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Thyroid Bone

Marco Siano, Salvatore Alfieri, Roberta Granata, Giuseppina Calareso, Ester Orlandi, Cristiana Bergamini, Laura Deborah Locati
PURPOSE: Two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), vandetanib and cabozantinib, have been approved for recurrent/metastatic (R/M) medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). To date, it is still debated when and which TKI has to be started in R/M MTC patients. This is due to 1) TKI-related toxicity burden, 2) no overall survival benefit for either TKI, and 3) progression-free survival improvement in MTC subgroups ( RETM918T and RAS mutations) treated with cabozantinib. Herein, we present a case of R/M MTC with a discordant disease behavior because of spontaneous regression of some parenchymal sites along with progression of bone metastases, putting into the question the best timing for starting TKIs in R/M MTC...
February 19, 2019: Tumori
Yujiao Deng, Meng Wang, Tian Tian, Shuai Lin, Peng Xu, Linghui Zhou, Cong Dai, Qian Hao, Ying Wu, Zhen Zhai, Yue Zhu, Guihua Zhuang, Zhijun Dai
Background: Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an occupational carcinogen that can cause lung and nasal cancers, but its association with mortality and incidence in many other cancers is unclear. Objectives: In this meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between exposure to Cr(VI) and the mortality and incidence of human cancers. Methods: We performed a search of the literature and extracted the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), to estimate risk values...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Kalgi D Baxi, Raju G Chaudhary, Santoshdev P Rathod, Ashish Jagati
Scleromyxoedema is a rare generalized cutaneous mucinosis, which in absence of thyroid disease, occurs almost invariably in patients with monoclonal gammopathies. A 54-year-old female patient presented with complaint of tightening of skin on the extremities, abdomen, forehead, gradually progressive since 1 year, episodes of generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, and acute psychosis since 5 days. Cutaneous examination revealed nonpitting edema over the face and sclerodermoid changes over extremities. Laboratory investigations showed presence of M-band on serum-protein electrophoresis and monoclonal spike of IgG lambda component on immunofixation...
January 2019: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Laura García Suárez, Susana González Sánchez, Ana Vivanco Allende, Gonzalo Anes González
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2019: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Bernard Freudenthal, Samiksha Shetty, Natalie C Butterfield, John G Logan, Cho Rong Han, Xu-Guang Zhu, Inna Astapova, Anthony N Hollenberg, Sheue-Yann Cheng, J H Duncan Bassett, Graham Williams
Background Thyroid hormones act in bone and cartilage via thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα). In the absence of T3, TRα interacts with co-repressors, including nuclear receptor co-repressor-1 (NCoR1), which recruit histone deacetylases (HDACs) and mediate transcriptional repression. Dominant-negative mutations of TRα cause resistance to thyroid hormone α (RTHα; OMIM 614450), characterized by excessive repression of T3 target genes leading to delayed skeletal development, growth retardation and bone dysplasia...
February 14, 2019: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Juan B Ortiz-Delgado, Victoria Funes, Carmen Sarasquete
BACKGROUND: Organophosphate pesticides-OP-, like malathion, can alter the normal functioning of neuro-endocrine systems (e.g., hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-HPT- axis), and to interfere on the thyroidal homeostasis. Through direct interactions with thyroid receptors, an/or indirectly via up-stream signalling pathways, from the HPT axis (i.e., negative feedback regulation), malathion possess the ability to affect integrity of thyroidal follicular tissue, and it can also block or delay its hormonal functioning...
February 11, 2019: BMC Veterinary Research
Swapnil Patel, Alok A Bhatt
Congenital anterior neck masses comprise a rare group of lesions typically diagnosed in childhood. Most commonly, lesions are anomalies of the thyroglossal duct, namely the thyroglossal duct cyst, along with ectopic thyroid tissue. Although usually suspected based on clinical examination, imaging can confirm the diagnosis, assess the extent, and evaluate for associated complications. Imaging characteristics on ultrasound, CT, and MRI may at times be equivocal; differential considerations include branchial cleft cyst, dermoid/epidermoid, laryngocele, thymic cyst, lymphatic malformation, and metastatic disease...
February 6, 2019: Insights Into Imaging
Janice Siu Chong Wong, W K Chu, Benjamin Fuk Loi Li, Bi Ning Zhang, Chi Pui Pang, Kelvin Kam Lung Chong
Periorbital adipose tissue expansion is a key pathological change in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). Bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) is instrumental in adipogenesis. We compared site-specific BMP4 expression and its effect on adipogenesis using donor-matched adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSC) from TAO patients. In this study, ADSC were generated from periorbital (eyelid, orbital) and subcutaneous (abdominal) adipose tissue. BMP4 expression was characterized by RT-PCR and immunofluorescent staining and compared among ADSC from the three anatomic depots...
February 2, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Jessica A Lavery, Allison Lipitz-Snyderman, Diane G Li, Peter B Bach, Katherine S Panageas
PURPOSE: Medicare claims provide a rich data source for large-scale quality assessment because data are available for all beneficiaries nationally. For cancer surgery, the absence of information regarding site of cancer and date of diagnosis on an administrative claim necessitates testing to ensure accurate quality assessment and public reporting. METHODS: Using the SEER Medicare-linked database as the gold standard, we developed and tested an approach to identify cancer-directed surgeries from Medicare fee-for-service claims alone...
February 2019: JCO Clinical Cancer Informatics
Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian Harisankar, Ramakrishnan Vijayabhaskar, Selva Muthukumaran, Kirushna Kumar
Occipital condyle syndrome is a rare cause of pain in the head which is characterized by severe and persistent unilateral suboccipital headache with unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy. We report an elderly female who presented with dysarthria and suboccipital headache. On further evaluation, she was found to have a solitary bone metastases from thyroid cancer. She was treated with local radiation therapy for pain relief, total thyroidectomy, and high-dose radioiodine therapy. The patient is presently free of pain with very good control of the thyroid cancer status...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
Ajit Nimmagadda, V S Krishna Mohan, Ranadheer Manthri, Tek Chand Kalawat
Papillary carcinoma thyroid is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Papillary thyroid cancer metastasizes commonly to regional lymph nodes, distant organ involvement is to lungs and bone are rare and is associated with poor prognosis. Metastases to intra-abdominal organs are extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 50-year-old female diagnosed with papillary microcarcinoma thyroid who initially treated total thyroidectomy, later presented with metastasis to liver, bone, left adrenal gland, and bilateral lungs...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
Matthew Scarpelli, Christopher Zahm, Scott Perlman, Douglas G McNeel, Robert Jeraj, Glenn Liu
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has demonstrated remarkable success in treating different cancers. Nonetheless, a large number of patients do not respond, many respond without immediate changes detectable with conventional imaging, and many have unusual immune-related adverse events that cannot be predicted in advance. In this exploratory study, we investigate how 3'-Deoxy-3'-18 F-fluorothymidine (FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of tumor and immune cell proliferation might be utilized as biomarkers in immunotherapy...
January 30, 2019: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Elena Tsourdi, Juliane Colditz, Franziska Lademann, Eddy Rijntjes, Josef Köhrle, Christof Niehrs, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Martina Rauner
Background: Thyroid hormones are critical regulators of bone homeostasis, but their mechanisms of action remain incompletely understood. Exogenously induced hyper- and hypothyroidism in mice was recently found to be associated with an altered expression of the Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), which is a determinant of bone mass. In this study, we assessed the role of Dkk1 in thyroid hormone- induced changes in bone using conditional Dkk1 knockout mice. Methods: Male mice with a global (Dkk1fl/fl;Rosa26-CreERT2) or osteocyte-specific (Dkk1fl/fl;Dmp1:Cre) deletion of Dkk1 were pharmacologically rendered hypothyroid or hyperthyroid...
January 25, 2019: Endocrinology
Tomomi Nobashi, Lucia Baratto, Sunil A Reddy, Sandhya Srinivas, Akira Toriihara, Negin Hatami, Thomas K Yohannan, Erik Mittra
PURPOSE: To investigate whether the evaluation of tumors, lymphoid cell-rich organs, and immune-related adverse events (IRAE) with F-FDG PET/CT can predict the efficacy and outcome of immunotherapy. METHODS: Forty patients who underwent F-FDG-PET/CT scans before and after therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors from December 2013 to December 2016 were retrospectively enrolled (malignant melanoma, n = 21; malignant lymphoma, n = 11; renal cell carcinoma, n = 8)...
January 25, 2019: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Ayako Sakakibara, Yuichiro Inagaki, Eiki Imaoka, Yu Sakai, Masafumi Ito, Eri Ishikawa, Satoko Shimada, Kazuyuki Shimada, Yuka Suzuki, Shigeo Nakamura, Akira Satou, Kei Kohno
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a distinct disease, but the neoplastic PD-L1 expression on tumor cells may vary among cases. We evaluated 10 IVLBCL autopsy cases for neoplastic PD-L1 expression, and had positive results in two cases. In one case, neoplastic PD-L1 expression (SP142, 28-8, and E1J2J clones) was dependent on the organ and anatomical site (capillaries vs. vessels) of the tumor tissue. Neoplastic PD-L1 expression was found in tumor cells located in capillaries in the central nervous system, pituitary gland, kidneys, lung, and gastrointestinal tract; sinuses/sinusoids of the spleen, liver, bone marrow, and lymph nodes; and an extravascular location...
January 28, 2019: Pathology International
Peter A van Dam, Yannick Verhoeven, Xuan B Trinh, An Wouters, Filip Lardon, Hans Prenen, Evelien Smits, Marcella Baldewijns, Martin Lammens
Binding between the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL) triggers recruitment of TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) adaptor proteins and activation of downstream pathways. RANK/RANKL signaling is controlled by a decoy receptor called osteoprotegerin (OPG) which interacts with RANKL. Additional networks regulating RANK/RANKL signaling are active in a context specific manner. RANK/RANKL signaling is essential for the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, and is deregulated in pathological processes such as postmenopausal osteoporosis or cancer induced bone destruction...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Omer Slook, Sigal Levy, Ilana Slutzky-Shraga, Gloria Tsvetov, Eyal Robenshtok, Ilan Shimon, Carlos Benbassat, Dania Hirsch
OBJECTIVE: This institutional study sought to retrospectively evaluate disease progression and survival of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and bone metastases (BM) and to investigate variables predictive of better long-term outcomes. METHODS: The Rabin Medical Center Thyroid Cancer Registry was searched for patients with bone-metastatic DTC. Variables including patients' gender and age, pathology of the thyroid tumor and characteristics of BM were retrieved and analyzed in association with disease progression and mortality...
January 18, 2019: Endocrine Practice
Amit Akirov, Anna M Sawka, Sharon Ben-Baruch, Jeffrey Lipton, Shereen Ezzat
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an immune phenomenon that occurs in 30-70% of patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Chronic GVHD is a state of immune dysregulation wherein, depending on the severity and organ involved, patients may require prolonged treatment with additional or higher corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents. Endocrine manifestations following HST can arise as a consequence of the primary disease or its treatment, including chemotherapeutic agents, corticosteroid, radiation, or GVHD...
January 18, 2019: Endocrine Practice
Sang-Ji Choi, Seong Kweon Hong, Gibong Chae, Young-Joon Ryu, Sung-Bae Park, Yang Hee Kim, Suk-Bae Moon, Song-Yi Kim, Hwansoo Kim
RATIONALE: The brain, liver, adrenal glands, and bone are the most common sites of metastatic disease in patients with lung cancer. Symptomatic gastrointestinal metastases are rare. In the present report, we describe a rare case of a patient with intestinal obstruction due to solitary colonic metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinoma, wherein the intestinal obstruction was the first symptom of lung cancer. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 74-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain and vomiting, and abdominal computed tomography (CT) indicated obstruction of the ascending colon due to a huge mass...
January 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Giovanna Mantovani, Francesca M Elli
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), pseudo-PHP, acrodysostosis, and progressive osseous heteroplasia are heterogeneous disorders characterized by physical findings, differently associated in each subtype, including short bones, short stature, a stocky build, ectopic ossifications (features associated with Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy), as well as laboratory abnormalities consistent with hormone resistance, such as hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels...
2019: Frontiers of Hormone Research
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