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Developmental assessment

Caroline Kuo, Catherine Mathews, Ashleigh LoVette, Abigail Harrison, Lindsay Orchowski, Jennifer A Pellowski, Millicent Atujuna, Dan J Stein, Larry K Brown
INTRODUCTION: In South Africa, one in three men have reported perpetrating rape. Adolescence presents a unique developmental period for primary prevention of violence. However, few studies characterize the epidemiology of sexual violence among adolescents in South Africa. METHOD: We evaluated rates of sexual violence behaviors using a baseline survey of N = 200 South African adolescents, age 13-15, recruited for participation in an intervention trial. The intervention focused on preventing onset of depression and sexual risk behavior among adolescents...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Adolescence
Kara A Christensen
Emotional feeding is an interpersonal emotion regulation strategy wherein people provide food to others as a means of influencing the recipient's emotional response. Parental emotional feeding has been linked to higher levels of emotional eating in children and adolescents using cross-sectional, retrospective, and prospective designs; however, there is little research on emotional feeding as a developmental risk factor for emotional eating and binge-eating behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. This Idea Worth Researching article explores the rationale for studying emotional feeding as a lifespan construct and its potential implications for understanding eating disorder pathology...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Lisa Van de Wijer, Deborah N Mchaile, Quirijn de Mast, Blandina T Mmbaga, Nanda N J Rommelse, Ashanti Duinmaijer, André J A M van der Ven, Arnt F A Schellekens, Grace D Kinabo
BACKGROUND: Efavirenz is commonly prescribed for children with HIV infection, yet little is known about risks of neuropsychiatric side-effects. We aimed to compare competence (social involvement, activities, and school performance) and psychopathology (internalising and externalising problems), cognitive performance (intelligence and working memory), and adherence in Tanzanian children on an efavirenz-based versus a non-efavirenz-based regimen. METHODS: In this multicentre, cross-sectional, observational study, we included consecutive children (aged 6-12 years) with HIV infection, on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least 6 months, and with viral loads of less than 1000 copies per mL from HIV care clinics of three primary health facilities and three referral hospitals in Moshi, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania...
February 12, 2019: Lancet HIV
Tomoki Maeda, Hajime Iwata, Kazuhito Sekiguchi, Mizuho Takahashi, Kenji Ihara
AIM: To clarify the morphologic characteristics of the brain, which are the foundation of the emergence of general movements (GMs) in very-low-birth-weight infants. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. GMs were scored according to a semiquantitative scoring system: the GMs optimality score (GMOS) at preterm and term ages. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term-equivalent age was scored using a validated scoring system (MRI score). We examined the relationship between the two scores by multiple regression analysis with relevant clinical background...
February 12, 2019: Brain & Development
Jude Mary Cénat, Kevin Smith, Martine Hébert, Daniel Derivois
BACKGROUND: Most of the scientific literature on cyberbullying and psychosocial consequences associated is based on samples of adolescents. Also, despite their contributions, the few studies with emerging adults were conducted with small or single-site samples. The present study aimed to document the prevalence of cyberbullying among college students in France and the association between cybervictimization, psychological distress and suicidality. METHODS: The sample included 4 626 French undergraduates...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Steven R Boomhower, M Christopher Newland
Gestational exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an environmental neurotoxicant, and adolescent administration of d-amphetamine (d-AMP) disrupt dopamine neurotransmission and alter voluntary behavior in adult rodents. We determined the impact of adolescent exposure to MeHg and d-AMP on monoamine neurotransmission in mice by assessing sensitivity to acute d-AMP, desipramine, and clomipramine, drugs that target dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin reuptake, respectively. Male C57Bl/6n mice were given 0 (control) or 3 ppm MeHg via drinking water from postnatal day 21 to 60 (murine adolescence)...
February 12, 2019: Neurotoxicology
Maria Jalbrzikowski, David Freedman, Catherine E Hegarty, Eva Mennigen, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Loes M Olde Loohuis, Roel A Ophoff, Raquel E Gur, Carrie E Bearden
OBJECTIVE: Adults with established diagnoses of serious mental illness (bipolar disorder and schizophrenia) exhibit structural brain abnormalities, yet less is known about how such abnormalities manifest earlier in development. METHOD: We analyzed the cross-sectional data publicly available from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC). Structural magnetic resonance neuroimaging data (sMRI) were collected on a subset of the PNC (N=989, ages 9-22 years old)...
January 17, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Philipp J Houck, Ansgar M Brambrink, Jennifer Waspe, James D O'Leary, Riva Ko
In the section of "Developmental Neurotoxicity: An Update" of the Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) symposium 2018 the speakers presented the current literature in translational and clinical research. Dr. Brambrink spoke about translational research in anesthetic neurotoxicity, beginning with discovery in the rodent model, then focusing on evidence from nonhuman primates. Dr. Waspe applied the methodology of Adverse Outcome Pathways from the field of toxicology to developmental neurotoxicity of anesthetics...
January 2019: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Thomas W Wojciechowski
AIMS: Investigate patterns of change and continuity in opioid use among juvenile offenders during adolescence and early adulthood. Identify demographic characteristics of trajectory groups of opioid users. Examine the relevance of risk factors for predicting assignment to opioid use trajectory groups. METHODS: The Pathways to Desistance sample, consisting of longitudinal data of 1,134 juvenile offenders, was utilized in analyses. Using group-based trajectory modeling, patterns of opioid use were identified...
February 15, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Leticia Alcántara-Canabal, Lucía Martínez-Pérez, Sara Gutiérrez-Alonso, Cristina Fernández-Baizán, Marta Méndez
INTRODUCTION: The birth of a preterm child has a high family emotional cost. The aim of this study is to assess the quality of life of parents of children aged 5-7 years born prematurely (<1500g). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of a sample of parents of preterm infants admitted to a third level hospital in Spain between 2009 and 2011. Their infants weighed less than 1500g at birth, and were 5-7 years old at the moment of the study. Parents completed the Parental Stress Scale, Family Apgar, Zarit modified scale, and Graffar-Méndez Castellano method (1994)...
February 11, 2019: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Ailbhe Ruane, Alan Carr, Valerie Moffat, Tania Finn, Angela Murphy, Orla O'Brien, Hilary Groarke, Roisin O'Dwyer
The central aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Group Stepping Stones Triple P (GSSTP) in an Irish context for families of children with both developmental disabilities and internalising and externalising behavioural problems. Parents of 84 children (mean age = 5.73; SD = 2.06) with developmental disabilities and co-occurring behaviour problems attending Irish public health services were randomly assigned to a 9-week GSSTP group or a waiting list control (WLC) group. All parents completed self-report measures before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) the programme and parents in the GSSTP group were assessed at 3- to 5-month follow-up (Time 3)...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Aoife Parsons, Anke Lange, Thomas H Hutchinson, Shinichi Miyagawa, Taisen Iguchi, Tetsuhiro Kudoh, Charles R Tyler
Brominated flame retardants are known to disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in several vertebrate species, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process and their effects on TH-sensitive tissues during the stages of early development are not well characterised. In this study, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo-larvae to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) via the water for 96 h from fertilisation and assessed for lethality, effects on development and on the expression of a suite of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis via both real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) on whole body extracts and whole mount in situ hybridisation (WISH) to identify tissue targets...
January 28, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Yun Liu, Martha M Téllez-Rojo, Brisa N Sánchez, Zhenzhen Zhang, Myriam C Afeiche, Adrianna Mercado-García, Howard Hu, John D Meeker, Karen E Peterson
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have examined the association between blood lead levels and pubertal timing in adolescent girls; however, the evidence is lacking on the role of lead exposure during sensitive developmental periods on sexual maturation. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of prenatal and early childhood lead exposure with pubertal stages among 264 boys and 283 girls aged 9.8-18.0 years in Mexico City. METHODS: We measured maternal bone lead (a proxy for cumulative fetal exposure to lead from maternal bone stores mobilized during pregnancy) at 1 month postpartum...
February 11, 2019: Environment International
Yin Xu, Sam Norton, Qazi Rahman
This study tested the association between multiple prenatal and postnatal early life factors and adolescent sexual orientation in a longitudinal birth cohort. Factors included birth weight, gestational age, parental age at birth, number of older brothers and sisters, breastfeeding, maternal anxiety/depression, family socioeconomic position, parent-child relationships, parental absences, pubertal body mass index, and housing issues. We used data on 5,007 youth from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
February 14, 2019: Developmental Psychology
Jessica J Chiang, Heejung Park, David M Almeida, Julienne E Bower, Steve W Cole, Michael R Irwin, Heather McCreath, Teresa E Seeman, Andrew J Fuligni
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions and leading causes of death. Although CVD clinically manifests in adulthood, underlying processes of CVD begin in the earlier decades of life. Inflammation has been shown to play a key role, but relatively little is understood about how inflammation changes over time among young individuals. Additionally, how psychosocial factors like stress may influence changes in inflammation earlier in the lifespan is not entirely clear...
March 2019: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Gennaro Catone, Simone Pisano, Giulia Muzzo, Giuseppina Corrado, Katia Russo, Assunta Maiorano, Filomena Salerno, Antonella Gritti
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders display several psychiatric comorbidities. The aim of this study was to describe these comorbidities in a group of adolescent patients with Anorexia Nervosa or ED- NOS (Eating Disorder not otherwise specified); in detail, we have evaluated the comorbidity both with a clinical interview (categorical comorbidities) and with a self-report interview (dimensional comorbidities) in order to compare the two profiles. METHODS: The study was carried out at the child and adolescent psychiatry division (eating disorder service for developmental age) of the University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" (ex Second University of Naples)...
February 13, 2019: Minerva Pediatrica
Wolf E Hautz, Sebastian Schubert, Stefan K Schauber, Olga Kunina-Habenicht, Stefanie C Hautz, Juliane E Kämmer, Kevin W Eva
CONTEXT: The ability to self-monitor one's performance in clinical settings is a critical determinant of safe and effective practice. Various studies have shown this form of self-regulation to be more trustworthy than aggregate judgements (i.e. self-assessments) of one's capacity in a given domain. However, little is known regarding what cues inform learners' self-monitoring, which limits an informed exploration of interventions that might facilitate improvements in self-monitoring capacity...
February 14, 2019: Medical Education
J Weissberg-Benchell, J Shapiro, K Hood, L M Laffel, D Naranjo, K Miller, K Barnard
AIM: Participants in clinical trials assessing automated insulin delivery systems report perceived benefits and burdens that reflect their experiences and may predict their likelihood of uptake and continued use of this novel technology. Despite the importance of understanding their perspectives, there are no available validated and reliable measures assessing the psychosocial aspects of automated insulin delivery systems. The present study assesses the initial psychometric properties of the INSPIRE measures, which were developed for youth and adults with Type 1 diabetes, as well as parents and partners...
February 14, 2019: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Joseph M Arizpe, Elyana Saad, Ayooluwa O Douglas, Laura Germine, Jeremy B Wilmer, Joseph M DeGutis
Severe developmental deficits in face recognition ability (developmental prosopagnosia, or DP) have been vigorously studied over the past decade, yet many questions remain unanswered about their origins, nature, and social consequences. A rate-limiting factor in answering such questions is the challenge of recruiting rare DP participants. Although self-reported experiences have long played a role in efforts to identify DPs, much remains unknown about how such self-reports can or should contribute to screening or diagnosis...
February 13, 2019: Behavior Research Methods
Libor Necas, Maros Hrubina, Marian Melisik, Zoltan Cibula, Michal Chmurny, Matej Daniel, Boris Steno
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study has been to present outcomes after cementless arthroplasty for developmental dysplasia Crowe type IV of the hip, with transverse subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy and using the S-ROM stem. METHODS: We evaluated radiographs, functional scores and complications in a consecutive series of 23 patients (28 hips) with high dislocation of the hip. The average age of patients at surgery was 49.9 (range 22-68) years. The operations were performed between 2007 and 2013...
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
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