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Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

John R Keefe, Zeeshan M Huque, Robert J DeRubeis, Jacques P Barber, Barbara L Milrod, Dianne L Chambless
In panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy (PFPP), exploration and interpretation of avoided and conflicted emotions and fantasies surrounding anxiety are thought to promote panic-specific reflective functioning (PSRF), which drives panic disorder improvements. Patient emotional expression within a session may be a marker of engaged processing and experiencing of affectively charged material. Degree of in-session expressed emotion, indicating both verbal and nonverbal emotions, was examined across three early therapy sessions for prediction of subsequent outcomes...
March 14, 2019: Psychotherapy
Neha Kumar, Rigzin Lhatoo, Hongyan Liu, Kari Colon-Zimmermann, Curtis Tatsuoka, Peijun Chen, Mustafa Kahriman, Martha Sajatovic
Identifying relationships between depression severity and clinical factors may help with appropriate recognition and management of neuropsychiatric conditions in persons with epilepsy (PWE). Demographic characteristics, epilepsy variables, and medical and psychiatric comorbidities were examined from a baseline randomized controlled trial sample of 120 PWE. Among demographic characteristics, only inability to work was significantly associated with depression severity (p = 0.05). Higher 30-day seizure frequency (p < 0...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Rebeca Méndez Iglesias, Daniel Núñez Arias
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drug treatment is a key component of multiple psychiatric treatment algorithms. Second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) have been shown to improve adherence in numerous clinical trials. Patients who can benefit from LAIs therapy can be treated with aripiprazole long acting once-monthly (AOM). However the nature of the introduction patterns of AOM is not well characterized in clinical practice. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of AOM introduction was conducted on 157 patients aged 18-75 years-old (95 males, 62 females) who were initiated on AOM treatment between January 2017 - December 2017 in two independent Mental Health Units in the autonomous region of Galicia (Spain)...
February 2019: CNS Spectrums
Carmen M Galvez-Sánchez, Stefan Duschek, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread and persistent musculoskeletal pain and other frequent symptoms such as fatigue, insomnia, morning stiffness, cognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety. FMS is also accompanied by different comorbidities like irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. Although some factors like negative events, stressful environments, or physical/emotional traumas may act as predisposing conditions, the etiology of FMS remains unknown...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Cheri A Levinson, Margarita Sala, Stuart Murray, Jackie Ma, Thomas L Rodebaugh, Eric J Lenze
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are characterized by high levels of anxiety, especially while eating. However, little is known about anxiety experienced during meals and specifically what other variables may impact such anxiety. OBJECTIVE: We sought to further quantify and understand the relationship between food anxiety, eating disorders, and related correlates (e.g., comorbid diagnoses, personality). METHODS: In the current study [N = 42 participants diagnosed with an eating disorder (n = 36 participants with anorexia nervosa)], we quantified anxiety before, during, and after a meal using data from a food exposure session in a partial hospital eating disorder center...
March 7, 2019: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Anja Riesel
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder that is associated with high personal and societal costs. Feelings of doubt, worry, and repetitive behavior, key symptoms of OCD, have been linked to hyperactive error signals in the brain. The error-related negativity (ERN) represents a validated marker of error processing in the ERP. Increased ERN amplitudes in OCD have been reported very robustly over the last 20 years. This article integrates results from 38 studies analyzing the ERN in OCD, using a quantitative meta-analysis...
April 2019: Psychophysiology
Sherlly Xie, Håkan Karlsson, Christina Dalman, Linnea Widman, Dheeraj Rai, Renee M Gardner, Cecilia Magnusson, Diana E Schendel, Craig J Newschaffer, Brian K Lee
Importance: Familial aggregation of mental and neurological disorders is often observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but reports have generally focused on single disorders and are limited to first-degree relatives. Objectives: To examine family history of mental and neurological disorders among first- to fourth-degree relatives and risk of ASD with and without intellectual disability (ID) in index persons. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this population-based cohort study, 567 436 index persons were identified from the Stockholm Youth Cohort, an ongoing longitudinal register-linkage cohort study of the total population aged 0 to 17 years residing in Stockholm County, Sweden...
March 1, 2019: JAMA Network Open
Daniel Huys, Sina Kohl, Juan Carlos Baldermann, Lars Timmermann, Volker Sturm, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Jens Kuhn
BACKGROUND: For more than 15 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has served as a last-resort treatment for severe treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: From 2010 to 2016, 20 patients with OCD (10 men/10 women) were included in a single-centre trial with a naturalistic open-label design over 1 year to evaluate the effects of DBS in the anterior limb of the internal capsule and nucleus accumbens region (ALIC-NAcc) on OCD symptoms, executive functions, and personality traits...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Johanna A M du Mortier, Henny A D Visser, Malinda F R van Geijtenbeek-de Vos van Steenwijk, Harold J G M van Megen, Anton J L M van Balkom
BACKGROUND: Watching videotaped personal compulsions together with a therapist might enhance the effect of cognitive-behavioural therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but little is known about how patients experience this.AimsTo performed a qualitative study that describes how watching these videos influences motivation for treatment and whether patients report any adverse events. METHOD: In this qualitative study, data were gathered in semi-structured interviews with 24 patients with OCD...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Giselle Pianowski, Lucas de F Carvalho, Fabiano K Miguel
OBJECTIVE: The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) posits that psychopathology is hierarchically structured. For personality disorder (PD) traits, there are five spectra: internalizing, thought disorder, disinhibited externalizing, antagonistic externalizing, and detachment. Empirical findings suggest a sixth group, compulsivity. In this research, we tried to recover the five HiTOP spectra, plus compulsivity, specifically for PD traits. METHODS: The sample was composed of 4,868 Brazilians (54...
February 7, 2019: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Yulin Hswen, Anuraag Gopaluni, John S Brownstein, Jared B Hawkins
BACKGROUND: More than 3.5 million Americans live with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Major challenges persist in diagnosing ASD as no medical test exists to diagnose this disorder. Digital phenotyping holds promise to guide in the clinical diagnoses and screening of ASD. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the feasibility of using the Web-based social media platform Twitter to detect psychological and behavioral characteristics of self-identified persons with ASD...
February 12, 2019: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Abel Thamby, Sumant Khanna
Personality disorders are a common comorbidity in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The effect of comorbidity on the symptom presentation, course, and treatment outcome of OCD is being discussed here. OCD and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) though similar in their symptom presentation, are distinct constructs. Schizotypal disorder, OCPD, and two or more comorbid personality disorders have been found to be consistently associated with a poor course of illness and treatment response. Further research is needed to determine treatment strategies to handle the personality pathology in OCD...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Susanne Bejerot, Eva Hesselmark, Fariborz Mobarrez, Håkan Wallén, Max Albert Hietala, Rolf Nybom, Lennart Wetterberg
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are severe autoimmune inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system associated with the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against the water channel protein aquaporin-4. During exacerbation, specific aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G may be produced intrathecally. We measured extracellular aquaporin-4 microparticles in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient who later developed the typical symptoms and signs of a neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Juan A Barcia, Josué M Avecillas-Chasín, Cristina Nombela, Rocío Arza, Julia García-Albea, José-Ángel Pineda, Blanca Reneses, Bryan A Strange
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric conditions currently treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS), such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), are heterogeneous diseases with different symptomatic dimensions, indicating that fixed neuroanatomical DBS targets for all OCD cases may not be efficacious. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We tested whether the optimal DBS target for OCD is fixed for all patients or whether it is individualized and related to each patient's symptomatic content...
December 20, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Sarah A Sullivan, William Hamilton, Kate Tilling, Theresa Redaniel, Paul Moran, Glyn Lewis
Importance: Primary care is an important part of the care pathway for patients with psychosis; therefore, primary care physicians need to be able to accurately identify those at clinical high risk of psychosis. The difficulty of this task is increased because clinical high-risk symptoms are frequently nonspecific to psychosis. Objective: To determine whether the consultation patterns for a prespecified set of symptoms can be used to identify primary care patients who later developed a psychotic illness...
November 2, 2018: JAMA Network Open
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
January 2019: American Journal of Therapeutics
Kathrin Viol, Benjamin Aas, Anna Kastinger, Martin Kronbichler, Helmut Schöller, Eva-Maria Reiter, Sarah Said-Yürekli, Lisa Kronbichler, Brigitte Kravanja-Spannberger, Barbara Stöger-Schmidinger, Wolfgang Aichhorn, Günter Schiepek
For patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), whose triggers are highly idiosyncratic, individual stimulus material has been used in several fMRI studies. This study aims at comparing individual to standardized picture sets and at investigating a possible overlap of the former with the self-referential neuronal network. During fMRI-scanning, 17 inpatients with OCD and 17 healthy controls were exposed to pictures of their personal triggers, photographed in their domestic environments, to standardized pictures designed to provoke OCD symptoms, and to neutral pictures...
December 14, 2018: Psychiatry Research. Neuroimaging
Farid Chakhssi, Ies Dijksman, Mara L Velmans, J Monique Zoet, Jeanine M Oostendorp, Geert-Jan Dinant, Mark Spigt
Incorporating online tools in clinical practice could help improve routine assessments of personality disorders and their co-occurring clinical disorders. TeleScreen, a Web-based self-report questionnaire for DSM-IV disorders, has not yet been compared with well-validated structured interviews for clinical and personality disorders. Patients with personality disorders (n = 89) were assessed with TeleScreen and independently interviewed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and personality disorders (SCID-II)...
February 2019: Personality and Mental Health
Gabriela M Ferreira, Natalie V Zanini, Gabriela B de Menezes, Lucy Albertella, Louise Destree, Leonardo F Fontenelle
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, distressing, and disabling condition associated with a high risk of suicidal behavior and death by suicide. In this study, the authors describe two cases of OCD patients who developed recurrent suicidal behaviors in response to stressful life events that appeared to "confirm" their obsessive beliefs (termed "confirmatory events"). In both cases, the authors used accepted strategies for treating suicidality in other contexts (such as antidepressants, lithium, and electroconvulsive therapy), which proved unsuccessful...
2018: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
Amita D Jassi, Georgina Krebs, Angela Lewis, Blake Stobie
Evidence for using cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in young people emphasizes the use of exposure with response prevention (ERP) as the key ingredient. CBT with a cognitive focus is used more often in adults, and comparatively there is less evidence for its use with young people. Although a significant proportion of young people with OCD respond well to CBT using ERP, a subset does not. Therefore, there is a need to consider alternative approaches...
2018: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
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