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Benefit analysis

Michael Snure, Timothy Prusnick, Elisabeth Bianco, Stefan C Badescu
In a combined experimental and theoretical study of gold phosphide (Au₂P₃), we investigate its vibrational properties, band structure, and dielectric properties, providing new insight into the properties of this underexplored material. Using a simple synthesis route, Au₂P₃ thin films were produced, enabling the first reported Raman analysis of this material. Coupled with first-principles calculations of these Raman modes, this analysis reveals that low-frequency vibrations are due to Au or mixed Au to P, and at higher frequencies, they are due to P vibrations...
February 13, 2019: Materials
Zaheer Hussain, Boban Simonovic, Edward J N Stupple, Maggie Austin
Social networking sites (SNSs) have become ubiquitous in our everyday lives, and for all its communicative benefits, excessive SNS use has been associated with a range of negative health implications. In the present study, the authors use eye-tracking methodology to explore the relationship between individual differences in personality, mental well-being, SNS usage, and the focus of Facebook users' visual attention. Participants ( n = 69, mean age = 23.09, SD = 7.54) completed questionnaire measures for personality and to examine changes in depression, anxiety, stress, and self-esteem...
February 18, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Nana Wu, Shannon S D Bredin, Yanfei Guan, Kyra Dickinson, David D Kim, Zongyu Chua, Kai Kaufman, Darren E R Warburton
Exercise is advocated in the management of type 1 diabetes (T1D), but the effects of different forms of exercise training on cardiovascular risk factors in T1D still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on exercise training for cardiovascular risk factors in T1D. Six electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized or non-randomized controlled studies reporting associations between exercise training and cardiovascular risk factors in T1D...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Mitsuhiro Horade, Chia-Hung Dylan Tsai, Makoto Kaneko
This paper proposes a microfluidic device which can perform simultaneous observation on cell growth with and without applying periodic hydrostatic pressure (Yokoyama et al. Sci. Rep. 2017 , 7 , 427). The device is called on-chip cell incubator. It is known that culture with periodic hydrostatic pressure benefits the elasticity of a cultured cell sheet based on the results in previous studies, but how the cells respond to such a stimulus during the culture is not yet clear. In this work, we focused on cell behavior under periodic hydrostatic pressure from the moment of cell seeding...
February 17, 2019: Micromachines
Liqing Zhang, Puay Yok Tan
Although the benefits from exposure to urban green spaces (UGS) are increasingly reported, there are important knowledge gaps in the nature of UGS-health relationships. One such unknown area is the dependence of UGS-health associations on the types of UGS studied, the way they are quantified, and the spatial scale used in the analysis. These knowledge gaps have important ramifications on our ability to develop generalizations to promote implementation and facilitate comparative studies across different socio-cultural and socio-economic contexts...
February 16, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rafal Kaminski, Marta Maksymowicz-Wleklik, Krzysztof Kulinski, Katarzyna Kozar-Kaminska, Agnieszka Dabrowska-Thing, Stanislaw Pomianowski
Meniscal tears are the most common orthopaedic injuries, with chronic lesions comprising up to 56% of cases. In these situations, no benefit with surgical treatment is observed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous intrameniscal platelet rich plasma (PRP) application to complement repair of a chronic meniscal lesion. This single centre, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included 72 patients. All subjects underwent meniscal trephination with or without concomitant PRP injection...
February 16, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Pelin Kaya, Sang R Lee, Young Ho Lee, Sun Woo Kwon, Hyun Yang, Hye Won Lee, Eui-Ju Hong
Curcumae radix is the dry root of Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) that can be used either as a spice or traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival benefits and the anti-metastatic activity of curcumae radix extract (CRE) in MCF7 cells and in MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice-a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis. In vitro wound scratch assay revealed that CRE treatment inhibited cell motility and cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. To investigate the effect of CRE in breast cancer metastasis, MMTV-PyMT transgenic female virgin mice were used and randomly divided into two groups...
February 15, 2019: Nutrients
Nikolaos G Fytas, Argyro Mainou, Panagiotis E Theodorakis, Anastasios Malakis
We investigate the scaling of the interfacial adsorption of the two-dimensional Blume-Capel model using Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we study the finite-size scaling behavior of the interfacial adsorption of the pure model at both its first- and second-order transition regimes, as well as at the vicinity of the tricritical point. Our analysis benefits from the currently existing quite accurate estimates of the relevant (tri)critical-point locations. In all studied cases, the numerical results verify to a level of high accuracy the expected scenarios derived from analytic free-energy scaling arguments...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Hannah Kennelly, Kassey Klaassen, Daniel Heitman, Rhys Youngberg, Simon R Platt
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to compare the diagnostic yield of weight-bearing radiographs with non-weight-bearing computed tomography (CT) scan for subtle Lisfranc (LF) injuries in the ED. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients presenting with a suspected LF injury over a 2 year period from 2016 to 2017 who had both weight-bearing bilateral foot radiographs and CT scan. Information extracted included patient demographics, radiographic findings of metatarsal fractures, fleck sign and measurements of diastasis between the medial cuneiform and second metatarsal expressed as a ratio of the uninjured side, clinical findings and treatment modality...
February 19, 2019: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Yang Zhao, Rui Hou, Xiu Zhu, Lihua Ren, Hong Lu
BACKGROUND: The majority of current evidences simply showed the short-term benefits of delayed cord clamping, mainly focusing on the first week after birth. Without follow-up data, we can hardly come to the conclusion that delayed cord clamping may do more harm than good. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effects of delayed cord clamping compared with early cord clamping on infants after neonatal period. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Carleton R Bern, Katie Walton-Day, David L Naftz
The enrichment factor (EF) is a widely used metric for determining how much the presence of an element in a sampling media has increased relative to average natural abundance because of human activity. Calculation of an EF requires the selection of both a background composition and a reference element, choices that can strongly influence the result of the calculation. Here, it is shown how carefully applied, classical principal component analysis (PCA) examined via biplots can guide the selections of background compositions and reference elements...
February 7, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Esperanza Batuecas, Tonia Tommasi, Federico Battista, Viviana Negro, Giulia Sonetti, Paolo Viotti, Debora Fino, Giuseppe Mancini
Extra virgin olive-oil (EVO) production is an important economic activity for several countries, especially in the Mediterranean area such as Spain, Italy, Greece and Tunisia. The two major by-products from olive oil production, solid-liquid Olive Pomace (OP) and the Olive Mill Waste Waters (OMWW), are still mainly disposed on soil, in spite of the existence of legislation which already limits this practice. The present study compares the environmental impacts associated with two different scenarios for the management of waste from olive oil production through a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Zehai Xu, Lei Qin, Yufan Zhang, Xiong Li, Jilin Nan, Xinwen Guo, Guoliang Zhang
In this study, we develop a facile ion exchange strategy for in-situ assembly of novel spherical metal-organic composites on a large scale. The functional groups (-NH2 , -COOH and -SO3 H) on chelating and exchange resins had significant effects on improving uniform distribution of metallic sites and metal-support interaction. Without any addition of H2 O2 , Mn-based metal-organic composites realized the recovery of waste metallic ions and exhibited high activity for methylene blue (MB) electro-Fenton degradation (97...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Benjamin Djulbegovic, Tea Reljic, Shira Elqayam, Adam Cuker, Iztok Hozo, Qi Zhou, Shelly-Anne Li, Paul Alexander, Robby Nieuwlaat, Wojtek Wiercioch, Holger Schünemann, Gordon Guyatt
BACKGROUND: The determinants of practice guideline panels' recommendations remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors considered by members of 8 panels convened by the American Society of Hematology to develop guidelines when using the GRADE system. METHODS: Two level hierarchical, random-effect, multivariable logistic regression analysis to explore the relation between GRADE and non-GRADE factors and strength of recommendations (SOR)...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Elizabeth A Fradgley, Jon Karnon, Della Roach, Katherine Harding, Laura Wilkinson-Meyers, Catherine Chojenta, Megan Campbell, Melissa L Harris, Jacqueline Cumming, Kim Dalziel, Janet McDonald, Tilley Pain, Kirsten Smiler, Christine L Paul
Objective This study reports on the characteristics of individuals conducting health service research (HSR) in Australia and New Zealand, the perceived accessibility of resources for HSR, the self-reported impact of HSR projects and perceived barriers to conducting HSR. Methods A sampling frame was compiled from funding announcements, trial registers and HSR organisation membership. Listed researchers were invited to complete online surveys. Close-ended survey items were analysed using basic descriptive statistics...
February 20, 2019: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Jacob C Eaton, Pamela Rothpletz-Puglia, Margaret R Dreker, Lora Iannotti, Chessa Lutter, Joyceline Kaganda, Pura Rayco-Solon
BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrients early in life promote cognitive development and are critical for proper growth and functioning. The effect of individual nutrients consumed through food is often not the same as consuming the same nutrients in supplementary form due to 'food synergy', the biological and chemical interrelations that occur between nutrients. Animal-source foods, such as eggs, meat, fish, and dairy, are energy dense and contain multiple micronutrients and essential fatty acids with high bioavailability...
February 19, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Maria Pisu, David L Kopperdahl, Cora E Lewis, Kenneth G Saag, Tony M Keaveny
Osteoporosis screening rates by DXA are low (9.5% women, 1.7% men) in the U.S. Medicare population aged 65 and older. Addressing this care gap, we estimated the benefits of a validated osteoporosis diagnostic test suitable for patients age 65 and older with an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan taken for any indication but without a recent DXA. Our analysis assessed a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 such patients in a given year, and followed them for five years. Separately for each sex, we used Markov modeling to compare two mutually exclusive scenarios: 1) utilizing the CT scans, perform one-time "biomechanical computed tomography" (BCT) analysis to identify high-risk patients on the basis of both femoral strength and hip BMD T-scores; 2) ignore the CT scan, and rely instead on usual care, consisting of future annual DXA screening at typical Medicare rates...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Meng Zhao, Weibin Li, Kuancan Liu, Huiling Li, Xiaopeng Lan
This study aimed to screen DNA aptamers against the signal molecule C4-HSL of the rhl system for the inhibition of biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using an improved systematic evolution of ligand by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method based on a structure-switching fluorescent activating bead. The aptamers against the C4-HSL with a high affinity and specifity were successfully obtained and evaluated in real-time by this method. Results of biofilm inhibition experiments in vitro showed that the biofilm formation of P...
2019: PloS One
Paige W Lake, Monica L Kasting, Shannon M Christy, Susan T Vadaparampil
Understanding physician recommendation practices for HPV vaccination is a crucial step to developing interventions that can increase high quality recommendations and improve vaccination acceptance. Florida physicians (n = 340) completed a survey assessing recommendation strategies, specifically strength, consistency, and presentation. Physicians were also asked to provide suggestions for improving HPV vaccination in Florida. Responses were dichotomized for each outcome: strength (i.e., strongly recommend vs...
February 19, 2019: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ray C Mayo, Jessica W T Leung
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to identify and discuss four areas in which artificial intelligence (AI) must excel to become clinically viable: performance, time, work flow, and cost. CONCLUSION: AI holds tremendous potential for transforming the practice of radiology, but certain metrics are needed to objectively quantify its impact. As patients, physicians, hospitals, and insurance companies look for value, AI must earn a role in medical imaging.
February 19, 2019: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
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