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Adrenal cortex

Wei Wang, Le Liu, Xiu Yang, Han Gao, Qi-Kai Tang, Luo-Yue Yin, Xiao-Yu Yin, Jing-Ru Hao, De-Qin Geng, Can Gao
Chronic stress is an important factor for depression. Most individuals recover from stress, while some develop into depression. The pathogenesis of resilience or susceptibility remains unclear. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and releases stress hormones to regulate individual response to stress. Hence, we assessed the effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) on susceptible behaviors, plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expressions in hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
February 9, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Aya T Nanba, Juilee Rege, Jianwei Ren, Richard J Auchus, William E Rainey, Adina F Turcu
Context: The ovaries and adrenals are sources of androgens in women. While dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), and testosterone (T) all decline with age, these C19 steroids correlate poorly with parameters of androgen action in postmenopausal women. Objective: To comprehensively compare androgen profiles in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods: We quantified 19 steroids, including DHEA, DHEAS, T, androstenedione (A4), and the adrenal-specific 11-oxygenated C19 steroids (11oxyandrogens) 11β-hydroxytestosterone (11OHT), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione (11OHA4) and 11-ketoandrostenedione (11KA4) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in morning serum obtained from 100 pre- (age 20-40 years) and 100 post-menopausal (age ≥ 60 years) women...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Maria Eleni Kastriti, Polina Kameneva, Dmitry Kamenev, Viacheslav Dyachuk, Alessandro Furlan, Marek Hampl, Fatima Memic, Ulrika Marklund, Francois Lallemend, Saida Hadjab, Laura Calvo-Enrique, Patrik Ernfors, Kaj Fried, Igor Adameyko
In humans, neurosecretory chromaffin cells control a number of important bodily functions, including those related to stress response. Chromaffin cells appear as a distinct cell type at the beginning of midgestation and are the main cellular source of adrenalin and noradrenalin released into the blood stream. In mammals, two different chromaffin organs emerge at a close distance to each other, the adrenal gland and Zuckerkandl organ (ZO). These two structures are found in close proximity to the kidneys and dorsal aorta, in a region where paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma originate in the majority of clinical cases...
2019: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Mizuho Uneyama, James K Chambers, Kouki Miyama, Yasutsugu Miwa, Kazuyuki Uchida, Hiroyuki Nakayama
Adrenal disorders are common in ferrets, but there are few studies on cystic lesions of the adrenal gland. The present study describes pathological and immunohistochemical features of adrenal cysts in eleven ferrets and discusses their histogenesis. In nine of eleven cases examined, which included seven, one, and one right, left, and bilateral cases, respectively, cysts were in the adrenal cortex and lined with epithelial cells. These epithelial cells contained an Alcian blue-negative/PAS-positive material and were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7...
January 2019: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Matthieu St-Jean, Jessica MacKenzie-Feder, Isabelle Bourdeau, André Lacroix
A 29-year-old G4A3 woman presented at 25 weeks of pregnancy with progressive signs of Cushing's syndrome (CS), gestational diabetes requiring insulin and hypertension. A 3.4 × 3.3 cm right adrenal adenoma was identified during abdominal ultrasound imaging for nephrolithiasis. Investigation revealed elevated levels of plasma cortisol, 24 h urinary free cortisol (UFC) and late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC). Serum ACTH levels were not fully suppressed (4 and 5 pmol/L (N: 2-11)). One month post-partum, CS regressed, 24-h UFC had normalised while ACTH levels were now less than 2 pmol/L; however, dexamethasone failed to suppress cortisol levels...
February 7, 2019: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Anna Kozłowska, Paweł Wojtacha, Maciej Równiak, Małgorzata Kolenkiewicz, Andrew Chih Wei Huang
RATIONALE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioural disorders with morphological and functional brain abnormalities. However, there is a growing body of evidence that abnormalities in the immune and endocrine systems may also account for the ADHD pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: To test ADHD pathogenesis in neurological, immune and endocrine systems, this study examined the concentrations of cytokines, chemokines, oxidative stress markers, metabolic parameters, steroid hormones and steroidogenic enzymes in the serum and/or tissues of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs, animal model of ADHD) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs, control animals)...
February 8, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Yu N Korolev, M S Geniatulina, L V Mikhailik, L A Nikulina
BACKGROUND: Adaptation of the organism to the action of certain damaging factors, including radiation, is closely related to the state of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. The important role in its activities is played by adrenocorticocytes (ACC) - the cells of the fascicular zone of the adrenal cortex. The disturbance of the structure and function of these cells can significantly impair and limit the development of the adaptive reactions in the body. One of the most promising ways to prevent the post-radiation changes in adrenocorticocytes consists of the application of the non-pharmacological therapeutic factors, such as low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of ultra high frequency ( UHF) and the low-frequency (LF) magnetic field (MF) of low intensity (LI) after the exposition of the cells to the action of radiation...
2019: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Fangyu Chen, Liuwei Chen, Qin Qin, Xinchen Sun
Salt-inducible kinase (SIK), which belongs to the sucrose non-fermenting 1/AMP-activated protein kinase family, was first discovered in the adrenal cortex of a rat on a high-salt diet. As an isoform of the SIK family, SIK2 modulates various biological functions and acts as a signal transmitter in various pathways. Compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, the expression of SIK2 is significantly higher in multiple types of tumors, which indicates its pivotal effect in oncogenesis. Studies on SIK2 have recently underlined its role in several signaling pathways, including the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, the Hippo-YAP pathway, the LKB1-HDAC axis, and the cAMP-PKA axis...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Mahino Fatima, Saurabh Srivastav, Mir Hilal Ahmad, Amal Chandra Mondal
Prenatal stress (PNS) has gained attention with regard to its impact on hippocampal neurogenesis in neonates which serves as a risk factor for postnatal neurodevelopmental deficits. Evidences from animal models have suggested that depression responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its hormonal response via cortisol, is responsible for critical neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring which is transduced due to gestational stress. But knowledge in the area of assessing the effects of maternal chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on neurogenesis and expression of some key signaling molecules in the offsprings are limited...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Qian Peng, Chris Bizon, Ian R Gizer, Kirk C Wilhelmsen, Cindy L Ehlers
A limited number of genetic variants have been identified in traditional GWAS as risk or protective factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) and related phenotypes. We herein report whole-genome association and rare-variant analyses on AUD traits in American Indians (AI) and European Americans (EA). We evaluated 742 AIs and 1711 EAs using low-coverage whole-genome sequencing. Phenotypes included: (1) a metric based on the occurrence of 36 alcohol-related life events that reflect AUD severity; (2) two alcohol-induced affective symptoms that accompany severe AUDs...
February 4, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
Ueli Braun, Amelie Wiest, Thomas Lutz, Barbara Riond, Martina Stirn, Monika Hilbe, Markus R Baumgartner, Tina Maria Binz
The hypothesis of this study was that veal calves reared under enhanced welfare standards undergo less stress than calves raised in a conventionally system that meets the minimal standards of the Swiss animal welfare legislation, and that this difference is reflected by differences in hair cortisol concentrations and the size, weight and total cortisol concentration of the adrenal glands. A total of 100 veal calves reared under two different animal welfare production labels were used; the labels differed with respect to stocking density and access to an outdoor area and pasture...
January 28, 2019: Research in Veterinary Science
Amy Robinson-Junker, Bruce O'Hara, Abigail Durkes, Brianna Gaskill
Many aspects of the laboratory environment are not tailored to the needs of rodents, which may cause stress. Unpredictable stressors can cause ulcers, prolonged pituitary-adrenal activation, and anhedonia. Similarly, pain has been demonstrated to slow wound healing, and mice experiencing pain exhibit altered behavior. However it is unknown how husbandry, which occurs when the mice are inactive, and lack of analgesia, specifically in a punch biopsy procedure, effects animal physiology, behavior, and welfare, particularly as it relates to sleep fragmentation...
2019: PloS One
Kaitlin J Basham, Stéphanie Rodriguez, Adina F Turcu, Antonio M Lerario, Catriona Y Logan, Madeline R Rysztak, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, David T Breault, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Hans Clevers, Roeland Nusse, Pierre Val, Gary D Hammer
Spatiotemporal control of Wnt signaling is essential for the development and homeostasis of many tissues. The transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligases ZNRF3 (zinc and ring finger 3) and RNF43 (ring finger protein 43) antagonize Wnt signaling by promoting degradation of frizzled receptors. ZNRF3 and RNF43 are frequently inactivated in human cancer, but the molecular and therapeutic implications remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that adrenocortical-specific loss of ZNRF3, but not RNF43, results in adrenal hyperplasia that depends on Porcupine-mediated Wnt ligand secretion...
January 28, 2019: Genes & Development
Maha Medjerab, Mohamed Abdelali, Ali Khalkhal, Nesrine Semiane, Soumia Hammadi, Aicha Mallek, Zineb Bellahrache, Hadjer Agoun, Yasmina Dahmani
Obesity is associated with several endocrine disorders, including hypersensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a high carbohydrate diet on structural and ultrastructural features of steroidogenic tissue, as well to evaluate adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and insulin levels in the blood and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression in the adrenals of gerbils. In electron microscopy, the most pronounced effect of the hypercaloric diet was observed in the zona fasciculata...
January 24, 2019: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Nashwa Fathy Gamal El-Tahawy, Samah Mohammed Mahmoud Abozaid
The adrenal gland is an important endocrine gland in the body that secrets the adrenal hormones. One of the important clinical issues is the hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Liver IR injury results in many distant organs dysfunctions such as lung, kidney, intestine, pancreas, and myocardium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible remote effects of hepatic IR on the structure of the adrenal cortex. Twenty healthy males, Sprague-Dawley albino rats aged 6-8 weeks were randomly divided into two groups (10 rats each): the sham control group (SC-group) and the ischemia-reperfusion group (IR-group)...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Hervé Lefebvre, Céline Duparc, Alexandre Naccache, Antoine-Guy Lopez, Mireille Castanet, Estelle Louiset
Aldosterone secretion by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex is controlled by circulating factors including the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and potassium. Mineralocorticoid production is also regulated through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism by a wide variety of bioactive signals released in the vicinity of adrenocortical cells by chromaffin cells, nerve endings, cells of the immune system, endothelial cells and adipocytes. These regulatory factors include conventional neurotransmitters and neuropeptides...
2019: Vitamins and Hormones
Scott M MacKenzie, Josie C van Kralingen, Eleanor Davies
Secretion of the major mineralocorticoid aldosterone from the adrenal cortex is a tightly-regulated process enabling this hormone to regulate sodium homeostasis and thereby contribute to blood pressure control. The circulating level of aldosterone is the result of various regulatory mechanisms, the most significant being those controlled by the renin-angiotensin system and plasma potassium levels. The importance of maintaining tight control over aldosterone secretion is demonstrated by cases of dysregulation, which can result in severe hypertension and significantly increased cardiovascular risk...
2019: Vitamins and Hormones
Kenichi Masumoto, Noriko Tagawa, Yoshiharu Kobayashi, Satoshi Kusuda
BACKGROUND: Immature adrenocortical function in preterm infants may cause inadequate production of cortisol under stress, resulting in adrenal insufficiency of prematurity (AOP). The objective of this study is to compare cortisol production in preterm infants with and without late-onset AOP. METHODS: Of 27 preterm infants born at less than 32 weeks gestation, cortisol production was analyzed in those who did (patients, group P) and did not (controls, group C) eventually develop late-onset AOP...
December 21, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Chihiro Sakaguchi, Kenji Ashida, Kenichi Kohashi, Kenji Ohe, Yoichi Fujii, Seiichi Yano, Yayoi Matsuda, Shohei Sakamoto, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Yoshinao Oda, Masatoshi Nomura, Yoshihiro Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Increased urinary free cortisol in response to the oral administration of dexamethasone is a paradoxical reaction mainly reported in patients with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease. Here, we describe the first case of subclinical Cushing's syndrome represented by autonomous cortisol secretion and paradoxical response to oral dexamethasone administration, harboring an activating mutation in the α subunit of the stimulatory G protein (GNAS). CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old woman was diagnosed with subclinical Cushing's syndrome during an evaluation for bilateral adrenal masses...
January 22, 2019: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Lei Liu, Katrin Panzitt, Silvia Racedo, Martin Wagner, Wolfgang Platzer, Alex Zaufel, Verena Theiler-Schwetz, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Helmut Müller, Gerald Höfler, Akos Heinemann, Gernot Zollner, Peter Fickert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bile acids are now accepted as central signaling molecules for the regulation of glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. Adrenal gland cortex cells express the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5), and the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2). We aimed to determine the effects of cholestasis and more specifically of bile acids on cortisol production. METHODS: FXR and TGR5 knock-out mice and controls were subjected to common bile duct ligation (CBDL) or chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) feeding to model cholestasis...
January 21, 2019: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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