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Multiple sclerosis and epilepsy

Shahin Tavakol, Jessica Royer, Alexander J Lowe, Leonardo Bonilha, Joseph I Tracy, Graeme D Jackson, John S Duncan, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt
Epilepsy is among the most common chronic neurologic disorders, with 30%-40% of patients having seizures despite antiepileptic drug treatment. The advent of brain imaging and network analyses has greatly improved the understanding of this condition. In particular, developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided measures for the noninvasive characterization and detection of lesions causing epilepsy. MRI techniques can probe structural and functional connectivity, and network analyses have shaped our understanding of whole-brain anomalies associated with focal epilepsies...
March 19, 2019: Epilepsia
P Grewe, R Schulz, F G Woermann, C Brandt, A Doll, M Hoppe, M Tomka-Hoffmeister, C G Bien
PURPOSE: To investigate the very long-term (i.e., ≥15 years) seizure, cognitive and psycho-social outcomes in resected patients (RP) with TLE compared to control patients not having undergone epilepsy surgery. METHODS: We applied a multiple case-study design including three non-resected patients (NRP) who were compared to a group of six RP. The latter were matched to the NRP according to clinical-demographic data. Outcome measures were various seizure, cognitive, and psycho-social variables...
February 24, 2019: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei, Farzaneh Rahmani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi, Hossein Sanjari Moghaddam, Mohammad-Reza Nazem-Zadeh, Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh
BACKGROUND: Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) has been associated with widespread white mater (WM) alternations in addition to mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Herein, we aimed to investigate the correlation between disease duration and WM structural abnormalities in mTLE using diffusion MRI (DMRI) connectometry approach. METHOD: DMRI connectometry was conducted on 24 patients with mTLE. A multiple regression model was used to investigate white matter tracts with microstructural correlates to disease duration, controlling for age and sex...
March 13, 2019: Neurological Sciences
Rima Nabbout, Elena Belousova, Mirjana P Benedik, Tom Carter, Vincent Cottin, Paolo Curatolo, Maria Dahlin, Lisa D Amato, Guillaume Beaure d'Augères, Petrus J de Vries, José C Ferreira, Martha Feucht, Carla Fladrowski, Christoph Hertzberg, Sergiusz Jozwiak, John A Lawson, Alfons Macaya, Ruben Marques, Finbar O'Callaghan, Jiong Qin, Valentin Sander, Matthias Sauter, Seema Shah, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Renaud Touraine, Sotiris Youroukos, Bernard Zonnenberg, Anna Jansen, John C Kingswood
Objective: To present the baseline data of the international TuberOus SClerosis registry to increase disease Awareness (TOSCA) with emphasis on the characteristics of epilepsies associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Methods: Retrospective and prospective patients' data on all aspects of TSC were collected from multiple countries worldwide. Epilepsy variables included seizure type, age at onset, type of treatment, and treatment outcomes and association with genotype, seizures control, and intellectual disability...
March 2019: Epilepsia Open
Dongjian Chen, Chao Huang, Jie Jin, Yue Wu, Zhuo Chen
Sulforaphane (SFN) is an active component extracted from vegetables like cauliflower and broccoli. Activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling is a common mechanism for the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity of some herb-derived compounds, such as icariin and berberine. However, due to its peculiar ability in Nrf2 activation, SFN is recognized as an activator of Nrf2 and recommended as a supplementation for prevention and/or treatment of disorders like neoplasm and heart failure...
March 8, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Anna Rita Giovagnoli, Chiara Paterlini, Rute Flavia Meneses, Antonio Martins da Silva
PURPOSE: The patients with neurological disorders often report a different quality of life (QoL), which is in part explained by clinical-pathological or psychosocial variables. This study evaluated spirituality in patients with chronic brain pathologies, aiming to clarify its specificity and position to a multidimensional model of QoL. METHODS: A hundred and ninety-nine adult patients with epilepsy (E) (n = 88), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 32), ischemic vascular disorders (n = 29), tumors (n = 28), or multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 22), and 66 healthy subjects were assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQoL) 100, Spiritual, Religious and Personal Beliefs (SRPB), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for the QoL, spirituality, depression, and anxiety...
March 6, 2019: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Espen Saxhaug Kristoffersen, Bendik Slagsvold Winsvold, Kashif Waqar Faiz
BACKGROUND: Neurology has increasing subspecialisation. Some disorders, such as cerebrovascular diseases, dementia and headache are highly prevalent in the general population, while others, such as movement disorders and multiple sclerosis, are rarer. Thus, there may be a mismatch between neurologists' interests and the population needs. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To investigate the perceived prestige of neurological disorders among residents in neurology. METHODS: The study was conducted as a questionnaire survey among residents in neurology in Norway...
March 9, 2019: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Rebecca Persson, Sally Lee, Marianne Ulcickas Yood, Michael Wagner, Neil Minton, Steve Niemcryk, Anders Lindholm, Amber Evans, Susan Jick
OBJECTIVE: To describe the resources and methods used to identify and validate multiple sclerosis (MS) and match non-MS patients in each of the two databases, and to characterize their demographics, comorbidities and concomitant medications. METHODS: This study was conducted in two separate electronic medical databases, the United States Department of Defense (DOD) military health care system and the United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Neurology
Erik Nutma, Hugh Willison, Martino Gianvito, Sandra Amor
Neuroimmunology as a separate discipline has its roots in the fields of neurology, neuroscience and immunology. Early studies of the brain by Golgi and Cajal, the detailed clinical and neuropathology studies of Charcot, and Thompson's seminal paper on graft acceptance in the central nervous system kindled a now rapidly expanding research area with the aim of understanding pathological mechanisms of inflammatory components of neurological disorders. Whilst neuroimmunologists originally focussed on classical neuroinflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis and infections, there is strong evidence to suggest that the immune response contributes to genetic white matter disorders, epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, peripheral nervous system and neuro-oncological conditions, as well as ageing...
February 15, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Ivan Urits, Matthew Borchart, Morgan Hasegawa, Justin Kochanski, Vwaire Orhurhu, Omar Viswanath
Cannabis users have long reported therapeutic properties of the plant for a variety of conditions, some of which include nausea, emesis, seizures, cancer, neurogenic diseases and pain control. Research has elucidated many cannabinoid pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, expanding the potential use of cannabinoids as a medical therapy. Due to the inconsistent delivery and control of the active components involved with smoking, pharmaceutical companies are investigating and prioritizing routes other than smoke inhalation for therapeutic use of cannabinoids...
February 5, 2019: Pain and Therapy
John D Kriesel, Preetida Bhetariya, Zheng-Ming Wang, David Renner, Cheryl Palmer, Kael F Fischer
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multiple lesions in the brain and spinal cord. We used RNA sequencing to identify microbial sequences and characterize human gene expression patterns in 30 human brain biopsy specimens. RNAs which aligned to known microbial taxa, were significantly enriched in 10 of 12 primary demyelination (MS) brain specimens compared to a group of 15 epilepsy controls, leading to a list of 29 MS microbial candidate genera from 11 different phyla. Most of the candidate MS microbes are anaerobic bacteria...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Nausicaa Mazzocchi, Fabio Grohovaz, Stefano Taverna, Andrea Menegon
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-activated, sodium-permeable channels, highly expressed in both central and peripheral nervous systems. ASIC1a is the most abundant isoform in the central nervous system and is credited to be involved in several neurological disorders including stroke, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. Interestingly, the affinity of ASIC1a for two antagonists, diminazene and amiloride, has recently been proposed to be voltage sensitive. Based on this evidence, it is expected that the pharmacology of ASIC1cannot be properly characterized by single-cell voltage-clamp, an experimental condition in which membrane potential is maintained close to resting values...
February 1, 2019: Neuropharmacology
K Ostrowsky-Coste, A Neal, M Guenot, P Ryvlin, S Bouvard, P Bourdillon, J Jung, H Catenoix, A Montavont, J Isnard, A Arzimanoglou, S Rheims
Medically treated patients suffering from tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) have less than 30% chance of achieving a sustained remission. Both the international TSC consensus conference in 2012, and the panel of European experts in 2012 and 2018 have concluded that surgery should be considered for medically refractory TSC patients. However, surgery remains currently underutilized in TSC. Case series, meta-analyses and guidelines all agree that a 50 to 60% chance of long-term seizure freedom can be achieved after surgery in TSC patients and a presurgical work-up should be done as early as possible after failure of two appropriate AEDs...
January 24, 2019: Revue Neurologique
Jian-Ping Zhao, Akira Yoshii
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurogenetic disorder associated with epilepsy, intellectual disabilities, and autistic behaviors. These neurological symptoms result from synaptic dysregulations, which shift a balance between excitation and inhibition. To decipher the synaptic substrate of hyperexcitability, we examined pan-neuronal Tsc1 knockout mouse and found a reduction in surface expression of a GABA receptor (GABAR) subunit but not AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit. Using electrophysiological recordings, we found a significant reduction in the frequency of GABAR-mediated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (GABAR-mIPSCs) but not AMPAR-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (AMPAR-mEPSCs) in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons...
January 25, 2019: Molecular Brain
Ingo Gerhauser, Florian Hansmann, Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Wolfgang Löscher, Andreas Beineke
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), a naturally occurring, enteric pathogen of mice is a Cardiovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Low neurovirulent TMEV strains such as BeAn cause a severe demyelinating disease in susceptible SJL mice following intracerebral infection. Furthermore, TMEV infections of C57BL/6 mice cause acute polioencephalitis initiating a process of epileptogenesis that results in spontaneous recurrent epileptic seizures in approximately 50% of affected mice. Moreover, C3H mice develop cardiac lesions after an intraperitoneal high-dose application of TMEV...
January 21, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
João Paulo Vilela Rodrigues, Fabiana Angelo Marques, Ana Maria Rosa Freato Gonçalves, Marília Silveira de Almeida Campos, Tiago Marques Dos Reis, Manuela Roque Siani Morelo, Andrea Fontoura, Beatriz Maria Pereira Girolineto, Helen Palmira Miranda de Camargo Souza, Maurílio de Souza Cazarim, Lauro César da Silva Maduro, Leonardo Régis Leira Pereira
It is estimated that around five to 10.0% of hospital admissions occur due to clinical conditions resulting from pharmacotherapy. Clinical pharmacist's activity can enhance drug therapy's effectiveness and safety through pharmacotherapy interventions (PIs), thus minimizing drug-related problems (DRPs) and optimizing the allocation of financial resources associated with health care. This study aimed to estimate the DRPs prevalence, evaluate PI which were performed by clinical pharmacists in the Neurology Unit of a Brazilian tertiary teaching hospital and to identify factors associated with the occurrence of PI-related DRP...
2019: PloS One
Humayan Kabir Rana, Mst Rashida Akhtar, Mohammad Bashir Ahmed, Pietro Lio', Julian M W Quinn, Fazlul Huq, Mohammad Ali Moni
BACKGROUND: Welding involves exposure to fumes, gases and radiant energy that can be hazardous to human health. Welding fumes (WFs) comprise a complex mixture of metallic oxides, silicates and fluorides that may result in different health effects. Inhalation of WFs in large quantities over a long periods may pose a risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases (NDGDs), but the nature of this risk is poorly understood. To address this we performed transcriptomic analysis to identify links between WF exposure and NDGDs...
December 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Man Amanat, Roland D Thijs, Mona Salehi, Josemir W Sander
The risk of epileptic seizures seems increased in several systemic autoimmune disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis, celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto's encephalopathy, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, and bullous pemphigoid. Immune dysfunction may be partly responsible for this association. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, autoantibodies seen in these autoimmune disorders and antibodies against neuronal antigens may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of seizures and epilepsy associated to immune conditions...
January 2019: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Lan Luan, Yuqiang Sun, Kang Yang
Coexistence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and a temporal neocortical lesion, including focal cortical dysplasia, vascular malformations or benign primary brain tumors, is defined as dual pathology. In the majority of cases, the complete evidence based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for each of the dual pathological lesions is difficult to obtain. As a result, patients with dual pathology are poor surgical candidates due to potential incomplete resection of the epileptogenic zone...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ivan Presta, Marco Vismara, Fabiana Novellino, Annalidia Donato, Paolo Zaffino, Elisabetta Scali, Krizia Caterina Pirrone, Maria Francesca Spadea, Natalia Malara, Giuseppe Donato
Recent studies have clarified many still unknown aspects related to innate immunity and the blood-brain barrier relationship. They have also confirmed the close links between effector immune system cells, such as granulocytes, macrophages, microglia, natural killer cells and mast cells, and barrier functionality. The latter, in turn, is able to influence not only the entry of the cells of the immune system into the nervous tissue, but also their own activation. Interestingly, these two components and their interactions play a role of great importance not only in infectious diseases, but in almost all the pathologies of the central nervous system...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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