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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30968837/tuberculosis-outbreak-in-a-grammar-school-serbia-2016
#1
Milena Ilic, Sefadil Spahic, Mirsada Spahic, Omer Spahic, Irena Ilic, Branislav Tiodorovic
Serbia has a low incidence of tuberculosis (TB), with a decreasing trend in the last decade. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe an outbreak of TB infection that occurred in 2016 among students of a grammar school in Novi Pazar. A 17-year-old girl, third-grade student of a grammar school (the index case), was diagnosed with smear-positive tuberculosis. Contact investigation was conducted, including chest X-ray examinations of over 1100 persons. After the index case was detected, a total of 16 (10 pulmonary and 6 extrapulmonary) tuberculosis patients were newly diagnosed during 2016...
January 2019: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30967972/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-burkina-faso-from-2006-to-2017-results-of-national-surveys
#2
Souba Diandé, Gisèle Badoum, Adjima Combary, Issaka Zombra, Tandaogo Saouadogo, Léon T Sawadogo, Bayéma Nébié, Saïdou Gnanou, Adama Zigani, Seydou Mohamed Ouédraogo, Adama Diallo, Seydou Kaboré, Lassana Sangaré
Setting: A survey of the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in new and previously treated patients (PTPs) was performed in Burkina Faso from 2016 to 2017. Design: In this cross-sectional survey, a structured questionnaire was administered to eligible smear-positive patients in all 86 diagnostic and treatment centers of the country to collect their socio-demographic characteristics and medical histories. Their sputa were tested using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin (MTB/RIF) Xpert assay...
March 18, 2019: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30952210/trend-in-magnitude-of-tuberculosis-in-awi-zone-northwest-ethiopia-a-five-year-tuberculosis-surveillance-data-analysis
#3
Tefera Alemu, Hordofa Gutema
OBJECTIVE: Ethiopia is among the 30 high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries with annual estimated TB incidence of 164/100,000 population and death rate of 28/100,000 population for 2017. We analyzed the trend in magnitude of tuberculosis in Awi Zone from July 08/2011 up to June 27/2016. RESULTS: Tuberculosis surveillance data (2012 to 2016) was extracted from Awi Zonal Health Department Health Management Information System database and TB program unit and analyzed by Microsoft Excel 2007® ...
April 5, 2019: BMC Research Notes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30948165/dysregulation-of-key-cytokines-may-contribute-to-increased-susceptibility-of-diabetic-mice-to-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-infection
#4
Md Abdul Alim, Suchandan Sikder, Harindra Sathkumara, Andreas Kupz, Catherine M Rush, Brenda L Govan, Natkunam Ketheesan
Diabetes is one of the major co-morbidities contributing to the high global burden of tuberculosis (TB). The increased susceptibility of individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) to TB is multifactorial and may influence the efficacy of vaccines. This study was undertaken to determine the early immune responses that occur following infection with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in a diet-induced murine model of T2D. The phagocytic capabilities of alveolar (AM) and resident peritoneal macrophages (RPM) were assessed using ex vivo assays...
March 2019: Tuberculosis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30946793/ustekinumab-in-real-life-practice-experience-in-116-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis
#5
Inês Raposo, Andreia Bettencourt, Luiz Leite, Manuela Selores, Tiago Torres
INTRODUCTION: Ustekinumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against the p40 subunit common to both IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines. Although the evidence of ustekinumab efficacy and safety in clinical trials is extensively recognized, data on its use in clinical practice is limited. Our objective is to report on the real-life experience of two Portuguese dermatology departments with ustekinumab in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis, and to identify the clinical characteristics associated with a weaker clinical response...
March 29, 2019: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30945963/the-burden-of-vaccine-preventable-diseases-among-hiv-infected-and-hiv-exposed-children-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Olatunji O Adetokunboh, Ajibola Awotiwon, Duduzile Ndwandwe, Olalekan A Uthman, Charles S Wiysonge
There are knowledge gaps regarding evidence-based research on the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-exposed children aged <18 years in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore essential to determine the trend and burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. We completed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the incidence, prevalence and case-fatality rates (CFR) attributed to various vaccine-preventable diseases among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children in sub-Saharan Africa...
April 4, 2019: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30935406/progress-towards-universal-hiv-testing-among-tb-patients-in-viet-nam-a-retrospective-cohort-evaluation-of-tb-hiv-surveillance-2011-2017
#7
Nguyen Binh Hoa, Nguyen Viet Nhung
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV remain a major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. We conducted an analysis of TB/HIV surveillance data to describe the trends in HIV testing coverage and HIV positivity rate among TB patients in Viet Nam, 2011-2017. MAIN TEXT: This was a descriptive study based on review and analysis of surveillance data from the National Tuberculosis Control Programme from 2011 to 2017. During this period, 721 342 TB cases were diagnosed...
April 1, 2019: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30922683/microbiome-mx-2018-microbiota-and-microbiome-opportunities-in-mexico-a-megadiverse-country
#8
EDITORIAL
Fernanda Cornejo-Granados, Ana María Calderón de la Barca, Nimbe Torres, Esperanza Martínez-Romero, Javier Torres, Yolanda López-Vidal, Xavier Soberón, Laila P Partida-Martínez, Sandra Pinto-Cardoso, Luis David Alcaraz, Liliana Pardo-López, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros, José Luis Puente, Adrián Ochoa-Leyva
A weekly conference series paired with lectures entitled "Microbiome-MX: exploring the Microbiota and Microbiome Research in Mexico" was organized to provide a multidisciplinary overview of the most recent research done in Mexico using high-throughput sequencing. Scientists and postgraduate students from several disciplines such as microbiology, bioinformatics, virology, immunology, nutrition, and medical genomics gathered to discuss state of the art in each of their respective subjects of expertise, as well as advances, applications and new opportunities on microbiota/microbiome research...
March 25, 2019: Research in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30908566/rapid-tests-reduce-the-burden-of-tuberculosis-in-azerbaijan-prisons-special-emphasis-on-rifampicin-resistance
#9
E Gurbanova, R Mehdiyev, K Blondal, A Altraja
Aims: To evaluate the impact of addition of rapid tests for tuberculosis (TB) to mass screening and passive case finding on the burden of TB in high-incidence prisons of Azerbaijan. Materials and methods: All new and relapse TB cases notified in 01.01.2009-31.12.2015 were retrospectively included. Results: 2,315 TB patients were identified in 19 prisons. Implementation of the rapid tests to the case finding algorithms lead to 3-, 10- and 5-fold decrease in the annual rates of the notified, smear-positive and RIF-resistant TB cases, respectively...
September 2018: Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892180/strong-increase-of-true-and-false-positive-mycobacterial-cultures-sent-to-the-national-reference-centre-in-belgium-2007-to-2016
#10
Karine Soetaert, Lorenzo Subissi, Pieter-Jan Ceyssens, Brigitte Vanfleteren, Marianne Chantrenne, Tommi Asikainen, Els Duysburgh, Vanessa Mathys
IntroductionIn 2007, a new federal legislation in Belgium prohibited non-biosafety level 3 laboratories to process culture tubes suspected of containing mycobacteria.AimTo present mycobacterial surveillance/diagnosis data from the Belgian National Reference Centre for mycobacteria (NRC) from 2007 to 2016.MethodsThis retrospective observational study investigated the numbers of analyses at the NRC and false positive cultures (interpreted as containing mycobacteria at referring clinical laboratories, but with no mycobacterial DNA detected by PCR in the NRC)...
March 2019: Euro Surveillance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890730/historical-bcg-vaccination-combined-with-drug-treatment-enhances-inhibition-of-mycobacterial-growth-ex-vivo-in-human-peripheral-blood-cells
#11
Satria A Prabowo, Andrea Zelmer, Lisa Stockdale, Utkarsh Ojha, Steven G Smith, Karin Seifert, Helen A Fletcher
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading infectious cause of death globally. Drug treatment and vaccination, in particular with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), remain the main strategies to control TB. With the emergence of drug resistance, it has been proposed that a combination of TB vaccination with pharmacological treatment may provide a greater therapeutic value. We implemented an ex vivo mycobacterial growth inhibition assay (MGIA) to discriminate vaccine responses in historically BCG-vaccinated human volunteers and to assess the contribution of vaccine-mediated immune response towards the killing effect of mycobacteria in the presence of the antibiotics isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF), in an attempt to develop the assay as a screening tool for therapeutic TB vaccines...
March 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30886893/the-importance-of-the-autopsy-in-medicine-perspectives-of-pathology-colleagues
#12
REVIEW
Louis Maximilian Buja, Rolf F Barth, Gerhard R Krueger, Sergey V Brodsky, Robert L Hunter
This article presents a perspective on the importance of the autopsy in medical practice and science based on experiences of the authors as physician-scientists involved in autopsy practice. Our perspectives are presented on the seminal contributions of the autopsy in the areas of cardiovascular disease, including congenital heart disease, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction, and infectious disease, including tuberculosis and viral infections. On the positive side of the future of the autopsy, we discuss the tremendous opportunities for important research to be done by application of advanced molecular biological techniques to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks obtained at autopsy...
January 2019: Academic pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873261/-is-our-choice-of-empirical-antibiotics-appropriate-for-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-breast-abscess
#13
Nazia Lodhi, Nadeem Khurshaidi, Rufina Soomro, Maria Saleem, Syed Sheeraz Ur Rahman, Sana Anwar
Background and Objectives: Breast abscesses remain as one of the most common reasons for females to come for a surgical consult. This retrospective cohort study includes both lactating and non-lactating females with breast abscesses. Due to changing trends in bacteriology of organisms, we need to reconsider our empirical choices of antibiotics. In our study, the main causative organism in breast abscess was Staphylococcus aureus with predominant species being MRSA. Materials and Methods: This is an analytical review of all breast abscesses treated in a single center from 2012 to 2015...
December 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30860183/evaluation-of-microbiological-variants-of-sputum-processing-and-concentration-of-mycobacteria-to-optimize-the-microscopic-and-imaging-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis
#14
Jorge E Coronel, Christian C Del Carpio, Erwin J Dianderas, Edgar A Florentini, Guillermo L Kemper, Patricia Sheen, Mirko J Zimic
Background: Direct sputum smear is still the first-choice tool for screening of tuberculosis worldwide. Variants of this technique, to improve the sensitivity are desired. Methods: Two microbiological variants of the standard sputum smear ("pellet" and "diluted-pellet") for both Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) and auramine fluorescence (AF) staining were evaluated. In addition, two methods for concentration of mycobacteria in sputum, using positive and negative pressure filtration, were tested and compared...
January 2019: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30850420/community-based-testing-of-migrants-for-infectious-diseases-combat-id-impact-acceptability-and-cost-effectiveness-of-identifying-infectious-diseases-among-migrants-in-primary-care-protocol-for-an-interrupted-time-series-qualitative-and-health-economic-analysis
#15
Manish Pareek, Helen C Eborall, Fatimah Wobi, Kate S Ellis, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Fang Zhang, Rebecca Baggaley, T Deirdre Hollingsworth, Darrin Baines, Hemu Patel, Pranabashis Haldar, Mayur Patel, Iain Stephenson, Ivan Browne, Paramjit Gill, Rajesh Kapur, Azhar Farooqi, Ibrahim Abubakar, Chris Griffiths
BACKGROUND: Migration is a major global driver of population change. Certain migrants may be at increased risk of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, and have poorer outcomes. Early diagnosis and management of these infections can reduce morbidity, mortality and onward transmission and is supported by national guidelines. To date, screening initiatives have been sporadic and focused on individual diseases; systematic routine testing of migrant groups for multiple infections is rarely undertaken and its impact is unknown...
March 7, 2019: BMJ Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30846843/emergency-department-visits-and-disease-burden-attributable-to-ambulatory-care-sensitive-conditions-in-elderly-adults
#16
Vivian Chia-Rong Hsieh, Meng-Lun Hsieh, Jen-Huai Chiang, Andy Chien, Ming-Shun Hsieh
Many countries worldwide are aging rapidly, and the complex care needs of older adults generate an unprecedented demand for health services. Common reasons for elderly emergency department (ED) visits frequently involve conditions triggered by preventable infections also known as ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs). This study aims to describe the trend and the associated disease burden attributable to ACSC-related ED visits made by elderly patients and to characterize their ED use by nursing home residence...
March 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30817805/trends-of-tuberculosis-meningitis-and-associated-mortality-in-texas-2010-2017-a-large-population-based-analysis
#17
Duc T Nguyen, Saroochi Agarwal, Edward A Graviss
BACKGROUND: As the most severe form of tuberculosis (TB), TB meningitis (TBM) is still associated with high mortality even in developed countries. In certain areas of the United States (U.S.), more than 50% of the TBM patients die with TB or have neurological sequelae and complications despite the availability of advanced health care. This population-based analysis aimed to determine the risk factors and trends associated with TBM morbidity and mortality using state-wide surveillance data...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30808456/tuberculosis-remains-a-public-health-problem-in-romania
#18
A-L Golli, M F Niţu, F Turcu, M Popescu, L Ciobanu-Mitrache, M Olteanu
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem in Romania, which has the highest TB incidence in the European Union. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective study to describe changing trends in the main epidemiological indicators of TB in Romania from 1995 to 2016. Data were obtained from the Marius Nasta Institute of Pneumology, Bucharest, official data published by the National Center for Public Health Statistics and Informatics in Health Statistics Yearbooks, the European Health For All database and the World Health Organization 2017 global TB report...
February 1, 2019: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30808449/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-over-20-years-at-a-referral-hospital-in-south-korea-trends-and-outcomes
#19
N Kwak, H-R Kim, C-G Yoo, Y W Kim, S K Han, J-J Yim
SETTING: A referral centre in South Korea. OBJECTIVE: To investigate trends in drug resistance, treatment modalities and outcomes, and adverse events of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) over two decades. DESIGN: MDR-TB patients treated at Seoul National Hospital University between 1996 and 2015 were divided into four 5-year cohorts according to the date of initial diagnosis. Changes in demographic characteristics, drug resistance, drugs used, treatment outcomes and adverse events over time were elucidated...
February 1, 2019: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30805325/the-tam-tb-assay-a-promising-tb-immune-diagnostic-test-with-a-potential-for-treatment-monitoring
#20
Mohamed I M Ahmed, Christian Ziegler, Kathrin Held, Ilja Dubinski, Julia Ley-Zaporozhan, Christof Geldmacher, Ulrich von Both
Tuberculosis (TB) epidemiology is changing in Western and Central Europe due to the rise in immigration and refugees fleeing high-TB-burden areas of war and devastation. The change in local demography and the lack of sensitive and specific TB diagnostic and monitoring tools, especially for cases of childhood TB, leads to either missed cases or over-treatment of this group. Here we present a promising new diagnostic approach, the T cell activation marker (TAM)-TB assay, and its performance in a case of extra-pulmonary TB occurring in a 16 year old refugee from Afghanistan...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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