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Rebecca M Wadey, Katherine D Connolly, Donna Mathew, Gareth Walters, D Aled Rees, Philip E James
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. In obesity, the adipocyte microenvironment is characterised by both hypoxia and inflammation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from adipocytes in this setting might be involved in mediating cardiovascular disease, specifically by promoting leukocyte attachment to vascular endothelial cells...
January 24, 2019: Atherosclerosis
Valentina Laghezza Masci, Anna-Rita Taddei, Thomas Courant, Ozgül Tezgel, Fabrice Navarro, Franco Giorgi, Denis Mariolle, Anna-Maria Fausto, Isabelle Texier
Curcumin-loaded collagen cryostructurates have been devised for wound healing applications. Curcumin displays strong antioxidant, antiseptic, and anti-inflammatory properties, while collagen is acknowledged for promoting cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. However, when curcumin is loaded directly into collagen hydrogels, it forms large molecular aggregates and clogs the matrix pores. A double-encapsulation strategy is therefore developed by loading curcumin into lipid nanoparticles (LNP), and embedding these particles inside collagen scaffolds...
February 15, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Guihong Qi, Yue Zhou, Xiaopo Zhang, Jiaqi Yu, Xin Li, Xiaoxue Cao, Chongming Wu, Peng Guo
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic. Promoting browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to increased energy expenditure and hence counteracts obesity. Here we show that cordycepin (Cpn), a natural derivative of adenosine, increases energy expenditure, inhibits weight gain, improves metabolic profile and glucose tolerance, decreases WAT mass and adipocyte size, and enhances cold tolerance in normal and high-fat diet-fed mice. Cpn markedly increases the surface temperature around the inguinal WAT and turns the inguinal fat browner...
January 2019: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Xinqi Zhou, Yuan Fang, Lauren Lesiak, Cliff Stains
Chemotherapeutic agents generally suffer from off-target cytotoxicity in noncancerous cell types, leading to undesired side effects. As a result, significant effort has been put into identifying compounds that are selective for cancerous versus noncancerous cell types. Our lab has recently developed a series of near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores containing a phosphinate functionality at the bridging position of the xanthene scaffold, termed Nebraska Red (NR) fluorophores. Herein, we report the selective cytotoxicity of one NR derivative, NR744, against HeLa (cervical cancer) cells versus NIH-3T3 (noncancerous fibroblast) cells...
February 12, 2019: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Muniza Shaikh, Salman Siddiqui, Humaira Zafar, Uzma Naqeeb, Fakiha Subzwari, Rehan Imad, Khalid Mohammed Khan, M Iqbal Choudhary
BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to be involved in pathophysiology of diabetic complications, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging. Preventing the formation of AGEs can be helpful in the management of these diseases. OBJECTIVE: Two classes of previously synthesized traizole Schiff's bases (4H-1,2,4-triazole-4-Schiff's bases 1-14, and 4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-Schiff's bases 15-23) were evaluated for their in vitro antiglyaction activity. METHODS: In vitro fructose-mediated human serum albumin (HSA) glycation assay was employed to assess the antiglycation activity of triazole Schiff's bases...
February 11, 2019: Medicinal Chemistry
Yinghong Zhang, Yangyang Chen, Hongmei Qu, Yuanli Wang
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance during pregnancy, and will lead to high risk of diabetes even after pregnancy. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family proteins are transcriptional factors that are highly correlated with methylation, which might be involved in the regulation of GDM. METHODS: Baseline clinical characteristics of the GDM patients and healthy women were analyzed. Omental tissue from GDM patients and control groups were collected and detected for the expression levels of HIF1A, HIF2A, and HIF3A...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Penghua Fang, Biao He, Mei Yu, Mingyi Shi, Yan Zhu, Zhenwen Zhang, Ping Bo
Overweight and obesity may cause several metabolic complications, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. Despite years of progress in medicine, there are no highly effective pharmacological treatments for obesity. The natural compound celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from the roots of Tripterygium Wilfordi (thunder god vine) plant, exerts various bioactivities including anti-diabetic and anti-obese effects. Although celastrol could decrease food intake and obesity, the detailed mechanism for celastrol is still unclear as yet...
February 8, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Liping Ju, Junfeng Han, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yujie Deng, Han Yan, Congrong Wang, Xiaohua Li, Shuqin Chen, Miriayi Alimujiang, Xu Li, Qichen Fang, Ying Yang, Weiping Jia
In obesity, adipocytes exhibit high metabolic activity accompanied by an increase in lipid mobilization. Recent findings indicate that autophagy plays an important role in metabolic homeostasis. However, the role of this process in adipocytes remains controversial. Therefore, we performed an overall analysis of the expression profiles of 322 lysosomal/autophagic genes in the omental adipose tissue of lean and obese individuals, and found that among 35 significantly differentially expressed genes, 34 genes were upregulated...
February 11, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Wenyang Xu, Binbin Zhang Molino, Fang Cheng, Paul J Molino, Zhilian Yue, Dandan Su, Xiaoju Wang, Stefan M Willför, Chunlin Xu, Gordon G Wallace
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) in the form of hydrogels stand out as a platform biomaterial in bioink formulation for 3D printing because of their low cytotoxicity and structural similarity to extracellular matrices. In the present study, 3D scaffolds were successfully printed with low-concentration inks formulated by 1 w/v % 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) -oxidized CNF with less than 1 w/v % gelatin methacrylate (GelMA). Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measurements showed strong interaction between the two biopolymers...
February 11, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Won Jun Kim, Woojung Lee, Yujung Jung, Hyuk-Jai Jang, Yong Kee Kim, Su-Nam Kim
Previous reports have shown that PPARβ/δ agonists ameliorate insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To determine the role of PPARβ/δ in tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-mediated insulin resistance, we investigated expression levels of adiponectin and insulin receptor (IR) in response to treatment with the PPARβ/δ agonist GW501516 with or without TNFα, a proinflammatory cytokine, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GW501516 induced adipocyte differentiation and the expression of adiponectin in a dose-dependent manner in differentiated adipocytes...
February 7, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Priyadarshini Singha, Christina D Workman, Jitendra Pant, Sean P Hopkins, Hitesh Handa
The development of infection resistant materials is of substantial importance as seen with an increase in antibiotic resistance. In this project, the nitric oxide (NO)-releasing polymer has an added topcoat of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO-NP) to improve NO-release and match the endogenous NO flux (0.5 - 4 x 10-10 mol cm-2 min-1 ). The ZnO-NP is incorporated to act as a catalyst and provide the additional benefit of acting synergistically with NO as an antimicrobial agent. The ZnO-NP topcoat is applied on a polycarbonate-based polyurethane (CarboSil) that contains blended NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP)...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Ayşegül Doğan
Cell migration is one of the major cellular processes in development, tissue regeneration, wound healing, cancer and immune function. Underlying molecular mechanism behind the fibroblast cell migration and matrix interactions generates the basis of tissue homeostasis. The role of Apelin receptor (Aplnr) signaling in gastrulation movements has emerged in recent years but how Aplnr regulates cell movement remains unclear. In the current study, the migratory activity of Aplnr signaling has been shown in cultured fibroblast cells in vitro by scratch assay, gene and protein expression analyses...
February 2019: Tissue & Cell
Karla L Hernández-Hernández, Natalia Tapia-Orozco, Miquel Gimeno, Ana María Espinosa-García, José Antonio García-García, Daniela Araiza-Olivera, Francisco Sánchez-Bartez, Isabel Gracia-Mora, Manuel Gutierrez-Aguilar, Roeb García-Arrazola
In the present work, cell lines of different origin were exposed to BPA levels from food intake reported elsewhere. Specifically, we used an in vitro assay to determine cytotoxicity of BPA in three cell lines: MCF7 (breast cancer), PC3 (prostate cancer) and 3T3-L1 (mouse fibroblast). Cytotoxic effects were observed at concentrations higher than 50 μg/mL which is above the involuntary exposure level of BPA described before in fresh, canned and frozen foods and beverages. Furthermore, medial inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 85...
February 7, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
Kalpana Panati, Venkata Ramireddy Narala, Vydyanath R Narasimha, Madhavi Derangula, Venkat R R Arva Tatireddigari, Suneetha Yeguvapalli
Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) is a transmembrane protein. Upon cleavage, it yields a peptide called irisin that is supposedly bind to an unknown receptor and facilitates browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Increased levels of irisin are associated with increased levels of energy expenditure markers PGC-1α, UCP-1, besides abundance of beige adipocytes in WAT. Though varied sizes of irisin were reported in humans and rodents it is not yet clear about the actual size of the irisin produced physiologically...
December 2018: Journal, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology
Seok-Ho Kim, Shin Hee Hong, Young-Joon Park, Jong-Hyuk Sung, Wonhee Suh, Kyeong Won Lee, Kiwon Jung, Changjin Lim, Jin-Hee Kim, Hyoungsu Kim, Kyong Soo Park, Sang Gyu Park
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α/γ dual agonists have been developed to treat metabolic diseases; however, most of them exhibit side effects such as body weight gain and oedema. Therefore, we developed a novel PPARα/γ dual agonist that modulates glucose and lipid metabolism without adverse effects. We synthesised novel compounds composed of coumarine and chalcone, determined their crystal structures, and then examined their binding affinity toward PPARα/γ. We investigated the expression of PPARα and PPARγ target genes by chemicals in HepG2, differentiated 3T3-L1, and C2C12 cells...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Huqun Li, Shiyong Peng, Shihong Li, Shouqing Liu, Yifan Lv, Ni Yang, Liangyu Yu, Ya-Hui Deng, Zhongjian Zhang, Maosheng Fang, Yunxiang Huo, Ying Chen, Taohua Sun, Weiyong Li
Olanzapine is a second-generation anti-psychotic drug used to prevent neuroinflammation in patients with schizophrenia. However, the long-term administration of olanzapine leads to insulin resistance (IR); the mechanisms of this effect remains poorly understood. Using cellular and rodent models of IR induced by olanzapine, we found that chronic olanzapine treatment induces differential inflammatory cytokine reactions in peripheral adipose and the central nervous system. Long-term treatment of olanzapine caused metabolic symptoms, including IR, by markedly elevating the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα; these findings are consistent with observations from schizophrenia patients chronically treated with olanzapine...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Wen-Na Zhang, Ri-Na Su, Li-Li Gong, Wei-Wei Yang, Juan Chen, Rui Yang, Ya Wang, Wen-Juan Pan, Yong-Ming Lu, Yan Chen
In this research, a polysaccharide fraction (EFSP-1) was obtained from the seeds of Euryale ferox Salisb. by DEAE sepharose FF and Superdex™ 75 gel chromatography. The average molecular weight (Mw) of EFSP-1 was 8.75 kDa. Monosaccharides composition analysis indicated that EFSP-1 was a glucan. The structure of EFSP-1 was characterized by analysis of FT-IR, GC-MS and NMR, which indicated that the backbone of EFSP-1 was mainly composed of (1→4)-α-D-Glcp with branches substituted at O-6 and terminated with T-α-D-Glcp...
April 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Christoph Kurzmann, Jeroen Verheyen, Michael Coto, Ramachandran Vasant Kumar, Giorgio Divitini, Hassan Ali Shokoohi-Tabrizi, Peter Verheyen, Roeland Jozef Gentil De Moor, Andreas Moritz, Hermann Agis
Dental bleaching is an important part of aesthetic dentistry. Various strategies have been created to enhance the bleaching efficacy. As one such strategy, light-activated nanoparticles that enable localized generation of reactive oxygen species have been developed. Here, we evaluated the cellular response to experimental gels containing these materials in in vitro models. L-929 cells, 3T3 cells, and gingival fibroblasts were exposed to the gels at 50%, 10%, 2%, 0.4%, 0.08%, 0.016%, and 0.0032%. The gels contained TiO2/Ag nanoparticles, TiO2 nanoparticles, hydrogen peroxide (6% hydrogen peroxide), or no added component and were tested with and without exposure to light...
February 6, 2019: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Dong-Hwan Kim, Jeong-Woong Lee, Kichoon Lee
Vitamin A, referred to as retinol, is an essential nutrient that affects the cell growth and differentiation including adipogenesis. Although previous studies using supraphysiological doses (over 1 μM) of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) demonstrated antiadipogenic activity, effects of atRA at various levels on differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes have not been extensively investigated. Our study showed that the amount of cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) and intensities of Oil-Red-O staining were decreased by supplementing atRA (1 and 10 μM) but increased by low concentrations of atRA (0...
February 5, 2019: Lipids
Ohad Wormser, Libe Gradstein, Yuval Yogev, Yonatan Perez, Rotem Kadir, Inna Goliand, Yair Sadka, Saad El Riati, Hagit Flusser, Dikla Nachmias, Ruth Birk, Muhamad Iraqi, Einat Kadar, Roni Gat, Max Drabkin, Daniel Halperin, Amir Horev, Sara Sivan, Uri Abdu, Natalie Elia, Ohad S Birk
Studies of ciliopathies have served in elucidating much of our knowledge of structure and function of primary cilia. We report humans with Bardet-Biedl syndrome who display intellectual disability, retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, short stature and brachydactyly, stemming from a homozyogous truncation mutation in SCAPER, a gene previously associated with mitotic progression. Our findings, based on linkage analysis and exome sequencing studies of two remotely related large consanguineous families, are in line with recent reports of SCAPER variants associated with intellectual disability and retinitis pigmentosa...
February 5, 2019: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
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