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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772476/protection-against-fatal-pneumonia-through-mucosal-and-subcutaneous-immunization-with-the-pneumococcal-sp0148-protein
#1
Jian Huang, Shilu Luo, Meirong Huang, Tao Zhang, Zongsu Min, Changjin Liu, Qing Zhang, Jianru Yang, Xun Min
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is associated with very high morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Vaccines are an effective measure for the reduction of S. pneumoniae infection. In particular, protein vaccines are attracting increasing attention because of their good immunogenicity and wide coverage of serotypes. Therefore, identifying effective protein vaccine targets is important for protein vaccine development. SP0148 is a promising protein vaccine target for S. pneumoniae and is capable of reducing S...
February 14, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772468/acute-respiratory-illness-in-rural-haiti
#2
Yong Yean Kim, Judy F Lew, Bahareh Keith, Taina Telisma, Eric J Nelson, Alexis C Brantly, Sonese Chavannes, Gina Anilis, Yang Yang, Mingjin Liu, Meer Taifur Alam, Mohammed H Rashid, J Glenn Morris, Valery E Madsen Beau De Rochars
OBJECTIVES: Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) is the most common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries, including Haiti. Our objective was to detect pathogens found in children with ARI in rural Haiti to help develop evidence-based guidelines for treatment and prevention. METHODS: Retrospective study of students with ARI at four schools in rural Haiti. Viral and/or bacterial pathogens were identified by qPCR in 177 nasal swabs collected from April 2013 through November 2015...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770840/comparative-studies-of-catalytic-pathways-for-streptococcus-pneumoniae-sialidases-nana-nanb-and-nanc
#3
Kela Xiao, Xingyong Wang, Haibo Yu
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a leading human pathogen, which takes large responsibility for severe otitis media, acute meningitis and septicaemia. It encodes up to three distinct sialidases: NanA, NanB and NanC, which are promising drug targets. Recent experimental studies have shown that these three sialidases might work together up to the ultimate step, where NanA and NanB produce N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and 2,7-anhydro-Neu5Ac following the functions of sialidase and intramolecular trans-sialidase, whilst NanC carries on a ping-pong mechanism that produces or removes 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-Neu5AC...
February 15, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770718/etiology-of-acute-otitis-media-and-phenotypic-molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-from-children-in-liuzhou-china
#4
Jinjian Fu, Ling Li, Zhuoxin Liang, Shaolin Xu, Nan Lin, Peixu Qin, Xiaohua Ye, Eric McGrath
BACKGROUND: The etiology and epidemiology of acute otitis media (AOM) are poorly understood in China. This study aimed to describe the etiology of AOM and the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of AOM-causing Streptococcus pneumoniae (S.pneumoniae) recovered from Chinese children. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to enrol patients younger than 18 years diagnosed as AOM. Middle ear fluid specimens were collected then cultured for bacterial pathogens...
February 15, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764957/rare-earth-element-ree-nd-3-doped-ceo%C3%A2-nanoparticles-using-aloe-vera-leaf-extract-structural-optical-and-antimicrobial-activity
#5
S Gunasekaran, A Dinesh, A Silambarasu, V Thirumurugan, S Shankar
Pure and Nd-doped cerium oxides (CeO₂, Ce0.075 Nd0.025 O and Ce0.050 Nd0.050 O) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using Aloe vera leaf extract. X-ray powder diffraction studies were confirmed that synthesized pure and Nd3+ doped CeO₂ NPs and were exhibited cubic structure. FE-SEM image exhibited pure and Nd3+ doped CeO₂ NPs have spherical structure and Nd doped CeO2 NPs small pores were formed in the surface. EDAX spectral analysis used to identify the elemental compositions. FT-IR spectra shows various functional groups and were identified for pure and Nd3+ doped CeO₂ NPs...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759848/desertomycin-g-a-new-antibiotic-with-activity-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-human-breast-tumor-cell-lines-produced-by-streptomyces-althioticus-msm3-isolated-from-the-cantabrian-sea-intertidal-macroalgae-ulva-sp
#6
Alfredo F Braña, Aida Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Jesús Martín, Luis Otero, Juan José Palacios-Gutiérrez, Jonathan Fernández, Yamina Mohamedi, Tania Fontanil, Marina Salmón, Santiago Cal, Fernando Reyes, Luis A García, Gloria Bianco
The isolation and structural elucidation of a structurally new desertomycin, designated as desertomycin G ( 1 ), with strong antibiotic activity against several clinically relevant antibiotic resistant pathogens are described herein. This new natural product was obtained from cultures of the marine actinomycete Streptomyces althioticus MSM3, isolated from samples of the intertidal seaweed Ulva sp. collected in the Cantabrian Sea (Northeast Atlantic Ocean). Particularly interesting is its strong antibiotic activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, resistant to antibiotics in clinical use...
February 12, 2019: Marine Drugs
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759805/pes-pathogens-in-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia
#7
REVIEW
Catia Cillóniz, Cristina Dominedò, Antonello Nicolini, Antoni Torres
Worldwide, there is growing concern about the burden of pneumonia. Severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently complicated by pulmonary and extra-pulmonary complications, including sepsis, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute cardiac events, resulting in significantly increased intensive care admission rates and mortality rates. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) remains the most common causative pathogen in CAP. However, several bacteria and respiratory viruses are responsible, and approximately 6% of cases are due to the so-called PES ( Pseudomonas aeruginosa , extended-spectrum β-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae , and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) pathogens...
February 12, 2019: Microorganisms
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759098/late-effects-of-total-body-irradiation-on-hematopoietic-recovery-and-immune-function-in-rhesus-macaques
#8
Laura P Hale, Gowrisankar Rajam, George M Carlone, Chen Jiang, Kouros Owzar, Greg Dugan, David Caudell, Nelson Chao, J Mark Cline, Thomas C Register, Gregory D Sempowski
While exposure to radiation can be lifesaving in certain settings, it can also potentially result in long-lasting adverse effects, particularly to hematopoietic and immune cells. This study investigated hematopoietic recovery and immune function in rhesus macaques Cross-sectionally (at a single time point) 2 to 5 years after exposure to a single large dose (6.5 to 8.4 Gray) of total body radiation (TBI) derived from linear accelerator-derived photons (2 MeV, 80 cGy/minute) or Cobalt 60-derived gamma irradiation (60 cGy/min)...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758992/exhaled-breath-metabolomics-reveals-a-pathogen-specific-response-in-a-rat-pneumonia-model-for-two-human-pathogenic-bacteria-a-proof-of-concept-study
#9
Pouline M P van Oort, Paul Brinkman, Gitte Slingers, Gudrun Koppen, Adrie Maas, Joris J T H Roelofs, Ronny Schnabel, Dennis C Bergmans, Marc Raes, Roy Goodacre, Stephen J Fowler, Marcus J Schultz, Lieuwe D Bos, BreathDx Consortium
INTRODUCTION: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath can reflect host and pathogen metabolism and might be used to diagnose pneumonia. We hypothesized that rats with Streptococcus pneumoniae ( SP) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( PA) pneumonia can be discriminated from uninfected controls by thermal desorption - gas chromatography - mass-spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) and selected ion flow tube - mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) of exhaled breath. METHODS: Male adult rats ( n=50) received an intra-tracheal inoculation of 1) 200 µL saline, 2) 1x107 colony forming units (CFU) of SP or 3) 1x107 CFU of PA...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758857/antibody-responses-to-bordetella-pertussis-and-other-childhood-vaccines-in-infants-born-to-mothers-who-received-pertussis-vaccine-in-pregnancy-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study-from-the-uk
#10
Thomas F Rice, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Gaby P Smits, Pieter van Gageldonk, Guy Berbers, Fiona van der Klis, George Vamvakas, Beverly Donaldson, Marielle Bouqueau, Beth Holder, Beate Kampmann
The maternal Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis) vaccination program in the UK has successfully reduced cases of pertussis in young infants. In addition to prevention of pertussis cases, it is also important to investigate persistence of maternal antibody during infancy and possible interference of maternal antibodies with infant responses to vaccines. We recruited mother-infant pairs from vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnancies and measured concentrations of IgG against pertussis toxin (PTx), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), diphtheria toxin (DTx), tetanus toxoid (TTx) Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae in mothers and infants at birth, and in infants at 7 weeks and at 5 months...
February 13, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755177/rapid-molecular-detection-of-macrolide-resistance
#11
Megan M Nelson, Christopher L Waldron, John R Bracht
BACKGROUND: Emerging antimicrobial resistance is a significant threat to human health. However, methods for rapidly diagnosing antimicrobial resistance generally require multi-day culture-based assays. Macrolide efflux gene A, mef(A), provides resistance against erythromycin and azithromycin and is known to be laterally transferred among a wide range of bacterial species. METHODS: We use Recombinase Polymerase Assay (RPA) to detect the antimicrobial resistance gene mef(A) from raw lysates without nucleic acid purification...
February 12, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753210/utility-of-maldi-tof-ms-as-a-new-tool-for-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotyping
#12
María Ercibengoa, Marta Alonso, Diego Vicente, Maria Morales, Ernesto Garcia, Jose María Marimón
Nowadays, more than 95 different Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes are known, being less than one third responsible for the majority of severe pneumococcal infections. After the introduction of conjugate vaccines, a change in the epidemiology of the serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease has been observed making the surveillance of circulating serotypes especially relevant. Some recent studies have used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology to identify the most frequent pneumococcal serotypes that cause invasive disease...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753183/biophysical-and-structural-characterization-of-a-zinc-responsive-repressor-of-the-marr-superfamily
#13
Paloma Fernández Varela, Christophe Velours, Magali Aumont-Niçaise, Blandine Pineau, Pierre Legrand, Isabelle Poquet
The uptake of zinc, which is vital in trace amounts, is tightly controlled in bacteria. For this control, bacteria of the Streptococcaceae group use a Zn(II)-binding repressor named ZitR in lactococci and AdcR in streptococci, while other bacteria use a Zur protein of the Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) superfamily. ZitR and AdcR proteins, characterized by a winged helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain, belong to the multiple antibiotic resistance (MarR) superfamily, where they form a specific group of metallo-regulators...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746136/successful-treatment-of-a-streptococcus-pneumoniae-associated-haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome-by-eculizumab
#14
Guillaume Jeantet, Vincent Pernin, Vincent Brunot, Arnaud Roccabianca, Anouk Macombe, Ilan Szwarc, Kada Klouche, Chantal Loirat, Georges Mourad, Véronique Frémeaux-Bacchi, Moglie Le Quintrec
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is a rare complication of invasive infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP-HUS), especially in adults. Here we report an unusual case of a 53-year-old man presenting SP-HUS with severe multivisceral involvement. After failure of supportive care and plasma exchanges, eculizumab (anti-C5 antibody) resulted in a favourable outcome.
February 2019: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745895/nasopharyngeal-microbiota-in-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-identification-of-bacteria-with-potential-disease-promoting-and-protective-effects
#15
Anny Camelo-Castillo, Desirée Henares, Pedro Brotons, Antonio Galiana, Juan Carlos Rodríguez, Alex Mira, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro
Background and Aims: The risk of suffering from some infectious diseases can be related to specific microbiota profiles. Specifically, the nasopharyngeal microbiota could play a role as a risk or protective factor in the development of invasive disease caused by S. pneumoniae . Methodology: We analyzed the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and that of healthy controls matched by age, sex, and seasonality from Catalonia, Spain. Epidemiological, microbiological and clinical variables were considered to compare microbiota profiles, analyzed by sequencing the V1-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744963/vaccination-of-haemopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-guidelines-of-the-2017-european-conference-on-infections-in-leukaemia-ecil-7
#16
REVIEW
Catherine Cordonnier, Sigrun Einarsdottir, Simone Cesaro, Roberta Di Blasi, Malgorzata Mikulska, Christina Rieger, Hugues de Lavallade, Giuseppe Gallo, Thomas Lehrnbecher, Dan Engelhard, Per Ljungman
Infection is a main concern after haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and a major cause of transplant-related mortality. Some of these infections are preventable by vaccination. Most HSCT recipients lose their immunity to various pathogens as soon as the first months after transplant, irrespective of the pre-transplant donor or recipient vaccinations. Vaccination with inactivated vaccines is safe after transplantation and is an effective way to reinstate protection from various pathogens (eg, influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae), especially for pathogens whose risk of infection is increased by the transplant procedure...
February 7, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744293/-analysis-of-common-pathogens-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-acute-bacterial-meningitis-cases-in-shandong-province
#17
Y Zhang, M S Li, G F Liu, L Z Song, L Zhang, A Q Xu
Objective: To analyze epidemiological characteristics of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) cases and the common pathogens infected in Jinan, Shandong Province. Methods: Epidemiological and clinical informations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood specimens of acute meningitis/encephalitis syndrome (AMES) cases (total 3 918 cases) were collected in the six sentinel hospitals from 2013 to 2016. neisseria meningitidis (Nm) , streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) and haemophilus influenza (Hi) were detected by the methods of real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), bacterial culture and latex agglutination...
February 6, 2019: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744290/-acute-meningitis-and-encephalitis-syndrome-surveillance-disease-burden-in-four-china-prefectures
#18
D Wu, Y X Li, Z J Shao, H Y Wang, G J Ning, J H Li, Z D Yin
Objectives: To explore acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome (AMES) surveillance in 4 China prefectures, to understand the epidemiological features and disease burden of neisseria meningitides ( Nm ) meningitis, streptococcus pneumoniae ( Sp ) meningitis, haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) meningitis and Japanese encephalitis and provide evidence for related disease prevention and control. Methods: AMES surveillance were conducted in Jinan, Shandong Province and Yichang, Hubei Province in September 2006, and in 13 districts of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province and Guigang City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in April 2007...
February 6, 2019: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742105/within-host-dynamics-shape-antibiotic-resistance-in-commensal-bacteria
#19
Nicholas G Davies, Stefan Flasche, Mark Jit, Katherine E Atkins
The spread of antibiotic resistance, a major threat to human health, is poorly understood. Simple population-level models of bacterial transmission predict that above a certain rate of antibiotic consumption in a population, resistant bacteria should completely eliminate non-resistant strains, while below this threshold they should be unable to persist at all. This prediction stands at odds with empirical evidence showing that resistant and non-resistant strains coexist stably over a wide range of antibiotic consumption rates...
February 11, 2019: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741996/characterization-of-highly-conserved-g-quadruplex-motifs-as-potential-drug-targets-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#20
Subodh Kumar Mishra, Neha Jain, Uma Shankar, Arpita Tawani, Tarun Kumar Sharma, Amit Kumar
Several G-quadruplex forming motifs have been reported to be highly conserved in the regulatory regions of the genome of different organisms and influence various biological processes like DNA replication, recombination and gene expression. Here, we report the highly conserved and three potentially G-quadruplex forming motifs (SP-PGQs) in the essential genes (hsdS, recD, and pmrA) of the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome. These genes were previously observed to play a vital role in providing the virulence to the bacteria, by participating in the host-pathogen interaction, drug-efflux system and recombination- repair system...
February 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
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