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Serotypes pneumococcal

Enrique Chacon-Cruz, Christopher Roberts, Rosa Maria Rivas-Landeros, Erika Zoe Lopatynsky-Reyes, Lucila Alejandra Almada-Salazar, Jorge Arturo Alvelais-Palacios
Introduction: In Mexico, Neisseria meningitidis is considered to be a rare cause of bacterial meningitis (BM), however, one national publication using active surveillance has suggested the opposite. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is also considered to be infrequent in young infants as a cause of BM in central Mexico. Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccination using the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) started in our region in May 2012. We focused our research on whether N. meningitidis and GBS are important causes of BM, and to examine the effectiveness of PCV13 on pneumococcal BM...
January 2019: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
Nikolai Mayanskiy, Tatiana Kulichenko, Natalia Alyabieva, Ekaterina Brzhozovskaya, Olga Ponomarenko, Tatiana Savinova, Anna Lazareva
Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance were analyzed in 632 nasopharyngeal pneumococcal isolates collected at a single pediatric center in 2010-2017 before and following the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13) in Russia in 2014. The mean prevalence of PCV13 serotypes was 77.7% in 2010-2015 with a significant decline to 58.5% in 2017, which was accompanied by an elevation in serotype 15B/C prevalence (15.1% in 2017), 66% and 26% of 15B/C-pneumococci related to ST1025 and ST1262, respectively...
February 16, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Corinne Levy, Emmanuelle Varon, Naim Ouldali, Stéphane Béchet, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Robert Cohen
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) implementation has led to a sharp decrease in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) due to the reduction in PCV serotypes (VTs). We aimed to describe the changes in the spectrum of IPD and its clinical presentations after PCV13 implementation. METHODS: This prospective, hospital-based, active surveillance involved 130 pediatric wards and microbiology departments throughout France. We analyzed IPD cases from 2011 to 2016 for which a pneumococcal isolate was sent to the National Reference Center for Pneumococci for serotyping...
March 14, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Gülsüm Alkan, Melike Emiroğlu, Hatice T Dağı, Venhar Gürbüz, Mehmet Ceyhan
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of complicated pneumonia. Pneumococcal necrotizing pneumonia (PNP) is a rare and serotype related complication. Serotypes 1, 3, 14, 15, 19A and 33 were the most reported serotypes in children with PNP before immunization. Despite widespread vaccination, S. pneumoniae is still cause of invasive diseases. We reported a child, fully immunized with 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) who was diagnosed PNP due to serotype 3. Breakthrough invasive infection caused by S...
April 1, 2019: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
A Luna-Muschi, F Castillo-Tokumori, M P Deza, E H Mercado, M Egoavil, K Sedano, M E Castillo, I Reyes, E Chaparro, R Hernández, W Silva, O Del Aguila, F Campos, A Saenz, T J Ochoa
The objective of this study was to determine the serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strains in children from Lima, Peru, before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), which was introduced in the national immunisation program on 2009. We conducted a prospective, multicentre, passive surveillance IPD study during 2006-2008 and 2009-2011, before and right after the introduction of PCV7 in Peru. The study was performed in 11 hospitals and five private laboratories in Lima, Peru, in patients <18 years old, with sterile site cultures yielding Streptococcus pneumoniae...
January 2019: Epidemiology and Infection
M P Mott, J Caierão, G R Cunha, M M Del Maschi, K Pizzutti, P d'Azevedo, C A G Dias
Use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has caused emergence of non-vaccine serotypes. No Brazilian data specifically about serotype 19A are available. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of occurrence, susceptibility profile and molecular epidemiology of serotype 19A before and after vaccine introduction in Brazil. Pneumococcal identification was performed by the conventional method. Strain serotype was determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or Quellung reaction. Resistance was determined by Etest® and PCR was performed to determine the presence of macrolide resistance genes, ermB and/or mefA...
January 2019: Epidemiology and Infection
Hien Anh Thi Nguyen, Hiroshi Fujii, Huong Thi Thu Vu, Christopher M Parry, Anh Duc Dang, Koya Ariyoshi, Lay-Myint Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship between serotype epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for the effective introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) and control of antimicrobial-resistant pneumococci. METHODS: We conducted a community-based study in Nha Trang, central Vietnam, to clarify the serotype distribution and pattern of S. pneumoniae antimicrobial susceptibility in children under 5 years of age and to identify risk factors for carrying antimicrobial-resistant strains...
March 11, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Godwin Oligbu, Mohammad Fallaha, Leon Pay, Shamez Ladhani
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are highly effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children, including those with sickle cell disease (SCD). A systematic review of the English literature published between 2000 and 2017 was undertaken to evaluate the serotype distribution, clinical presentation and outcomes of IPD in children with SCD in PCV programmes. We identified 475 potential studies and included 16 publications, involving 9438 children up to 22 years of age with SCD and 182 IPD episodes (prevalence, 1·9%...
March 11, 2019: British Journal of Haematology
Angela R Wateska, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Chyongchiou J Lin, Lee H Harrison, William Schaffner, Richard K Zimmerman, Kenneth J Smith
BACKGROUND: Changing pneumococcal disease epidemiology due to childhood vaccination has prompted re-examination of US adult pneumococcal vaccination policies, as have considerations of greater pneumococcal disease incidence and higher prevalence of conditions that increase risk in underserved minority populations. Prior analyses suggest routine pneumococcal vaccination at age 50 could be considered, which could disproportionately benefit underserved populations. METHODS: A Markov cohort model estimated the cost-effectiveness of US pneumococcal vaccination policies in hypothetical 50-year-old underserved minority and general population cohorts...
February 20, 2019: Vaccine
Abel Abera Negash, Daniel Asrat, Workeabeba Abebe, Tewodros Hailemariam, Tsegaye Hailu, Abraham Aseffa, Mario Vaneechoutte
Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine the magnitude, etiology, and risk factors of CAP in children 5 years after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) 10 in Ethiopia. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study on the bacterial etiology and risk factors of CAP among children aged 0-15 years in 2 pediatric emergency departments in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Blood culture, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and amplification of pneumococcal lyt A and cps B genes were performed...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Débora A Tavares, Sara Handem, Ricardo J Carvalho, A Cristina Paulo, Hermínia de Lencastre, Jason Hinds, Raquel Sá-Leão
Real-time PCR targeting lytA (the major autolysin gene) and piaB (permease gene of the pia ABC transporter) are currently used as the gold-standard culture-independent assays for Streptococcus pneumoniae identification. We evaluated the performance of a new real-time PCR assay - targeting SP2020 (putative transcriptional regulator gene) - and compared its performance with the assays previously described. A collection of 150 pneumococci, 433 non-pneumococci and 240 polymicrobial samples (obtained from nasopharynx, oropharynx, and saliva; 80 from each site) was tested...
March 1, 2019: Scientific Reports
Yi-Yi Yu, Xiao-Hong Xie, Luo Ren, Yu Deng, Yu Gao, Yao Zhang, Hui Li, Jian Luo, Zheng-Xiu Luo, En-Mei Liu
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the most common respiratory pathogen worldwide. Nasopharyngeal carriage with S. pneumoniae is the major source of lower respiratory tract infection and horizontal spread among children. Investigating nasopharyngeal S. pneumoniae is crucial for clinicians to control pneumococcus disease. Here, we retrospectively analyzed clinical information of 5,960 hospitalized children, focusing on pneumonia children less than five years with positive nasopharyngeal pneumococcal cultures...
March 1, 2019: Scientific Reports
Noah D McKittrick, Indu J Malhotra, David M Vu, Derek B Boothroyd, Justin Lee, Amy R Krystosik, Francis M Mutuku, Charles H King, A Desirée LaBeaud
BACKGROUND: Globally, vaccine-preventable diseases remain a significant cause of early childhood mortality despite concerted efforts to improve vaccine coverage. One reason for impaired protection may be the influence of prenatal exposure to parasitic antigens on the developing immune system. Prior research had shown a decrease in infant vaccine response after in utero parasite exposure among a maternal cohort without aggressive preventive treatment. This study investigated the effect of maternal parasitic infections on infant vaccination in a more recent setting of active anti-parasitic therapy...
February 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hiroaki Takeda, Chisa Sato, Chang Bin, Midori Nishidzuka, Mari Watanabe, Tomoka Yamamoto, Hiroki Suzuki, Kazunori Oishi, Fumihiro Tsuchida
Context: Although the incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections in children has decreased since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), the appearance of serotype replacements has continued to increase. Aims: We examined the frequency of serotype replacements in adult cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. Furthermore, the transition in the coverage of vaccine serotypes (VTs) to non-VTs (NVTs) was also examined. Settings and Design: We investigated all confirmed cases of pneumococcal pneumonia in 303 adult patients admitted to Yamagata Saisei Hospital between April 2006 and March 2015...
January 2019: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Dongchul Park, Si Hyun Kim, Il Kwon Bae, Na Young Kim, Joong-Ki Kook, Yo-Han Park, Jeong Hwan Shin
The aims of this study were to develop modified SM-PCR primer sets and to evaluate their ability and efficiency for serotype determination. We selected target serotypes for SM-PCR testing according to the prevalence of serotypes as reported in papers published in Asian countries. The modified SM-PCR consisted of six groups of PCRs, with each reaction being carried out using five pairs of primers. We evaluated the efficiency and performance of this modified multiplex PCR using 378 pneumococcal strains by comparing the findings with the results of the Quellung reaction...
February 28, 2019: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Satoshi Nakano, Takao Fujisawa, Yutaka Ito, Bin Chang, Yasufumi Matsumura, Masaki Yamamoto, Shigeru Suga, Makoto Ohnishi, Miki Nagao
Since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, an increase in the incidence of disease attributable to serotype 15A-ST63 pneumococci has been observed in many regions worldwide. We conducted a nationwide pediatric pneumococcal infection surveillance study between 2012 and 2014 in Japan. In the surveillance study, we detected multidrug-resistant serotype 15A-CC63 strains (resistant to macrolides, penicillin, cefotaxime and meropenem); in this study, we analyzed these resistant isolates to determine the dynamics and mechanism of resistance using whole-genome sequencing...
February 25, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Yi-Yin Chen, Jin-Town Wang, Tzu-Lung Lin, Yu-Nong Gong, Ting-Hsuan Li, Ya-Yu Huang, Yu-Chia Hsieh
Streptococcus pneumoniae 19A ST320, a multidrug-resistant strain with high disease severity that notoriously spread before the use of expanded pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, was derived from a capsular switching event between an international strain Taiwan 19F-14 (ST236) and a serotype 19A strain. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive evolution of 19F ST236 to 19A ST320 are unknown. In this study, we compared 19A ST320 to its ancestral clone, 19F ST236, in terms of adherence to respiratory epithelial cells, whole transcriptome, and ability to colonize a young mouse model...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Olga Kotelnikova, Alexander Alliluev, Alexei Zinchenko, Larisa Zhigis, Yuri Prokopenko, Elena Nokel, Olga Razgulyaeva, Vera Zueva, Marina Tokarskaya, Natalia Yastrebova, Elena Gordeeva, Tatyana Melikhova, Elena Kaliberda, Lev Rumsh
Immunization of mice with recombinant IgA1 protease of Neisseria meningitidis or several structural derivatives thereof protects the animals infected with a variety of deadly pathogens, including N. meningitidis serogroups A, B, and C and 3 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumonia. In sera of rabbits immunized with inactivated pneumococcal cultures, antibodies binding IgA1-protease from N. meningitidis serogroup B were detected. Thus, the cross-reactive protection against meningococcal and pneumococcal infections has been demonstrated in vivo...
February 21, 2019: Microbes and Infection
Myroslawa Happe, Devadoss J Samuvel, Jennifer A Ohtola, Jeff E Korte, M A Julie Westerink
BACKGROUND: Both HIV positivity and African American (AA) ethnicity are associated with increased incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Poor immune response to pneumococcal polysaccharide-based vaccines may contribute to the race related increased frequency of IPD in African American HIV positive individuals. METHODS: Caucasian and AA HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals 40-65 years old with CD4+ T cells/µl (CD4) >200 on antiretroviral therapy (ART) received either the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) followed by the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) or PPV only...
February 20, 2019: Vaccine
Petra Zimmermann, Kirsten P Perrett, Guy Berbers, Nigel Curtis
INTRODUCTION: Despite immunisation, antibiotics and intensive care management, infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The WHO currently recommends vaccinating infants with either a 3+0 schedule (6 weeks, 3-4 and 4-6 months of age) or 2+1 schedule (2 doses before 6 months of age, plus a booster dose at 9-15 months of age). This study investigated pneumococcal antibody responses, including persistence of antibodies, after immunisation of healthy infants with a 3+0 schedule...
February 22, 2019: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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