgA 23 U/mL (6-103 U/mL), IgG 41 mg/L (10-184 U/mL) and IgG2 18 mg/L (3-95 U/mL)...
February 5, 2019: Vaccine
Tyler J Wildes, Adam Grippin, Henrietta Fasanya, Kyle A Dyson, Mark Brantly
BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of statins on vaccine response remain uncertain. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if atorvastatin enhances pneumococcal-specific antibody titer following 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination. METHODS: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center randomized clinical trial entitled StatVax. Subjects were enrolled between June and July 2014 and followed up through September 2014. 33 healthy volunteers signed informed consent after volunteer sampling...
January 24, 2019: Vaccine
James P Phipps, Karen M Haas
Protection against encapsulated bacteria can be elicited using polysaccharide vaccines. These antigens often behave as T-cell-independent type 2 antigens (TI-2 Ags). However, TI-2 Ags, including pneumococcal polysaccharides, often elicit weak immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses and are refractive to boosting. Conjugate vaccines have not completely overcome this challenge and hence, alternative strategies are required to enhance polysaccharide vaccine responses. Herein, we describe an adjuvant consisting of a Toll-like receptor and C-type lectin receptor agonist pairing that significantly increases primary immunoglobulin M and IgG responses to TI-2 Ags as well as enables significant boosting when coadministered with polysaccharide vaccines...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lisa Jin, Paula Téllez, Ruth Chia, Daphne Lu, Neil K Chadha, Julie Pauwels, Simon Dobson, Hazim Al Eid, Frederick K Kozak
BACKGROUND: An Infectious Disease vaccine specialist joined our institution's Cochlear Implant Team in 2010 in order to address the high percentage of non-compliance to immunization prior to surgery identified previously from an internal review. The purpose of this study was to (1) review the immunization status of cochlear implant recipients in 2010-2014, (2) assess if introducing a vaccine specialist made a significant change in vaccination compliance and (3) elucidate any barriers to vaccination compliance...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Vivek Belde, Matthew P Cravens, Dania Gulandijany, Justin A Walker, Isabel Palomo-Caturla, Akhil S Alugupalli, Vijay K Sandilya, Tamer Mahmoud, Andreas J Bäumler, John F Kearney, Kishore R Alugupalli
B cell antigen receptor (BCR) diversity increases by several orders of magnitude due to the action of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) during V(D)J recombination. Unlike adults, infants have limited BCR diversity, in part due to reduced expression of TdT. Since human infants and young mice respond poorly to polysaccharide vaccines, such as the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine Pneumovax23 and Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, we tested the contribution of TdT-mediated BCR diversity in response to these vaccines...
September 2018: Infection and Immunity
Antony R Parker, Caroline Bradley, Stephen Harding, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Stephen Jolles, Sorena Kiani-Alikhan
Response to polysaccharide vaccination can be an invaluable tool for assessing functionality of the adaptive immune system. Measurement of antibodies raised in response to Pneumovax®23 is the current gold standard test, but there are significant challenges and constraints in both the measurement and interpretation of the response. An alternative polysaccharide vaccine approach (Salmonella typhi Vi capsule (ViCPS)) has been suggested. In the present article, we review current evidence for the measurement of ViCPS antibodies in the diagnosis of primary and secondary antibody deficiencies...
August 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Laleh Sharifi, Asghar Aghamohammadi, Nima Rezaei, Reza Yazdani, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Mohammad Mehdi Amiri, Farimah Masoumi, Saied Bokaie, Parsova Tavasolian, Rouzbeh Sanaei, Mona Moshiri, Naeimeh Tavakolinia, Tina Alinia, Gholamreza Azizi, Abbas Mirshafiey
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common clinical primary antibody deficiency, characterized by increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. Since Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the maturation and differentiation of B-cells, TLRs' defect can be involved in the pathogenesis of CVID. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 and their signaling pathway; also their association with autoimmunity, B-cell subtypes and response to pneumovax-23 were assessed in CVID patients...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Tobias Svensson, Magdalena Kättström, Ylva Hammarlund, Daniel Roth, P-O Andersson, Magnus Svensson, Ingmar Nilsson, Lars Rombo, Honar Cherif, Eva Kimby
AIM: To determine if patients with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) benefit from vaccination with a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13), Prevenar13®, compared to a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), Pneumovax®, in terms of immune response. BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes substantial morbidity in patients with CLL, a group known to respond poorly to polysaccharide vaccines. Comparative studies with conjugated vaccines are lacking...
June 14, 2018: Vaccine
Gunilla Einecke, Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Nils Hanke, Hermann Haller, Anke Schwarz
Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is a major cause of late renal allograft dysfunction and graft loss. Risks and benefits of treatment of late ABMR have not been evaluated in randomized clinical trials. We report on a 35-year-old patient with deterioration in renal function and progressive proteinuria 15 years after transplantation. Recurrent infections after a splenectomy following traumatic splenic rupture 3 years earlier had led to reduction of immunosuppression. Renal transplant biopsy showed glomerular double contours, 40% fibrosis/tubular atrophy, peritubular capillaritis, and positive C4d staining indicating chronic-active ABMR...
2018: Case Reports in Nephrology
Mathilde Bahuaud, Constance Beaudouin-Bazire, Marine Husson, Anna Molto, Odile Launay, Frédéric Batteux, Maxime Dougados
OBJECTIVES: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at an increased risk of Pneumococcal infections. Immunogenicity and persistence of a prime-boost revaccination strategy using 13-valent/23-valent anti-pneumococcal vaccines was evaluated in patients with RA treated by Methotrexate (MTX) and anti-TNF. METHOD: Twenty-four patients with RA received one dose of PCV13 (Prevenar13®; Pfizer) followed two months later by one dose of PPV23 (Pneumovax®, Merck). Concentrations of IgG specific for 7 serotypes common to both vaccines and 3 uncommon serotypes, included only in the PPV23 were measured by ELISA and Opsonophagocytic Assay (OPA) at baseline and after 4, 12 and 24 months post-vaccine...
June 3, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
John David M Edgar, Alex G Richter, Aarnoud P Huissoon, Dinakantha S Kumararatne, Helen E Baxendale, Claire A Bethune, Tomaz Garcez, Siraj A Misbah, Ricardo U Sorensen
BACKGROUND: Immunologists are increasingly being asked to assess patients with non-classical and secondary antibody deficiency to determine their potential need for immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IGRT). Immunoglobulin is a limited, expensive resource and no clear guidance exists for this broad patient group. The purpose of this survey is to establish what factors influence the decision to commence IGRT in adult patients, when diagnostic criteria for primary antibody deficiency are not fulfilled...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Immunology
David Allard, Roxanne Charlebois, Loise Gilbert, John Stagg, Pavel Chrobak
Many individuals at risk of streptococcal infection respond poorly to the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine Pneumovax 23. Identification of actionable pathways able to enhance Pneumovax responsiveness is highly relevant. We investigated the contribution of the extracellular adenosine pathway regulated by the ecto-nucleotidase CD73 in Pneumovax-induced antibody responses. Using gene-targeted mice, we demonstrated that CD73-or A2a adenosine receptor deficiency significantly delayed isotype switching. Nevertheless, CD73- or A2aR- deficient adult mice ultimately produced antigen-specific IgG3 and controlled Streptococcus pneumoniae infection as efficiently as wild type (WT) mice...
2018: PloS One
C Evans, E Bateman, R Steven, M Ponsford, A Cullinane, C Shenton, G Duthie, C Conlon, S Jolles, A P Huissoon, H J Longhurst, T Rahman, C Scott, G Wallis, S Harding, A R Parker, B L Ferry
Vaccine-specific antibody responses are essential in the diagnosis of antibody deficiencies. Responses to Pneumovax II are used to assess the response to polysaccharide antigens, but interpretation may be complicated. Typhim Vi® , a polysaccharide vaccine for Salmonella typhoid fever, may be an additional option for assessing humoral responses in patients suspected of having an immunodeficiency. Here we report a UK multi-centre study describing the analytical and clinical performance of a Typhi Vi immunoglobulin (Ig)G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) calibrated to an affinity-purified Typhi Vi IgG preparation...
June 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Jennifer A Cahill, Syed Rizvi, Kia Saeian
Baseline adherence to cirrhotic quality improvement measures was assessed and a system to improve adherence with provider performance feedback was developed, with impact of feedback measured over time. A 6-year retrospective database was created of cirrhotic patients seen between 2006 and 2012, and reviewed for hepatitis A and B serologies, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening, variceal screening, and vaccinations. Cumulative performance feedback was distributed to providers. In all, 265 charts were reviewed retrospectively...
May 2018: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
Jannica S Selenius, Timi Martelius, Sampsa Pikkarainen, Sanna Siitonen, Eero Mattila, Risto Pietikäinen, Pekka Suomalainen, Arja H Aalto, Janna Saarela, Elisabet Einarsdottir, Asko Järvinen, Martti Färkkilä, Juha Kere, Mikko Seppänen
BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency. Prevalence varies greatly between countries and studies. Most diagnostic criteria include hypogammaglobulinemia and impaired vaccine response. AIM: To evaluate the minimum prevalence as well as the clinical and immunological phenotypes of CVID in Southern Finland. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to assess all adult CVID patients followed up in three hospital districts in Southern and South-Eastern Finland between April 2007 and August 2015...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Mark D Strober, Brandon R Callahan
A 71-year-old woman underwent a posttherapy radioiodine scan after I administration for papillary thyroid carcinoma. On day 1 of the posttreatment hospital isolation, the patient received a Pneumovax injection in the left deltoid muscle. A localized hypersensitivity reaction ensued with development of soft tissue edema and erythema at the Pneumovax injection site. This localized reaction persisted up to the subsequent posttherapy radioiodine scan 5 days after injection. Increased activity at the left deltoid region suggests a false-positive finding related to radiotracer sequestration due to inflammation from a localized postvaccination hypersensitivity reaction...
November 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Yoichi Furuya, Girish S Kirimanjeswara, Sean Roberts, Rachael Racine, Jennifer Wilson-Welder, Alan M Sanfilippo, Sharon L Salmon, Dennis W Metzger
We report that IgA-/- mice exhibit specific defects in IgG antibody responses to various polysaccharide vaccines (Francisella tularensis LPS and Pneumovax), but not protein vaccines such as Fluzone. This defect further included responses to polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Prevnar and Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid vaccine). In agreement with these findings, IgA-/- mice were protected from pathogen challenge with protein- but not polysaccharide-based vaccines. Interestingly, after immunization with live bacteria, IgA+/+ and IgA-/- mice were both resistant to lethal challenge and their IgG anti-polysaccharide antibody responses were comparable...
September 5, 2017: Vaccine
D Goldblatt, A McKeen, P Burbidge, S McElhiney, L McLaughlin, A Johnson, M Rauh, P C Giardina
The pneumococcal ELISA reference standard serum, Lot 89SF, has been in use since 1990 and was replaced with a new reference standard serum, 007sp in 2013. This serum was generated under an FDA-approved clinical protocol, where 278 adult volunteers were immunized with the 23-valent unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine, Pneumovax II®, and a unit of blood was obtained twice within 120 days following immunization. Pooled serum was prepared from the plasma, filled at 6ml per vial and lyophilised. Five independent laboratories participated in bridging the serotype specific IgG assignments for 89SF to 007sp to establish equivalent reference values for 13 pneumococcal capsular serotypes (1,3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, 23F) using the WHO reference ELISA...
July 19, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Jeevani Kumarage, Suranjith L Seneviratne, Vijitha Senaratne, Amitha Fernando, Kirthi Gunasekera, Bandu Gunasena, Padmalal Gurugama, Sudath Peiris, Antony R Parker, Stephen Harding, Nilhan Rajiva de Silva
Measurement of an individuals ability to respond to polysaccharide antigens is a crucial test to determine adaptive immunity. Currently the response to Pneumovax(®) is utilized but with the success of Prevnar(®), measurement of the response to Pneumovax may be challenging. The aim of the study was to assess the response to Typhi Vi vaccination in both children and adult control groups and patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). In the control groups, >95% of the individuals had pre Typhi Vi vaccination concentrations <100 U/mL and there was significant increase in concentration post Typhi Vi vaccination (p<0...
June 2017: Heliyon
Teny Tjitra Sari, Arwin Ali P Akib, Djajadiman Gatot, Alida Roswita Harahap, Saptawati Bardosono, Sri Rezeki S Hadinegoro
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a capsulated bacterium that can cause severe infection in patients with thalassemia major, particularly those who have undergone splenectomy. The absence of the spleen as well as zinc deficiency in splenectomized patients with thalassemia major increases the possibility of developing invasive pneumococcal infection. The aims of this study are to evaluate pneumococcal IgG levels following PCV and PPV immunizations and the effect of zinc supplementation on qualitative specific immune responses in splenectomized patients with thalassemia...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
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