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obesity and cancer

Leandro Fórnias Machado de Rezende, Dong Hoon Lee, Maria Laura da Costa Louzada, Mingyang Song, Edward Giovannucci, José Eluf-Neto
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle risk factors (tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight and obesity, unhealthy diet, and lack of physical activity) have been associated with increased risk of at least 20 types of cancer. We estimated the proportion of cancer cases and deaths that could be potentially avoided by eliminating or reducing lifestyle risk factors in Brazil. METHODS: We obtained the distribution of lifestyle risk factors by sex and age groups from recent representative health surveys in Brazil; relative risks from pooled analyses of prospective studies and meta-analyses; and cancer cases and deaths in 2012 from GLOBOCAN...
February 14, 2019: Cancer Epidemiology
Nooria Atta, Saadettin Kilickap, Deniz Yuce, Mutlu Hayran
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of some gynecological cancer risk factors in a population of female relatives of cancer patients in Hacettepe University Oncology Hospital. Additionally, what are the levels of the women's awareness /behavior toward available screening tools? METHODS: An individual cancer risk assessment questionnaire has been developed in the Department of Preventive Oncology, which questions the medical history, health behaviors and cancer awareness, as well as their behavior toward available cancer screening tools...
February 15, 2019: BMC Cancer
Parvaneh Seiri, Abbas Abi, Mohammad Soukhtanloo
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARs are categorized into three subtypes, PPARα, β/δ, and γ, encoded by different genes, expressed in diverse tissues and participate in various biological functions and can be activated by their metabolic derivatives in the body or dietary fatty acids. The PPAR-γ also takes parts in the regulation of energy balance, lipoprotein metabolism, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory signaling. It has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cancers...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
M Simon, S Vignes
INTRODUCTION: In France, breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women. Lymphedema, the main complication, is poorly known. The objective of this study was to assess the state of knowledge of upper limb lymphedema (risk factors, complications, treatment) after treatment of breast cancer among general practitioners from the Haute-Normandie and Île-de-France regions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 23 closed questions was sent by email to 490 practicing doctors...
February 2019: Journal de Médecine Vasculaire
Kumar U Nithin, M G Sridhar, K Srilatha, S Habebullah
Background: Incidence of endometrial cancer in India is increasing due to lifestyle changes and obesity. As 5 year survival rate of cancer confined to uterus is good, there is need for serum tumor marker for early diagnosis. This study was designed to identify a tumor marker which differentiate endometrial carcinoma and abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) because common presentation of endometrial carcinoma is AUB. Objectives: To estimate and compare serum prolactin, Cancer Antigen 125 (CA-125), Cancer Antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), and Carcino embryonic antigen (CEA) levels in patients with endometrial cancer and abnormal uterine bleeding; To evaluate the role of these markers in diagnosing endometrial cancer...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
Anne L Stangl, Valerie A Earnshaw, Carmen H Logie, Wim van Brakel, Leickness C Simbayi, Iman Barré, John F Dovidio
Stigma is a well-documented barrier to health seeking behavior, engagement in care and adherence to treatment across a range of health conditions globally. In order to halt the stigmatization process and mitigate the harmful consequences of health-related stigma (i.e. stigma associated with health conditions), it is critical to have an explicit theoretical framework to guide intervention development, measurement, research, and policy. Existing stigma frameworks typically focus on one health condition in isolation and often concentrate on the psychological pathways occurring among individuals...
February 15, 2019: BMC Medicine
Peter Congdon
Obesity is a major public health issue, affecting both developed and developing societies. Obesity increases the risk for heart disease, stroke, some cancers, and type II diabetes. While individual behaviours are important risk factors, impacts on obesity and overweight of the urban physical and social environment have figured large in the recent epidemiological literature, though evidence is incomplete and from a limited range of countries. Prominent among identified environmental influences are urban layout and sprawl, healthy food access, exercise access, and the neighbourhood social environment...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tobias A Mattei, Carlos R Goulart, Shawn S Rai, Azeem A Rehman, Michelle Williams, Ehud Mendel
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described the association of spinal epidural lipomatosis with several conditions including chronic steroid therapy, Cushing's syndrome, obesity, Paget's disease, and hypothyroidism. We present a report of rapid development of spinal epidural lipomatosis after treatment with second-generation anti-androgen therapy, a new strategy for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer which has been increasingly employed in the past few years...
February 11, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Paul L Bollyky, Patrick R Secor
Perturbation of the gut microbiota is associated with inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and even cancer. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Gogokhia et al. 2019 sought to kill cancer-causing bacteria with bacteriophages. However, the bacteriophages themselves directly stimulated an immune response, which worsened inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis.
February 13, 2019: Cell Host & Microbe
Liwen Zhang, Yubei Huang, Ziwei Feng, Xin Wang, Haixin Li, Fangfang Song, Luyang Liu, Junxian Li, Hong Zheng, Peishan Wang, Fengju Song, Kexin Chen
Epidemiological studies have a clear definition of the risk factors for breast cancer. However, it is unknown whether the distribution of these factors differs among breast cancer subtypes. We conducted a hospital-based case-only study consisting of 8067 breast cancer patients basing on the Tianjin Cohort of Breast Cancer Cases. Major breast cancer subtypes including luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched and basal-like were defined by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, and Ki-67 status...
February 14, 2019: Cancer Medicine
Jerrold J Heindel
The Obesogen field developed from two separate scientific research areas, endocrine disruptors and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that interfere with the action of hormones. Exposure to EDCs during early development (DOHaD) has been shown to increase susceptibility to a variety of diseases including infertility, asthma, breast and prostate cancer, early puberty, susceptibility to infections, heart disease, autoimmune disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/learning disability...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Marta M Jankowska, Dorothy D Sears, Loki Natarajan, Elena Martinez, Cheryl A M Anderson, James F Sallis, Stephen A Matthews, Katie Crist, Lindsay Dillon, Eileen Johnson, Angelica Barrera-Ng, Kelsey Full, Suneeta Godbole, Jacqueline Kerr
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity and unhealthy diet are modifiable behaviors that lead to several cancers. Biologically, these behaviors are linked to cancer through obesity-related insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Individual strategies to change physical activity and diet are often short lived with limited effects. Interventions are expected to be more successful when guided by multi-level frameworks that include environmental components for supporting lifestyle changes...
February 13, 2019: BMC Public Health
Muhannad Abu-Remaileh, Monther Abu-Remaileh, Rania Akkawi, Ibrahim Knani, Shiran Udi, Micheal E Pacold, Joseph Tam, Rami I Aqeilan
OBJECTIVE: WWOX, a well-established tumor suppressor, is frequently lost in cancer and plays important roles in DNA damage response and cellular metabolism. METHODS: We re-analyzed several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using the Type 2 Diabetes Knowledge Portal website to uncover WWOX's association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Using several engineered mouse models, we studied the effect of somatic WWOX loss on glucose homeostasis. RESULTS: Several WWOX variants were found to be strongly associated with MetS disorders...
January 31, 2019: Molecular Metabolism
Laura J den Hartigh
Obesity and its comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are straining our healthcare system, necessitating the development of novel strategies for weight loss. Lifestyle modifications, such as exercise and caloric restriction, have proven effective against obesity in the short term, yet obesity persists because of the high predilection for weight regain. Therefore, alternative approaches to achieve long term sustainable weight loss are urgently needed. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid found naturally in ruminant animal food products, has been identified as a potential anti-obesogenic agent, with substantial efficacy in mice, and modest efficacy in obese human populations...
February 11, 2019: Nutrients
L Abar, J G Sobiecki, M Cariolou, N Nanu, A R Vieira, C Stevens, D Aune, D C Greenwood, D S M Chan, T Norat
Background: To summarise the evidence on the associations between body mass index (BMI) and BMI in early adulthood, height, waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR), and risk of lympho-hematopoietic cancers. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies and identified relevant studies published up to December 2017 by searching PubMed. A random effects model was used to calculate dose-response summary relative risks (RRs). Results: Our findings showed BMI, and BMI in early adulthood (aged 18-21 years) is associated with the risk of Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL and NHL), Diffuse Large Beta Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), Leukaemia including Acute and Chronic Myeloid Lymphoma (AML and CML), and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) and Multiple Myeloma...
February 7, 2019: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Shuo Deng, Muthu K Shanmugam, Alan Prem Kumar, Celestial T Yap, Gautam Sethi, Anupam Bishayee
Autophagy, also known as macroautophagy, is a tightly regulated process involved in the stress responses, such as starvation. It is a vacuolar, lysosomal pathway for the degradation of damaged proteins and organelles in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy also plays a key role in various tissue processes and immune responses and in the regulation of inflammation. Over the past decade, three levels of autophagy regulation have been identified in mammalian cells: 1) signaling, 2) autophagosome formation, and 3) autophagosome maturation and lysosomal degradation...
February 12, 2019: Cancer
Mohamed Hsairi, Faouzi Mehdi, Ridha Bellaaj, Mondher Kassis
BACKGROUND: The aim of screening is to improve individual health through an early detection of diseases at a stage where the prognosis of disease could be significantly. However, this kind of intervention is costly and it's necessary to respect criteria in selection of targeted diseases and screening tests. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe public health screening policy in the Maghreb countries in order to identify the main barriers to the development of this type of intervention...
October 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
Il Tae Son, Duck-Woo Kim, Eun Kyung Choe, Young Hoon Kim, Kyoung Ho Lee, Soyeon Ahn, Sung Il Kang, Myung Jo Kim, Heung-Kwon Oh, Jae-Sung Kim, Sung-Bum Kang
Purpose: This study evaluated the oncologic impact of obesity, as determined by body mass index (BMI), in patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer. Methods: The records of 483 patients with stage I-III rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic surgery between June 2003 and December 2011 were reviewed. A matching model based on BMI was constructed to balance obese and nonobese patients. Cox hazard regression models for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were used for multivariate analyses...
February 2019: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
Cátia Reis, Sara Dias, Ana Maria Rodrigues, Rute Dinis Sousa, Maria João Gregório, Jaime Branco, Helena Canhão, Teresa Paiva
Background: Adequate sleep is essential for health. Both, short and long sleep durations are associated to worse quality of life and poor health outcomes. Portugal represents a specific population model, since according to European statistics it has high rates of chronic diseases like depression, hypertension, diabetes and stroke; and low quality of life as well as low index of physical activity, while in parallel it has some other good health indicators such as: low age-standardized mortality for both genders, nutrition in terms of energy and fruit consumption, smoking and alcohol, obesity and overweight prevalence...
July 2018: Sleep Science
Rosa Divella, Antonio Mazzocca, Antonella Daniele, Carlo Sabbà, Angelo Paradiso
Western populations are becoming increasingly sedentary and the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing and becoming one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide. Also, NAFLD is considered one the new emerging risk factors for development of tumors of the gastro-intestinal tract, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Visceral obesity is an important risk factor for the onset of NAFLD. An accumulation of ectopic fat, including visceral obesity and fatty liver leads to a dysfunction of the adipose tissue with impaired production of adipocytokines which, in turn, favor an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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