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Gram Negatives

Elisabeth Jäger, Jürgen Schmidt, Andreas Pfuch, Sebastian Spange, Oliver Beier, Nikolaus Jäger, Oliver Jantschner, Rostislav Daniel, Christian Mitterer
Zn-doped and Cu-doped SiOx films were synthesized by atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition to study their antibacterial efficiency against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and their cytotoxic effect on the growth of mouse cells. Zn-rich and Cu-rich particles with diameters up to several microns were found to be homogeneously distributed within the SiOx films. For both doping elements, bacteria are killed within the first three hours after exposure to the film surface. In contrast, mouse cells grow well on the surfaces of both film types, with a slight inhibition present only after the first day of exposure...
February 13, 2019: Nanomaterials
Sandra Madalina Constantin, Frederic Buron, Sylvain Routier, Ioana Mirela Vasincu, Maria Apotrosoaei, Florentina Lupașcu, Luminița Confederat, Cristina Tuchilus, Marta Teodora Constantin, Alexandru Sava, Lenuţa Profire
In the past many research studies have focused on the thiazolidine-4-one scaffold, due to the important biological effects associated with its heterocycle. This scaffold is present in the structure of many synthetic compounds, which showed significant biological effects such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidiabetic effects. It was also identified in natural compounds, such as actithiazic acid, isolated from Streptomyces strains. Starting from this scaffold new xanthine derivatives have been synthetized and evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal effects...
February 13, 2019: Materials
Johannes Reich, Felix Alexander Weyer, Hiroshi Tamura, Isao Nagaoka, Hubert Motschmann
Endotoxins are cell wall components of Gram-negative bacteria. A release of endotoxins into the human blood stream results in an inflammation reaction that can lead to life-threatening conditions like sepsis. Therefore, control for endotoxin contamination of intravenously administered drugs is crucial. Drugs are usually tested for putative endotoxin contamination with Limulus -based tests. However, validity of the compendial test procedures is questioned in the case of low endotoxin recovery (LER). To assure validity, regulatory authorities request hold-time studies of endotoxin in addition to pharmacopoeial requirements...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jinzhong Niu, Yu Huang, Jimin Niu, Zhiwen Wang, Jufen Tang, Bei Wang, Yishan Lu, Jia Cai, Jichang Jian
galectin-2 plays important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, galectin-2 (OnGal-2) was identified from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Its tissue distribution and expression patterns following bacterial infection were also investigated. OnGal-2 is widely distributed in various tissues of healthy tilapia. After Streptococcus agalactiae challenge, OnGal-2 expressions were significantly up-regulated in all tested tissues. Meanwhile, the recombinant OnGal-2 (rOnGal-2) protein showed strong agglutinating activities against both Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria...
February 16, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Inga Fröding, John Karlsson Valik, Ludvig Bolinder, Pontus Nauclér, Christian G Giske
BACKGROUND: In severe infections, time to appropriate therapy is decisive for survival. Patients with bloodstream infection with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales (EPE BSI) often receive inadequate empiric treatment. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify risk factors, evaluate a previously suggested risk score, and suggest a new score for facilitating empiric treatment choice. METHODS: We assessed predictors for EPE BSI through a retrospective case-control design, and evaluated diagnostic performance of the two scores...
February 16, 2019: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Nicolas Kieffer, Julia Guzmán-Puche, Laurent Poirel, Hyo Jung Kang, Che Ok Jeon, Patrice Nordmann
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to characterize the putative MBL of the environmental strain Zhongshania aliphaticivorans isolated from a marine environment. METHODS: The putative MBL was identified in silico using the NCBI database. The β-lactamase gene was cloned into different Escherichia coli backgrounds. Kinetic parameters were determined using the purified enzyme. RESULTS: The enzyme named ZHO-1 shared 51% amino acid identity with the acquired class B carbapenemases IMP-1, KHM-1 and DIM-1...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Dirk H Ostareck, Antje Ostareck-Lederer
Innate immune response is triggered by pathogen components, like lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria. LPS initiates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, which involves mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) in different pathway branches and ultimately induces inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression, macrophage migration and phagocytosis. Timely gene transcription and post-transcriptional control of gene expression confer the adequate synthesis of signaling molecules...
2019: Frontiers in Genetics
Jan Nevermann, Andrés Silva, Carolina Otero, Diego P Oyarzún, Boris Barrera, Fernando Gil, Iván L Calderón, Juan A Fuentes
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nano-sized proteoliposomes discharged from the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. OMVs normally contain toxins, enzymes and other factors, and are used as vehicles in a process that has been considered a generalized, evolutionarily conserved delivery system among bacteria. Furthermore, OMVs can be used in biotechnological applications that require delivery of biomolecules, such as vaccines, remarking the importance of their study. Although it is known that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ( S...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qingqing Liu, Jin Yang, Jun Zhang, Fanfan Zhao, Xiaojie Feng, Xue Wang, Jun Lyu
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common and serious nosocomial infection of intensive-care units (ICUs). Accurate, timely diagnosis enables early VAP patients to receive appropriate therapies and reduce the occurrence of complication. However, so far clinical datas regarding the epidemiology and mortality of VAP are still limited. Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) database is a free, open and public resource about ICU research database. MIMIC database is a free, open, public database that collects information on more than 40,000 ICU patients who are predominantly white people...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Shigeaki Matsuda, Ryu Okada, Sarunporn Tandhavanant, Hirotaka Hiyoshi, Kazuyoshi Gotoh, Tetsuya Iida, Toshio Kodama
Many Gram-negative pathogens utilize dedicated secretion systems to export virulence factors such as exotoxins and effectors1-4 . Several exotoxins are synthesized as precursors containing amino-terminal Sec signal peptides and are exported through the inner-membrane-bound Sec machinery to the periplasm, followed by secretion across the outer membrane to the exterior using a type II secretion system (T2SS)3,5 . Here, we report that thermostable direct haemolysin (TDH), an exotoxin of the food-borne pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus, can be exported through the type III secretion system (T3SS), which engages in one-step secretion of effectors4 , despite possessing a Sec signal peptide and being mainly secreted via the T2SS...
February 18, 2019: Nature Microbiology
Christopher A Caffalette, Robin A Corey, Mark S P Sansom, Phillip J Stansfeld, Jochen Zimmer
Extracellular glycan biosynthesis is a widespread microbial protection mechanism. In Gram-negative bacteria, the O antigen polysaccharide represents the variable region of outer membrane lipopolysaccharides. Fully assembled lipid-linked O antigens are translocated across the inner membrane by the WzmWzt ABC transporter for ligation to the lipopolysaccharide core, with the transporter forming a continuous transmembrane channel in a nucleotide-free state. Here, we report its structure in an ATP-bound conformation...
February 18, 2019: Nature Communications
Qin Xiong, Dandan Wang, Xiaoyan Dong, Di Liu, Yunpeng Liu, Pan Li, Gengwei Wu, Yu Luo, Ruifu Zhang, Shengbing Liu, Guishan Zhang
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, non-motile bacterium, designated strain WRN-8T , was isolated from marine sediment of the Yellow Sea, China (36° 5' 33'' N, 121° 20' 37'' E). Colonies of strain WRN-8T were 0.2-0.3 µm wide, 2.1-2.8 µm long, catalase-positive and oxidase-positive. Colonies on marine agar solid media were circular, wet, smooth, light yellow and approximately 1.3 mm in diameter. Growth occurred optimally at 33-37 °C, pH 7.0-7.5 and in the presence of 2-4 % NaCl (w/v)...
February 19, 2019: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Peter Bonants, Yvonne Griekspoor, Ilse Houwers, Marjon Krijger, Patricia van der Zouwen, Theo A J van der Lee, Jan van der Wolf
Xylella fastidiosa is a heterogenous gram-negative bacterial plant pathogen with a wide host range covering over 300 plant species. Since 2013, in Europe, the presence of the pathogen is increasing in a part of the Mediterranean area, but it causes in particular severe disease problems in olive orchards in the Southern part of Italy. Various subspecies of the pathogen were also diagnosed in natural outbreaks and intercepted ornamental plants in Europe, among them Olea europaea, Coffea arabica, and Nerium oleander...
February 18, 2019: Plant Disease
Ahmed O H El-Nezhawy, Majed Alrobaian, Ahmed Khames, Mohamed F El-Badawy, Sayed F Abdelwahab
A general strategy towards total synthesis of (-)-codonopsinine, (-)-codonopsine and codonopsinine analogues has been developed from (D)-tartaric acid via the intermediate (3S,4R)-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-(2,2,2-trichloroacetamido)pyrrolidinediacetate (7). α-amidoalkylation studies of 7 with electron rich benzene derivative 8a-g as C-nucleophiles afforded (aryl derivatives) 9a-g. The target compounds 1, 2 and 13c-g were readily obtained from 10a-gvia Grignard addition to the homochiral lactam which was produced by deoxygenation using Lewis-acid followed by deacetylation...
February 13, 2019: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Tahere Kondori, Niloufar Akbarzadeh-T, Khatereh Abdi, Michal Dušek, Václav Eigner
A mononuclear cadmium(II) complex of formula [Cd(5,5'-dmbipy)2 (OAc)2 ]·2H2 O (5,5'-dmbipy = 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine and OAc = acetato ligand) has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1 H-NMR, elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The molecular structure of the complex shows a distorted tetragonal antiprism CdN4 O4 coordination geometry around the cadmium atom, resulting in coordination by four nitrogen atoms from two 5,5'-dmbipy ligands and four oxygen atoms from two acetate anions...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Davide Benedetto Tiz, Žiga Skok, Martina Durcik, Tihomir Tomašič, Lucija Peterlin Mašič, Janez Ilaš, Anamarija Zega, Gábor Draskovits, Tamás Révész, Ákos Nyerges, Csaba Pál, Cristina D Cruz, Päivi Tammela, Dušan Žigon, Danijel Kikelj, Nace Zidar
ATP competitive inhibitors of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV have great therapeutic potential, but none of the described synthetic compounds has so far reached the market. To optimise the activities and physicochemical properties of our previously reported N-phenylpyrrolamide inhibitors, we have synthesized an improved, chemically variegated selection of compounds and evaluated them against DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes, and against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The most potent compound displayed IC50 values of 6...
February 10, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
James Elliott, Eric Donaldson
INTRODUCTION: The gram-negative bacteria known as Capnocytophaga canimorsus (C. canimorsus) is found in dog saliva and rarely can cause severe infection in humans following a bite or scratch. There has previously been just a single case described in the literature of Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis (AAC) secondary to C. canimorsus. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Here we describe the second ever published case of C. canimorsus bacteremia presenting with acute cholecystitis...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Nozomi Nakahara, Masaru K Nobu, Yoshihiro Takaki, Masayuki Miyazaki, Eiji Tasumi, Sanae Sakai, Miyuki Ogawara, Naoko Yoshida, Hideyuki Tamaki, Yuko Yamanaka, Arata Katayama, Takashi Yamaguchi, Ken Takai, Hiroyuki Imachi
A novel slow-growing, facultatively anaerobic, filamentous bacterium, strain MO-CFX2T , was isolated from a methanogenic microbial community in a continuous-flow bioreactor that was established from subseafloor sediment collected off the Shimokita Peninsula of Japan. Cells were multicellular filamentous, non-motile and Gram-stain-negative. The filaments were generally more than 20 µm (up to approximately 200 µm) long and 0.5-0.6 µm wide. Cells possessed pili-like structures on the cell surface and a multilayer structure in the cytoplasm...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yuanyuan Zou, Xiaoxia Zhang, Haozhi Song, Yang Liu, Qi Cheng
A Gram-stain-negative, non-flagellated, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain T22T , was isolated from rhizosphere soil of Alhagi sparsifolia, collected from Xinjiang, China. Its major fatty acids (>5 %) were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c, iso-C17 : 0-3OH, summed feature 1 (C13 : 0 3-OH/iso-C15 : 1 H) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c/C16 : 1ω7c). The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two aminolipids and four unidentified lipids...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Igor Y Oshkin, Irina S Kulichevskaya, W Irene C Rijpstra, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, Andrey L Rakitin, Nikolai V Ravin, Svetlana N Dedysh
An isolate of strictly aerobic, pale-pink pigmented bacteria, strain AF10T , was obtained from an organic soil layer in forested tundra, Nadym region, West Siberia. Cells of strain AF10T were Gram-negative, non-motile rods that produced an amorphous extracellular polysaccharide-like substance and formed large cell aggregates in old cultures. These bacteria were chemoorganotrophic, mildly acidophilic and psychrotolerant, and grew between pH 3.5 and 7.0 (optimum, pH 4.5-5.0) and at temperatures between 2 and 30 °C...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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